Military Review

Yamatogura - Japanese rider outfit

78
"A bad rider is always to blame his horse"
Japanese saying



When the ancestors of the modern Japanese moved across the Tsushima Strait and found themselves in Japan, they met people completely different from them — dark-skinned, with thick facial and facial hair, curly hair, and in addition to worshiping the bear ancestor. It is not surprising that the natives did not like the flat-faced and yellow-skinned newcomers with very rare facial hair and hard straight hair. But they managed to smuggle horses across the sea, and this played a crucial role in the confrontation of the local Ainu and the yellow-faced aliens. Slowly, century after century, they pushed the Aborigines to the north. And all of them история was one continuous war. In the face of mountainous and rugged terrain, it was the horse that became the main means of warrior movement, if only they wanted to quickly get to the battlefield. Otherwise, the journey from the capital to the border was taken, if not for many months, and only weeks for sure. That is why the traditional samurai army is first of all horse archers, armed with powerful compound bows of bamboo wood. But what were the horses of the very first samurai and what was their horse equipment? This is our story now.


The saddle and stirrups of the samurai, of course, were not always so magnificent and beautiful, but sometimes they were a real work of art! (Tokyo National Museum)

So, no samurai army can even be imagined without horses. True, in Japan it was not customary to have bulky wagons typical of the armies of medieval Europe when the army was, but their very army was equestrian, even if the infantry eventually became dominant in it. And since all the samurai were excellent riders (and the ability to ride a horse was the prerogative of not only men, but also women from samurai families!), They not only moved and fought, riding a horse. It is known that horses were found on the Japanese islands in ancient times, but they were short and unsuitable for riding. Race horses were brought here from the mainland in the V century. Moreover, it should be emphasized that the appearance of these animals and their use in military affairs just caused the appearance of those specific armor made of small metal or leather plates, which became the characteristic armor of the samurai of Japan. This design gave the rider high mobility, facilitated the conduct of archery from his horse and at the same time gave good protection against arrows, issued by other riders!

Yamatogura - Japanese rider outfit

The samurai were horse archers, so the equipment for shooting was for them a very important part of combat ammunition. A quiver of ebiru. The arrows protruded through the trellis from above, and at the bottom they were inserted with their tips into the bundle of reeds.

The horse equipment of the samurai was called yamatogura, and if you compare it with the European one, it is quite different from it. Let's start with a saddle called a hen, then go harness - a bug consisting of items borrowed by the Japanese from the mainland. Lenchik, that is, the skeleton of the saddle, was made of wood. At the same time, its shape was such that the saddle had high bows both in front and behind. The back of the bow was traditionally inclined so that the rider could comfortably shoot a bow in all directions, that is, not only forward, but also backwards. A leather cushion was placed on the saddle, and a Harubi cinch and kitsuke potnik made of cloth or leather, which could have the shape of either an oval or a rectangle, were attached to the bottom. As for stirrups, they were used in Japan in the V century. Judging by the figures of the Khaniwa, which were found in the ancient tombs of the Kofun era, they practically did not differ from the modern ones. But then there appeared the stirrups of the abumi tsuba with a toe, which covered the front half of the rider's foot, replacing the earlier design.


Stirrups era Kofun. (Tokyo National Museum)

In the Nara era, the base of the stirrup, which supported the rider's sole, began to lengthen. So a stirrup of the intermediate type of Hansite Abumi appeared. At the end of the Heian period, a new stirrup of a fukuro abumi or musashi abumi with a sole for the entire length of the rider's foot appeared, and the toes for the fingers were removed. The sides were open to prevent the rider from catching the stirrup with his feet.


Stirrups XVIII century. (Tokyo National Museum)

The military version of this sitanaga Abumi stirrup remained in use until European stirrups appeared in Japan at the end of the 19th century. It is not known why the Japanese developed this unique style of stirrup. They had a characteristic swan shape, bent up and back in front to achieve the right balance. Most of the samples that have come down to us from this period are completely made of iron (and, by the way, they weigh up to 10 kg!). The steps are sometimes perforated to release water when crossing rivers, and these stirrups are called suyba abumi. Both iron and wooden stirrups were varnished and painted with gold and silver, so that Japanese stirrups often looked like real works of art!


And this is also the XVIII century. (Tokyo National Museum)

They drove the horse with the help of udil kutsuva and kutsu-wadzura reins, which looked like wide silk two-color ribbons (one of the colors was usually white). The long flexible rod of turbidity, which could whip a stunned horse, usually complemented the reins, but the spurs were not known to the Japanese. But they were most likely replaced with sharp edges in stirrups. It was also customary to decorate the harness of the horse with magnificent tassels made of strands of silk or wool of different colors. From under the saddle on both sides were also hung long colored ribbons, sometimes with bells at the ends - hane. The horse's mane was often trimmed in the form of a short comb, and the tail was necessarily tied up or removed in a sack of bright cloth from a bag.


Iron stirrup from one of the online auctions (the weight of the pair is 10 kg).

A very important accessory of the Japanese rider was a large (approximately two meters long) cape of horo, made of fabric and fastened on the samurai’s helmet and waist using strings. With a quick jump, she swelled like a sail, causing the figure of a warrior to visually grow. It is possible that this "device" was invented to scare the enemy's horses, although it is believed that the horror first of all protected the warrior's back from the arrows that could have hit him from behind. Later, it was used for recognition, as riders with huge “bags” of bright colors behind their backs were clearly visible from afar. At the same time, the design has changed with time in such a way that it has turned into a real bag. The idea was even a special frame of flexible willow twigs, which had the shape of an inverted basket, which was covered with cloth.


Illustration from the Japanese magazine "Armor Model", showing ways of boarding a horse and increasing the average height of the Japanese and their horses.

An integral part of the military equipment of both the rider and infantry in the Japanese army was a rope of x-sinawa, which was carried from the saddle, and the infantrymen wore their armor under the obi belt. It was about 1,5 m long, and had a ring or loop at the end and could be used as a spare cinch for a horse, and to tie a captured prisoner, or to fasten a mempo mask on the face. Ashigaru and the officers had a Kagi Nawa rope, which was about three meters long, with several hooks at the end. This rope was used to climb walls, grab a boat, hang up armor on the wall, etc.


The design of the Japanese horse armor from the magazine "Armor modeling". Pieces of patent leather or metal are sewn onto the fabric. The armor of the rider is similarly arranged.

An interesting subject was the special Uki-Bukuro rescue belt, which was made from dried bull bubbles, which could be inflated and used this belt when crossing a river or lake. They should have tied themselves around the waist or chest and so balance the weight of the armor in the water. They also transported him by the saddle or tied him around the horse's croup. It should be noted that all these items were not at all some special equipment of the legendary ninjas, as they often represent, but were a regular part of the outfit of the most ordinary Japanese soldier.


