Military Review

The city is not subdued enemies. Defense of Tuapse

This small southern city, spread out on the shores of the Black Sea, 75 years ago became an impregnable fortress, about which hordes of fascist invaders broke. About one hundred thousand Soviet soldiers were killed at the approaches to it, it was barbarously destroyed by German bombardments, but it did not submit to the enemies.

The famous Soviet writer and war correspondent Boris Gorbatov wrote in one of his essays, “Mountains and People,”:Cities, like people, have their character. There are people - warriors, carved for heroic deeds by nature themselves, and there are quiet, peaceful, deeply civilian people from whom you don’t expect heroism. Leningrad, Stalingrad, Sevastopol - the city-heroes themselves история, revolution, wars created them like this. But a small, semi-resort, deeply civilian Tuapse ... There is something touchingly majestic in his unexpected courage. The war demanded, and Tuapse became a warrior city, like dozens of Soviet cities».

With his words, you can both agree and disagree. To disagree - because the heroism of cities does not depend on their size, just as the spiritual qualities of a person do not depend on his growth. Many large cities, as is known, fell under the onslaught of the German fascist troops and were occupied. And besides the Great Patriotic War, if we turn to history, you can find many examples where large cities bowed to the enemy without a fight, and small ones showed unprecedented stamina. To agree - because in the feat of small towns there really is something special, “touchingly majestic”. Yet such cities have fewer resources for defense, so their heroism can be valued even higher. So a strong man of athletic build is easier to fight back in a fight, but when someone who is physically weaker suddenly wins, it causes more admiration: it was much harder.

The official date for the start of the battle for Tuapse is considered to be the 25 of September 1942, when the great German attack on the city began - Operation Attica. And the end date is 20 of December of the same year, when the 18 Army fighters threw the fascists across the river Pshish and the threat of losing Tuapse was eliminated.

But, perhaps, it is difficult to say that the defense began on a certain day. It is believed that the beginning of the Tuapse defensive operation can be considered August 1942 of the year - after the enemies captured Armavir, Maikop and Krasnodar, and Hitler ordered to focus on the exit to the Black Sea in the Tuapse region. Moreover, at first the attempt of the German offensive was on the part of Novorossiysk, but the heroism of the defenders of this city frustrated the fascist plans.

The bombing of Tuapse began back in March of 1942. During one of the raids, a group of new recruits, 120 people, died. The enemy destroyed the port and shipyard. Since August, the bombing has become particularly fierce, they killed many civilians. As a result, there is little left of a beautiful, flourishing city. It had to be restored virtually from scratch, and the famous Soviet architect Shchusev took part in this.

Hitler really attached great importance to the seizure of Tuapse. Firstly, due to the fact that the city has an oil refinery, which means that there are large reserves of fuel. To deprive the Red Army of these reserves and acquire them for their own needs - isn't that alluring? Secondly, after Odessa and Sevastopol fell, Novorossiysk was partially captured, - Tuapse remained practically the only naval base on the Black Sea. (So, until the fall of Sevastopol and the seizure of the Crimea, it was from Tuapse that the help was given to the troops defending it). In addition, the fall of Tuapse would have meant an encirclement of troops who did not allow the fascists to finally seize Novorossiysk.

Another important (perhaps the main) reason was the agreement of fascist Germany with Turkey. If the Germans succeeded in capturing Tuapse and moving further on to Sochi and Sukhumi, the Turkish army would join the Hitler coalition and open the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits to the ships of Germany and its allies. And this would have been a completely different alignment ...

As you can see, the stakes in this bloody game were too high. This was well understood by the Soviet command. Therefore, the commanders of the USSR attached great importance to the defense of Tuapse. The headquarters of the Supreme Command gave the order to Marshal