When a gunshot appeared in Japan weaponas in Europe, equestrian arrows appeared there, which fired pistols and carbines while sitting in the saddle. The only difference was that mass-produced pistols with wheel locks were produced in Europe, whereas in Japan the wick lock was the most common.

Horse armor in Japan was called crazy ryoy and they were known. However, they have not received such wide distribution as in Europe. The fact that they existed, we know from their extant images. Well, why they were not popular - of course. Undoubtedly, this was due to the fact that the Japanese horses were short, and the mountainous terrain of Japan, along with the abundance of rivers and streams flowing from the mountains, demanded riders, above all, concerns about mobility and only then about the protection of their horses. No wonder the Japanese riders were specially taught to cross lakes and rivers with a rapid flow, and not just to cross. The samurai himself also had to shoot a bow! It is clear that not a single European horse, dressed in heavy armor, could have done anything like this. Images of samurai, at the same time sailing and at the same time seated on horseback, are quite often found in Japanese painting, that is, it was a widespread affair, which was not seen by artists at that time as something so unusual!


Saddle samurai. Edo era, XIX century. (Boston Museum of Art)

Another important difference between samurai horsemen and European knights was their manner of riding a horse on the right, while leaning on the heel, while in Europe everything was done the other way around. In this case, the samurai in the saddle servants sat down in the same way as it was customary for the squires of Western Europe. Interestingly, the high role of the horse in Japanese society is confirmed even by the family arms - monami. Thus, the emblem of the famous samurai clan Shimazu was such an important detail as a psalm, and the emblem of the Hirano clan was an image of a horse.
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  1. Blue cop
    Blue cop 25 December 2017 06: 49
    21
    Wow, what a beauty!
    Super!
    The difference between a samurai and a knight, especially equipment ...
    Yes, in the complex (taking into account past and future articles), the knightly encyclopedia of the West and the East will quite turn out!
    1. kalibr
      25 December 2017 07: 32
      11
      Glad you liked it. When I first found it, I also ran from the ceiling for half an hour with delight. The knightly encyclopedia, in general, has already turned out. The book "The English-language historiography of knightly armament" was published in Germany (Russian), and the book "Knightly armament" ("Lomonosov") in Russia. But .. both of them without illustrations. And with illustrations, it still doesn’t work out in any way. Expensive! The book about samurai was published in a total of 1500 copies. To the whole country. So for now, alas, it’s good that there is VO!
      1. marline
        marline 25 December 2017 11: 54
        +5
        Quote: kalibr
        The book about samurai was published in a circulation of only 1500 copies.

        By the way, a good book is a nice paper, good illustrations, the content is also very decent. Recommend.
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 25 December 2017 07: 28
    20
    National characteristics are always interesting.
    Even the samurai saddle showed who he was)
    Thank you!
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 25 December 2017 07: 29
    +9
    Top-top is my horse.
    I see myself in the picture -
    In the vast summer meadows.
    1. kalibr
      25 December 2017 07: 39
      +7
      My horse weaves barely
      The ringing of cicadas in the grass -
      Well, the heat!
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 25 December 2017 11: 03
        11
        The creak of a saddle beneath me
        The wind chills the old wound
        I can’t afford peace. stop soldier
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 25 December 2017 11: 43
          +6
          A ray is crushed in sixteen faces of a glass
          The sun rises over Fuji
          Headache
          (Not mine)
          1. marline
            marline 25 December 2017 11: 48
            +4
            The sumo wrestler fell
            Tatami trembled
            Aw, there was a good shot!
            (the same is not mine)
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 25 December 2017 13: 19
              +7
              It seems that the esteemed Aviator laid out at one time:
              I carefully lay the rake
              In front of the neighbor's door.
              I want to learn mistakes. wink drinks
              1. marline
                marline 25 December 2017 13: 53
                +4
                I don’t know who, but how the answer will go:
                One who taunts others is stupid.
                Therefore it’s his own fault
                That they hacked him.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 25 December 2017 14: 38
                  +3
                  there was a historical case with two servants emphasizing the correctness of this statement. request
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 25 December 2017 14: 53
                    +3
                    This, what is the case? Share Nicholas? good
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 25 December 2017 15: 24
                      +3
                      from memory, Alexey (Victor Nikolaevich is not, sorry, he would have found and supplemented good ):
                      Some daima with his retinue was crossing the river. One of his servants (ashigaru?) Began to bully boaters. And the paddle on the head paddle. The second servant dragged the fallen badass and apologized to the boatmen for the misconduct of his colleague. When daima learned of this incident, he ordered the execution both. The one who apologized should either have prevented the conflict from escalating, or when his fellow dunduk had already "recovered," he would have to draw his sword and fight the boatmen. Something like this! request
                      1. hohol95
                        hohol95 25 December 2017 15: 51
                        +2
                        So and so - disgraced the master ... East ...
                      2. marline
                        marline 25 December 2017 16: 05
                        +3
                        Quote: Mikado
                        When daima learned of this incident, he ordered the execution both. [/ i]

                        Ponty is our everything!
          2. kalibr
            25 December 2017 11: 53
            +3
            By the way, it is very similar to the poems of one poet who loved to apply to sake.
            Like a wandering monk
            So sake
            Passes through the years
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 25 December 2017 13: 53
              +4
              during the fall of Kamakura, one monk warrior folded the following lines in front of the seppuku:
              On the road to Fiji
              Slow down a bit
              We will talk about the transience of the world.

              I wrote to myself a requiem ... Produced from memory, I can be mistaken, Turnbull has it completely given. hi
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 25 December 2017 11: 52
          +2
          Gallop down the street
          Cavalry rides -
          Ahead is Anton and Styopa,
          Behind Valery.

          At the fence the enemy wall -
          Burdocks with nettles ...
          And the detachment enters the battle
          With their myriad power !!!

          Burdock for fighters
          Surrendered voluntarily
          And their nettle legs
          Bite hurt ...

          The enemy is defeated, but itchy
          Wounds after a fight ...
          Horsemen hurry to the river
          Wash off the marks of the bite.

          Konaeva Olga
    2. Mikado
      Mikado 25 December 2017 15: 42
      +4
      Alexei Anatolyevich, as a samurai-samurai, "Blooming Sakura" from the Kingisepp Museum of History and Local Lore. Well, to other colleagues too. drinks Already laid out, but beauty is beauty! No wonder I couldn’t pass by her, so as not to shoot what
      1. Cat
        Cat 25 December 2017 16: 31
        +3
        Horse horses?
        There are no “rhymes” for you, he would have shown you “Kuzkin's horse”, that is, its absence in Eurasia!
        Well, well, the "sake" samurai have succumbed and the pictures with blooming tsakura are already throwing! Moreover, stories about tfu "water" and "boats" poison and more than one fish!
        I’ve taken offense at you until you acknowledge that under the rightmost tree there is a “cat” of my leg in your company. I’m going to make sepuca - a fish in a bowl!

        No offense friends joking!

        An article is a class, verses are a class, comments are also a class, it’s an amateur thing about sake, and in the picture if I’m not mistaken, I give a tooth that the artist’s plan inspired his cat and horses here is not worth it !!!
        Your Cat!
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 25 December 2017 16: 47
          +3
          Urgently valerian Glavkotu site! fellow And then it will go away, cats they are, by themselves! request
          And ... call Marat a thread, since such a booze has gone ... wink possible with Kouriosdrinks they will teach everyone to drink sake properly! (someone - valerian wink )
        2. marline
          marline 25 December 2017 16: 50
          +2
          Don’t be sad, Kitty, cats very much inspired the Japanese.
          Totally lean cat
          He eats one barley porridge ...
          And also love!
          Bosyo

          Leaf fallen caught
          and paw pressed carefully
          funny kitten ...
          Issa
          1. Cat
            Cat 25 December 2017 19: 30
            +3
            A fat fat cat from a bowl of meat is eating.
            Milk is milk and it’s good!
            Japanese skinny cat, let it go.
            We will have March and what Well, I would like to describe further, in Russia in cats, love for blooming sakura is no longer a trend for us, fences (if they survive) and heating mains allow you to twist novels in the harsh winter! But the talents are dumb, so be content with prose.
            I’ll go to gather the humanitarian aid to the skinny Japanese cat, otherwise it will die out of love, however.
            1. kalibr
              25 December 2017 20: 43
              +3
              In my yard, pipes of heating mains go on top. And on them live 5 trumpet cats! They are fed by one compassionate woman and I sometimes. At first they lived in the rain and snow. I made a roof for them from the door. Still, they became dry on top. Then there were people who covered it all with tarpaulin, plastic and a house came out! And they spend the night there, even in severe frosts from the pipes it’s warm! Very well-mannered, delicate pussy. Mine is not with them. She has her own tree on the lawn near the house and the lobby of the Magnit store. Other cats, if they come to him, then sit at the door, and mine knows how the doors move apart and go right into the lobby. It happens and sits when it's cold. Waiting for us to pick her up. She doesn’t go to the house herself. Afraid of the big dogs that live in the next apartment. In the photo she goes down from her tree.
            2. kalibr
              25 December 2017 20: 54
              +3
              And even before the pile about cats ... I like this poem about them:
              While living - run, play,
              Trample the furry tail.
              You know, cats go to heaven
              Through the black holes of the stars.
              Snow will fall on the edge of the sky -
              From here until the morning.
              You yourself will find the path, my friend,
              When the time comes.
              A chain of your soft footprints
              Easy to leave home
              To the land of feline holy gardens
              Where milk flows in streams.
              Where you can walk in the dense meadows
              And jump fearlessly from the rooftops
              Where there is no place for your enemies
              Where there is nobody to shout "Kysh".
              And you can be a cat on your own -
              Try even a finger touch!
              On a cold evening, show up at home
              And lie down and look into the fire.
              And an angel in a knee-length sweater
              Stroking you ... Understand -
              In cat's paradise, no one is lazy
              For cats to be human.
              Sleep calmly at your feet, my friend.
              I also have dreams -
              What is lit in the starry sky
              Feline your country.
              Nika Bathen. A song for a little friend.
              1. Cat
                Cat 25 December 2017 21: 49
                +3
                In our Lower Sergas, half of the heating mains runs along the top. So cats use them to move ka in the winter and summer. Regarding the neighbor’s fences, a black Siberian cat or Persian under 8 kg escaped from the dog. He climbed onto a wooden picket fence and began to show his sincere contempt for the dogs. At this time, another dog jumped on the other side of the fence. Before the cat did not jump hit the picket fence. The fence fell on the first dog, the cat on the second. Naturally, the cat as soon as it plopped down on the croup, the second one let all its claws into it. She rushed along the street, the cat on it. They removed the guy after about fifteen minutes.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 25 December 2017 22: 11
                  +3
                  I had a case in the Dominican Republic. We went on a tour of the province of Altagracia, as they said, in the "Dominican hinterland." National park, a walk there, all that, then brought to a local diner on a cliff of the sea, eat and drink. Misha (a friend on vacation, an honored officer) says - let's go down the street. Come on, the sun burns, birds fly over their heads - pelicans, frigates ... beauty, in short! fellow We approach the fish shop. There is no canopy, under it, there is no seller - these Afrolatino-Americans will not break through themselves at all, until they need something from you. negative The main thing is not this! Across the road from the bench .... on a belt tied to a post, sitting cat! belay Why they put him like that - God knows, but he sits! request We immediately christened him - "political cat". laughing They laughed, turned around, went to eat .. They have good rum! Yes, and the dances are beautiful - with us, the local youth dance group traveled, entertainedfellow good
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 25 December 2017 22: 56
                    +5
                    Well, what do the catwalkers do with you?!?!?! And I have a dog !!!! Trash, pomoshnitsa, the infection is bay ...., Labrador, in a word. But I love her!
                    "When we have a bigger apartment, we will get an elephant"
                    "Deniskins stories" (V. Dragunsky)
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 25 December 2017 23: 42
                      +4
                      Well this is how much to buy the elephant filler ... belay my brother has a beagle - the same thing, according to your description; on the one hand, she says, “I hate” (my wife bought it!), on the other, she feeds me secretly wink somehow the guests gathered at his place, and I, including, don’t remember what the occasion was, about three years ago. Sveta (Lelik’s wife) prepared “Napoleon” (which is not Bonaparte), since it was in November, she put it on the balcony. The dog’s face was tied (Velcro crap, strap). While all the adults thumped, this cunning figure - I really don’t know how, either someone didn’t close the door, or something else - he entered the balcony ... wink in general .. when they brought the "sweet" .. half of the top of the "non-bonaparte" was EXHAUSTED through the "caliber" that allowed the tie on the face ... request drinks
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 26 December 2017 06: 15
                        +2
                        Gifted doggie! After turning the living room into ruins, sweetheart bought a muzzle for her pet. Now, in the absence of the owners, the dog is busy playing "sadomaso".
                      2. marline
                        marline 26 December 2017 09: 06
                        +3
                        Quote: Mikado
                        ... this cunning-minded figure - I don’t know how, either someone didn’t close the door, or something else - he entered the balcony ... wink in general .. when they brought the "sweet" .. half of the top of the "non-bonaparte" was EXHAUSTED through the "caliber" that allowed the tie on the face ... request drinks

                        It is necessary to educate)
                        The same case was. I warmed myself a sausage for breakfast, but I forgot the mustard. While I went to the refrigerator, while back, I’m coming back, and the plate is empty. And next to the table my dog ​​sits - the face is pleased and only licks. Honestly, I didn’t touch a finger, I just said: “What are you doing a bad dog! He took it and ate my sausage. Get out of sight.” Dog stumbling left. While my wife heats a new sausage, I'm sad. A dog enters the room, and drags a slipper in his teeth. He puts this slipper in front of me, turns the sirloin and closes his eyes shut: "Like there, it’s your fault, punish it, master." Of course, he didn’t punish him, he so scribbled for order - the dog, of course, was glad that he stayed without spanking and jumped. From all this, neighing the whole family for half an hour.
          2. brn521
            brn521 26 December 2017 10: 36
            +3
            Quote: merlin
            cats were very inspired by the Japanese

            It sounds mixed. For example, the shamisens were covered in cat skins. The Japanese really love cats. But they really like the shamisen. Therefore, they prefer to pretend that they do not know where the skins come from to tighten the instrument. Moreover, the skin is of high quality, from a mature five-year-old healthy cat.
        3. kalibr
          25 December 2017 17: 32
          +2
          Oh, don’t remember by night, otherwise it will appear at once, like a devil from a snuff-box. The Japanese, in general, were very kind to cats. It was believed that a person who offended a cat is very at risk. His kitty can turn into a huge spirit and he will catch the offender in the house with huge paws. Or push him under the train when he stands on the platform!
          1. Cat
            Cat 25 December 2017 19: 32
            +4
            The tough medieval belief "cats - ghosts push Japanese grandmothers under the train"!
  4. Luga
    Luga 25 December 2017 10: 41
    +8
    Thanks to the author. Interesting and informative.
    I don’t remember in which particular book it was long ago, I read and was surprised that in Japan the bow, and not the sword, was really considered the main weapon of the samurai. It would seem that samurai swords are known all over the world, katana is the crown of evolution of blade weapons (there is such an opinion) and in that spirit ... It seemed to me that in Japan from the earliest centuries the cult of a sword was supposed to develop, but no. Indeed, the bow was considered the weapon of the samurai for a long time. It seems strange to me, because on the continent onions were cultivated mainly among nomadic peoples, who spent most of their time in the saddle.
    In my opinion, in Japan, with its rugged landscapes, it is extremely difficult to raise a large number of horses that need vast, even pastures (how much rice they could plant, how many people to feed instead of one horse! smile ) For these reasons, there should have been few horses, and they could only be the property of the military elite. The thesis that
    in Japan ... their army itself was mounted, even though the infantry eventually began to prevail in it.
    in this regard, it seems to me, at least, disputable. Yes, and it is troublesome to ride horses on mountainous-wooded areas during the fighting.
    Still, the strange people are Japanese. Judging by the design of the stirrups, they did not practice ramming a spear strike in military affairs. I wonder why?
    1. marline
      marline 25 December 2017 12: 02
      +3
      Quote: Luga
      Indeed, the bow was considered the weapon of the samurai for a long time.

      And not only this is amazing. Although it would seem ... but
      The weapon of a knight is a spear.
      Weapon of the Roman Legionnaire - sword (gladius)
      The weapon of the local cavalry is a bow.
      Quote: Luga
      Judging by the design of the stirrups, they did not practice ramming a spear strike in military affairs. I wonder why?

      Probably because they knew how to shoot from a bow.
      But seriously, it is just completely incomprehensible why in Western Europe horse archers were absent as a class. It seems that the caliber had an article with a version on this topic: that there are peoples who love onions and those who despise it.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 25 December 2017 12: 27
        +3
        However, in the Middle Ages, European knights treated the bow with great prejudice. Why? The English historian and editor of Military Illustrated magazine Timothy Newark answered this question in his article “Why did the Knights never use bows?”, Which he published in his journal back in 1995. Today, this is perhaps the most important issue related to the genesis of the protective and offensive weapons of the soldiers of Eurasia. The verdict of the scientist was as follows:
        "In the Middle Ages, the most effective weapons were a bow and arrow, especially a composite bow, which was shot from the back of the horse. The greatest equestrian archers of the Middle Ages were, of course, the Huns, Mongols and Turks. Their names recall the terrible images of the rushing equestrian warriors, slipping away from an attack that mimics a retreat just to turn around in the saddles and lower the deadly hail of arrows from the bowstring, but despite the repeated defeats at the hands of these eastern hordes, the military effectiveness of such mounted archers never used camping military elites of Western Europe. The Knights have never used a bow and arrow. Why?
        Throughout the Middle Ages, knights believed that killing an enemy with an arrow from a bow was vile and did not honor a good warrior. True knightly nobility goes to the winner in a one-on-one mortal battle with a spear, sword or mace. The use of a bow and arrow was left to people below their social status, who could not fight as bravely or bravely as their gentlemen. That is why peasants were recruited into archers who could not buy a horse, even if their material well-being allowed them to do so; therefore, for the most part, European archers were on foot, and only social and cultural snobbery did not allow horse archers to become a characteristic part of the war in Europe.
        Interestingly, a negative attitude towards the bow appeared in Europe long before the knights themselves appeared there. So, in the play of Euripides in the XNUMXth century BC, one of her heroes defames Hercules’s prowess: “He never wore a shield or spear. He used a bow, a coward’s weapon to strike and run away. Bows do not make heroes. A real man is the only one who are firm in spirit and dare to stand against the spear. "
        Hercules’s father says in his defense: “A man skilled in archery can send a hail of arrows and keep something in reserve. He can keep his distance so that the enemy never sees him, only his arrows. He never substitutes "This is the first rule of war - to harm the enemy, and as much as possible, and at the same time remain unscathed."
        1. marline
          marline 25 December 2017 12: 33
          +1
          Yes, I was talking about this version.
          It is only a little strange, because Europeans are actually quite pragmatic.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 25 December 2017 12: 38
            +2
            In some respects they are pragmatic, but you cannot deny them the snobbery of the elites!
            The British also did not think that their armies could be defeated by the Zulus, Hindus, Afghans, etc.
          2. kalibr
            25 December 2017 15: 48
            +2
            Timothy Newark believes that this is a rare case of "social prudence."
      2. Cat
        Cat 25 December 2017 19: 01
        +2
        Dear Merlin, have you simplified everything somehow?
        The weapon of a knight is a spear.
        Weapon of the Roman Legionnaire - sword (gladius)
        The weapon of the local cavalry is a bow.
        Let's go in order:
        1. By the knights.
        The knight’s spear is a disposable weapon, albeit powerful and offensive, but it did not survive the first attack. So the complex: a spear + plate + a mighty knight’s horse is the weapon of the first strike, and then the knight took out a bastrad and .........
        As a result, the tact of light cavalry with peaks was many times more effective. Even Potemkin "used to say" that his carabinieri and Cossack women were no better example of the Prussian cuirassier.
        2. According to the legionnaires.
        Gladius is a common noun, but the main sign of a legionnaire was all the same shit — scutum and throwing spear — pilum. In general, the tactics of the action of the cohort in the early empire consisted in throwing the enemy with darts, pilums, and then enter into close combat.
        By the way, the legionnaire of the early republic and the late empire had no gladiuses.
        3. Local cavalry!
        Given that it appeared in Russia at the beginning of the 15th century. That dream of any local horseman was a pistol, or rather two. If we analyze the lists of local troops that have come down to our time, then it’s impossible to arm a variety of weapons.
        Throwing weapons: bows, peepers, pistols, sulits, etc.
        Polearms: spears, bastards, owls, berdysh, etc.
        Melee weapons: swords, broadswords, sabers, shestopers, etc.
        On the most famous engraving depicting the wars of the local cavalry, only two of the three are depicted with a bow, but all are armed with sabers.
        1. marline
          marline 26 December 2017 08: 35
          +1
          Quote: Kotischa
          Dear Merlin, have you simplified everything somehow?

          Simplification, of course, is present. However, still ...
          1. The same knights were considered spears, in the sense of a medieval tactical unit.
          2. Yes, that's right, there were no gladiuses in the late empire. He was replaced by spatha. If you pay attention, then my gladius is taken in brackets.
          3. With pistols in the 15th century. everything was not so simple - they were very unreliable. Rather, they were treated as beautiful, expensive toys, and the base was a bow.
          Naturally, all of the listed ancient warriors used different weapons, like the samurai, in fact, however, if we talk about the main thing, then everything can be reduced to exactly those species that I spoke about.
  5. kalibr
    25 December 2017 10: 51
    +6
    Quote: Luga
    Judging by the design of the stirrups, they did not practice ramming a spear strike in military affairs. I wonder why?

    Good questions ... Ramming was not practiced at first! It began to be used somewhere in the 14-15 centuries, when they began to fight in cities. And in the woods of bamboo who ram? The Japanese language belongs to the Altai language group. That is, they are nomads from Central Asia.
    There were few horses, yes, and they were valuable, but at first the samurai troops were just mounted. Mitsuo Kure is very well written about this! And horses, by the way, grazed, not on the plains, but on mountain pastures, where rice cannot be grown!
    1. Luga
      Luga 25 December 2017 13: 43
      +3
      Quote: kalibr
      And in the woods of bamboo who ram?

      The question is not where, but who. smile Probably, the opponents of the samurai did not fight in tight formation and did not have heavy defensive weapons, vulnerable only to a spear strike. Maybe there wasn’t enough iron?
      By the way, I remembered a book in which I read about worshiping a bow from a samurai, the author - Hiroaki Sato, is called "Samurai. History and Legends." To remember, I had to google, while accidentally stumbled on the book "Atlas of Samurai" by one famous author. wink
      Nevertheless, it seems to me that you are mistaken about the massive use of cavalry by samurai. I am convinced that the bulk of the Japanese army at all times consisted mainly of infantry, and cavalry, and indeed, light and "shooting", was an insignificant part of military formations. It was simply staffed with the most notable and wealthy warriors, whose accomplishments overshadowed the acts of ordinary samurai warriors, so in literature, art and various chronicles of that time we often find equestrian warriors.
      However, this is solely my opinion, I do not impose it on anyone and I really can’t justify it, which I honestly admit. smile
      1. kalibr
        25 December 2017 15: 47
        +2
        Sato's book is an interesting thing and, most importantly, well translated into Russian. But still, check out Mitsuo Kure’s book. There are just a lot about the riders ... And by the way, yes, periodically the infantry dominated in Japan. At first, but then they practically abandoned it, and after the Onin war, and then after the spread of the arquebus.
        1. marline
          marline 25 December 2017 16: 04
          +1
          Quote: kalibr
          And by the way, yes, periodically the infantry dominated in Japan.

          If my memory serves me right, then this happened during periods of civil war, when the number of units became decisive.
          In general, it seems, with the overall high price of samurai equipment - the horse no longer looks such an expensive pleasure.
          1. kalibr
            25 December 2017 17: 37
            +2
            This is also correct, since the price of a sword and armor was measured in kg. gold.
  6. marline
    marline 25 December 2017 11: 31
    +4
    Thank you for the article! Very interesting and informative.
    1. kalibr
      25 December 2017 11: 49
      +3
      Now I’ve just prepared material about the plates of Japanese armor. Photos from the Tokyo National Museum website, so there is something to see. Now I sit, look and bastard. So come again.
      1. marline
        marline 25 December 2017 11: 52
        +2
        Surely Vyacheslav Olegovich. The article about the armor is clearly overdue.
  7. Mikado
    Mikado 25 December 2017 16: 11
    +1
    hohol95,
    only proves that you need to think with your head before you climb somewhere. Otherwise, you can part with it ... hi
  8. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 25 December 2017 16: 17
    18
    Interesting article
    By the way
    riding a horse on the right
    - Is not a forerunner of right-sided habits in the sense of traffic rules?
    Kidding laughing
  9. Cat
    Cat 25 December 2017 18: 58
    +2
    Dear Merlin, have you simplified everything somehow?
    The weapon of a knight is a spear.
    Weapon of the Roman Legionnaire - sword (gladius)
    The weapon of the local cavalry is a bow.

    Let's go in order:
    1. By the knights.
    The knight’s spear is a disposable weapon, albeit powerful and offensive, but it did not survive the first attack. So the complex: a spear + plate + a mighty knight’s horse is the weapon of the first strike, and then the knight got bastrad and .........
    As a result, the tact of light cavalry with peaks was many times more effective. Even Potemkin "used to say" that his carabinieri and Cossack women were no better example of the Prussian cuirassier.
    2. According to the legionnaires.
    Gladius is a common noun, but the main sign of a legionnaire was all the same shit — scutum and throwing spear — pilum. In general, the tactics of the action of the cohort in the early empire consisted in throwing the enemy with darts, pilums, and then enter into close combat.
    By the way, the legionnaire of the early republic and the late empire had no gladiuses.
    3. Local cavalry!
    Given that it appeared in Russia at the beginning of the 15th century. That dream of any local horseman was a pistol, or rather two. If we analyze the lists of local troops that have come down to our time, then it’s impossible to arm a variety of weapons.
    Throwing weapons: bows, peepers, pistols, sulits, etc.
    Polearms: spears, bastards, owls, berdysh, etc.
    Melee weapons: swords, broadswords, sabers, shestopers, etc.
    On the most famous engraving depicting the wars of the local cavalry, only one of the three is depicted with a bow, but all are armed sabers.
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 25 December 2017 23: 14
    +4
    The article is excellent!
    The discussion is exciting!
    The lack of ghouls is inspiring!
    Ishachu for 12 hours and do not get in unison - it's sad.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 25 December 2017 23: 34
      +3
      the end of the year! finish line, go to the sprint! laughing no other way...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 25 December 2017 23: 44
        +2
        No, I have already experienced these games with time trouble and rummages. If it weren’t for the disease, I would have already duked on my laurels.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 25 December 2017 23: 47
          +3
          I have an emergency. There are few new applications, and those that are - for the new year, but I "repay debts." drinks
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 26 December 2017 00: 00
            +2
            One of two things: either this situation is not new for you, or you did not contact the "daughters" of large structures.
  12. Curious
    Curious 26 December 2017 00: 53
    +2
    "When the ancestors of modern Japanese crossed the Strait of Tsushima and ended up in Japan, they met people completely different from them - dark-skinned, with dense vegetation on their faces and bodies, curly hair, and, in addition, worshiping the bear ancestor. It’s not surprising that and the yellow-skinned aliens with very rare facial hair and stiff straight straight hair did not like the Aborigines, but they managed to transport horses across the sea and this played a decisive role in confronting local Ainu and yellow-faced tsev ".
    Where did this paragraph come from?
    The questions of the ethnogenesis of the Japanese still still cause controversy, giving rise to the most controversial hypotheses and theories, none of which can explain the totality of facts accumulated by science. But, I think, Japanese scholars of all countries, having read this paragraph, they would have ... become stiff or something.
    And then there is the ferry of horses "yellow-faced aliens."
    The influx of immigrants from the continent to the Japanese islands began in the III century BC. Apparently, the “yellow-faced aliens” were tribes of the Tungus origin, and they met not only Ainu on the Japanese islands.
    Therefore, when in the second half of the 600rd century AD (after XNUMX years), nomads with horses moved to Japan through the Tsushima Strait (until that time there were no horses in Japan), the formation of the Japanese ethnic group was almost completed. And according to one hypothesis, among these nomads there could be Yuezhi - "white people with long brown hair." Here you have the yellow-faced aliens.
    1. Curious
      Curious 26 December 2017 01: 11
      +2
      I'm sorry, instead "the formation of the Japanese ethnic group is almost complete," should read
      "the formation of the Japanese ethnos is largely completed."
    2. kalibr
      26 December 2017 10: 45
      +1
      In the article about Japanese swords, historiography was given at the very beginning, starting from the Soviet Japanese historian Spevakovsky. So among experts, this paragraph in the popular article for VO certainly will not cause surprise.
      1. Curious
        Curious 26 December 2017 14: 12
        +1
        The article about Japanese swords mentions literature about Japanese swords but not a single book is mentioned on the ethnogenesis of the Japanese, its anthropology and ethnography.
        1. kalibr
          26 December 2017 18: 26
          0
          Spevakovsky’s book is just about that!
          1. Curious
            Curious 26 December 2017 21: 41
            0
            Spevakovsky's book "Samurai - the military estate of Japan" is dedicated to the history of samurai and begins in the 1000th century AD. that is, the events that took place XNUMX years after the moment when "the ancestors of the present Japanese crossed the Tsushima Strait."
  13. Seal
    Seal 26 December 2017 09: 31
    +3
    The only difference was that in Europe, pistols with wheel locks were mass produced, while in Japan the wick lock was the most common.

    It’s just that the Japanese technologies of that time simply didn’t allow you to copy and later produce on your own pistols with wheel locks, since they are much more complicated (and therefore several times more expensive) wicks. So the Japanese had to suffer in their damp and humid climate with a firearm with wick locks.
    1. kalibr
      26 December 2017 10: 42
      +2
      Technologies allowed to copy at the level of several samples and such samples are known. Here is mass production, yes, here you are right, the Japanese could not afford it.
  14. Seal
    Seal 26 December 2017 11: 23
    +1
    Quote: Curious
    Apparently, the “yellow-faced aliens” were tribes of the Tungus origin, and they met not only Ainu on the Japanese islands.

    If through the freezing Tatar Strait on about. Sakhalin, and then, having mastered Sakhalin, through the Laperouse Strait (also freezing) in Hokkaido - you can believe it, as it is logical.
    But in this
    Quote: Curious
    Therefore, when in the second half of the 600rd century AD (after XNUMX years), nomads with horses moved to Japan through the Tsushima Strait (until that time there were no horses in Japan), the formation of the Japanese ethnic group was almost completed. And according to one hypothesis, among these nomads there could be Yuezhi - "white people with long brown hair."

    hard to believe. For before you reach Tsushima Island, which is separated from the Tsushima Strait from Japan, you need to cross the western part of the Korea Strait, the so-called West Pass (aka the Pusan ​​Strait), which separates Tsushima Island from the Korean Peninsula. And this is in the narrowest part of 50 kilometers. It’s easy not to cross it. Especially nomads. Especially with the stables. From the territory of Korea, Tsushima Island is more likely to be guessed than seen. That is, in order to cross there you need to at least know that this is not a rock in the sea, but a large island where there is food for horses.
    And then the Tsushima Strait itself. It is 100 km wide. Japan is not visible through the strait. But there is Iki Island in the strait.
    Before him from the island of Tsushima about 40 km. However, there is another problem - the current, the speed of which is on the order of 3 knots.
    In general, the version that some nomads, having accidentally jumped (they are wild nomads, move unsystematically) to the seashore in Korea, accidentally saw the vague outlines of Tsushima Island in a distant haze and wanted to get there with their whole horde, instantly threw their nomadic image life, quickly mastered shipbuilding, built sea ships that could not only withstand the sea wave, but also transport horseback, mastered navigational science and sailed. Well, just some geeks are obtained, not nomads. hi
    Oh yes, it was still necessary for the former nomads, and now apparently “horse-drawn sailors”, to want to move from the large island of Tsushima to the small island of Iki, from which you can actually see Japan itself (Father Kushu). hi
    1. Curious
      Curious 26 December 2017 13: 15
      +1
      Before horses with nomads came to Japan, contacts between China, Korea, and Japan were hundreds of years old. Therefore, there is no need to look at something in a distant haze. Better read something on the history of Japan. Maybe the haze will dissipate. Or did the Germans redo the history of Japan?
      1. Seal
        Seal 26 December 2017 14: 15
        +1
        But essentially something will happen?
        And you see, it’s instructive to say “before horses with nomads arrived in Japan, contacts between China, Korea and Japan were hundreds of years old” - you don’t have to think too much. One importance and self-conceit are more than enough.
        1. Curious
          Curious 26 December 2017 14: 29
          +2
          Well, about the importance and conceit, I am far from you. It is important, instructive and with aplomb that you announced that all orientalists of all countries and times of fools have written hundreds of books with bullshit, for which a lot of intelligence is not necessary. The suggestion to read these books provoked a very negative reaction in you. Well, now you want me to provide you with a witness of the nomad crossing to Japan? Or was he transported to the shore of the Tsushima Strait in a time machine? And why do you need this if you already know everything?
  15. Seal
    Seal 26 December 2017 11: 33
    +1
    Quote: Kotischa
    As a result, the tact of light cavalry with peaks was many times more effective. Even Potemkin "used to say" that his carabinieri and Cossack women were no better example of the Prussian cuirassier.

    Potemkin probably used to say. But just for some reason, in the Napoleonic wars with the Napoleonic cuirassiers exclusively our cuirassiers (cavalry guards) fought. And the Cossacks, hussars and ulans fought more and more with their Napoleonic colleagues, avoiding being in the way of the Napoleonic cuirassiers. However, the same as Murat’s light cavalry didn’t at all try to get in the way of our cavalry guards.
  16. Seal
    Seal 26 December 2017 16: 45
    +1
    "When the ancestors of modern Japanese crossed the Strait of Tsushima and ended up in Japan, they met people completely different from them - dark-skinned, with dense vegetation on their faces and bodies, curly hair, and, in addition, worshiping the bear ancestor. It’s not surprising that and the yellow-skinned aliens with very rare facial hair and stiff straight hair were indigenous to their liking.


    Why is this "not surprising"? According to the traditional version of the story, these very flat-faced and yellow-skinned communicated with the "ancient Persians" and with the "ancient Indians" and with the "ancient Armenians", who are no less swarthy and no less dense vegetation. And they worship too .... in short, they worship many.
    Oh yes, they say that along the Great Silk Road, flat-faced and yellow-skinned even reached “ancient Rome”. Why are some swarthy, with dense vegetation on the face and body, with curly hair this flat-faced and yellow-skinned, so to speak, "like", but others are "not like"?

    But they managed to transport horses across the sea, and this played a decisive role in the confrontation between local Ainu and yellow-faced aliens. "

    And here you can in more detail.
    That is, it turns out that flat-skinned and yellow-skinned, having somehow crossed to Japan, after some time (what ???) realized that the local swarthy, with dense vegetation on the face and body, with curly hair, they do not like the natives and what, again returned to the continent for horses?
    But what, on the continent there, right opposite the crossing of flat-faced and yellow-skinned animals to Japan, there was a horse fair? And how much was the horse worth then? What about a racehorse? Who are the sellers? Other flat-faced and yellow-skinned? Did the buyers have money? Or the buyers (those flat-faced and yellow-skinned that returned from Japan) turned to the sellers or owners of horses (other flat-faced and yellow-skinned who stayed on the mainland and did not go to Japan) with the words: “O our flat-faced and yellow-skinned brothers. On the island of Japan ( and pointed with their finger somewhere in the sea) there are dark-skinned people with thick vegetation on their faces and bodies, curly hair who, in addition, worshiped the bear’s ancestor. We must press them with our fingernails. But we don’t have horses. Give us your horses. " .
    And all the local flat-faced and yellow-skinned people hummed: “Oooo-oo-oo-oo-oo, how dark they are, with dense vegetation on the face and body, curly-haired people who in addition worship the ancestral bear nasty. Of course, they need to be pressed to the nail. Take all our horses ... for free. "
    But horses still need to be transported across the sea. What, have there already been special bilge ships?
    1. Seal
      Seal 26 December 2017 16: 45
      +1
      It is known that horses were found on the Japanese islands in ancient times, but they were stunted, and unsuitable for riding.

      It’s strange. Ivan Vasilievich Grozny and his comrades galloped on greyhounds - and nothing.
      Here are the Japanese horse breeds.
      Misaki horse. This breed originates from Miazaki Prefecture. Today, the herd of this breed has 88 animals. Height at withers 130-135 see They first appeared in historical references from 1697, when the Akizuki family from the Takanabe clan took horses from wild pastures under their protection and created a tribal herd. Horses grazed at large, and only once a year were selected for training and health checks, as well as castration of stallions that were not suitable for breeding. The same system is used today. The breed was recognized as a national treasure and is an object of keen interest on the part of tourists.
      Horse Turner. These horses can be found today in several parks of Kagoshima Prefecture. They are the descendants of two dozen indigenous horses bought by Kushu from Kikai Shima in 1890. The breed was bred on the island of Tokara and today is quite numerous in the Kagoshima region. During World War II, the breed was on the verge of extinction and was saved at the cost of tremendous effort. Subsequently, horses of this breed became larger than their ancestors (115 см) Tokara graze free all year round, and once a year are driven for examination and veterinary treatment. The breed is recognized as a natural property of the prefecture. Today it has 116 goals.
      Horses Miyako. Miyako breed dates back to the 13th century. Until 1960, when highways were built, these horses were the main means of communication on the island. In 1907, as a result of crossbreeding with large horses from Europe and America, the average height of the miyako horse increased to 140 cm, then as native breed rarely reached 115 cm at the withers. Today, attempts are being made to return the breed to its original size. A herd of twenty-one horses is of great interest to tourists, and is often used for teaching purposes in local schools. This breed was recognized as a natural property of the prefecture.
      Hokkaido horse, also known as doshanko, this breed originated from several local breeds brought from Togoku in the 15th century, when the Japanese immigrated to Hokkaido. Today, there are about 2928 Hokkaido horses. Most of them live in freedom on huge pastures all year round, and annually gathers for examination and treatment. Others are bred on farms. This breed is slightly larger than other Japanese horses - 130-135 cm at the withers. They are unusually hardy and strong, resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Today they are used for horseback riding, pack duty and harness. Hokkaido horses are born pacers.
      Horse Nome. The smallest Japanese horse - Noma - hails from the Noma region. Her height is only 110 cm. They were used as pack animals in the mountainous regions of the country. Today, 47 representatives of the breed living on the farms of the region have survived. Today they are used as riding horses for children and an object of study in local schools.
      Kiso horse. Mention of this horse dates back to the 6th century. Her homeland is the Kiso region of Nagano Prefecture. According to legend, this region was able to produce 10000 cavalry horses for army needs. Medium-sized Kiso Horse - 135 cm. They crossed with many Western breeds. Today, 117 kiso horses have been preserved, which can often be seen at processions at local festivals. They are also used as riding horses.
      A taishu horse. This breed developed on the hilly expanses of Tsushima in Nagasaki Prefecture, where horse breeding began in the 8th century. This is a medium sized horse 125 cm tall at the withers, which was often used as a pack animal and for towing forests. This is a calm and complaisant horse, whose fine character is well illustrated by the picture, which shows a taishu horse on which a rural woman rides. Now 79 of these horses, which are of interest to tourists, have been preserved.
      Yonaguni Horse. This native breed developed in Okinawa on Yonaguni Island. This little horse, tall only 115 cm. Today, two small herds of 108 horses remain on the island, which graze on the loose and gather once a year for examination and treatment. Interestingly, the inhabitants of this island invented a special bridle called ом omogui ’, which uses only one reason to control a horse. Today these horses are used for training purposes in local schools and recreational riding.

      Well ???? Here, just dozens of commentators tore their shirts on their chests, claiming that "the great Mongols on their superb hardy Mongol horses, incomparable with their fighting characteristics, conquered half of the world then known." Although the height at the withers of traditional Mongolian horses currently does not exceed 125 -127 centimeters. Given the general tendency to increase growth, as can be seen in the example of traditional Japanese horse breeds, we can confidently assume that in the 13th century the height at the withers of these super-hardy Mongolian horses, which were unmatched by their fighting characteristics, did not exceed 110 ... well, let it be 115 centimeters.
      So what ? This means that the great and incomparable ancient nomadic Mongols on horses 110-115 centimeters high could well conquer half the world, but the high-ranking samurai on horses of exactly the same height, or even taller, could not fight, because the horses say undersized. " wassat wassat

      And if, excuse me,
      Race horses were brought here from the mainland in the XNUMXth century.
      then where did they go then? Are they all allowed for meat?
      Where is Japanese race culture?
      And where are the Japanese carriages? For some reason, in the presence of such wonderful “race horses”, both shoguns and emperors moved exclusively in palanquins. And people are simpler - on rickshaws. I didn’t have my own “departure”, I repeat, neither the emperor nor the shogun.
      If racehorses were brought back in the XNUMXth century, then why was it necessary in the Mei era to massively import large purebred horses from Europe and North America to Japan? Oh, yes, horses in the Mei era were imported in order to increase the size of the Japanese horse and in order to make it more suitable for military purposes. The Japanese government has introduced special training courses throughout the country to increase the use of horses in agriculture. This was to encourage Japanese farmers to breed large horses and their subsequent supply to the army. Foreign breeders exported to Japan such breeds as the English thoroughbred, Anglo-Arab, hackne and several draft breeds, such as the Belgian and Breton draft breeds.

      And those "race" that were allegedly imported in the V century, it turns out all were geldings? Since they did not leave offspring?

      "The English merchant Richardson was 29 years old, he came to Japan from Shanghai for tourist purposes. Together with two friends and a friend they took a horse excursion from Yokohama. Near the village of Namamugi they met with the procession of Shimazu Hisamitsu, who was heading from Edo to Kyoto. The procession was about 400. Hisamitsu was carried in a road pallank. The riders leaned to the left but did not dismount. They clung to the hedge, but the road was so narrow that the procession stopped. To Richardson, who was ahead of the other horsemen three samurai ran up and tattered him to pieces.The samurai managed to injure two Richardson’s companions, and only his friend remained unharmed, but all three Richardson’s companions managed to escape. Samurai did not have horses."
      1. kalibr
        26 December 2017 18: 22
        +2
        You ask what a khaniva is. Check out their photos at the French Horse Museum and the Tokyo National Museum website. Also take an interest in the imperial road and the wagon on which he rode. So the emperors had a trip. But the Japanese did not really use wheeled carriages. A lot of rivers, streams and rivulets crossed the road. It would be necessary to rebuild the entire road network. What for?
  17. NF68
    NF68 26 December 2017 16: 52
    +2
    + + + + + + + + + +
  18. Seal
    Seal 26 December 2017 17: 46
    +1
    Quote: Kotischa
    2. According to the legionnaires.
    Gladius is a common noun, but the main sign of a legionnaire was all the same shit — a scutum and a throwing spear — pilum. In general, the tactics of the action of the cohort in the early empire consisted in throwing the enemy with darts, pilums, and then enter into close combat. By the way, the legionnaire of the early republic and the late empire had no gladiuses.

    And otkel these very "deep knowledge"? Al somewhere found Field Charter of the Ancient Roman Army, approved by himself ... by whom ?? Sulla, Caesar, Julius, Augustus? September?
    Ali showed up an instruction on throwing pilums (darts) for an ancient Roman cohort?
    It is amazing how often people retell each other something from what they learned in fiction, but at the same time demand that their retellings be recognized as "genuine historical facts."
    Once upon a time (a long time ago, about 15 years ago), on a distal (aka Ivanov) project "Civilization", such a participant as Yukon (I only later learned that Yuri Konstantinovich). He, as a candidate of historical sciences, a teacher at the Department of History, I don’t remember which university, spoke from a purely tradhistorical position. But he sincerely wanted to confirm his tradhistorical position with facts. We often argued with him. I once said that if he finds a photocopy of at least one, but only a genuine "antique-ancient Greek" or "antique-ancient" document, clearly dated by "the same antique time", then I will go over to his side. He promised that this will be so and he will be glad to see me in his ranks or something like that. He was looking for 3 months or more. Then he honestly admitted that he had found only one copper tablet on a building or on a pole in some of the cities of Croatia, which says that such and such a legionnaire thanks the emperor for the plot of land provided to him. And just as honestly, Yukon admitted that of course, this unfortunate copper tablet in no way relates to the documents he was counting on. After which he appeared a couple of times - but more to watch than to comment. And after a couple of months, an obituary dedicated to him appeared on the site.
    It was precisely that honest historian. And he was then younger than me, the present. He could not stand the soul of the fact that for decades he taught students, relying not on documents, but on fiction. Sorry for him. Sincerely.
    Now there are none left.
    1. Curious
      Curious 26 December 2017 19: 00
      +1
      And how many of these trade historians have you plagued with your sophisticated methods? Can you switch to current tradopolitikov if you have such effective methods? Would go down in history.
    2. marline
      marline 27 December 2017 09: 06
      0
      Quote: Seal
      And otkel these very "deep knowledge"? Al somewhere found Field Charter of the Ancient Roman Army, approved by himself ... by whom ?? Sulla, Caesar, Julius, Augustus? September?

      Field manuals in the modern sense of the Roman army were not. Information on the above can be found, for example, in the Notes on the Gallic War by Guy Julius Caesar. On military law in the digests of Justician.
      And now that the Russian army has a field charter? Can you bring a genuine photocopy, at least the cover?
      Quote: Seal
      I once said that if he finds a photocopy of at least one, but only a genuine "antique-ancient Greek" or "antique-ancient" document, clearly dated by "the same antique time", then I will go over to his side.

      Do you know that the city of Bielefeld, which is located on the territory of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia does not really exist !!!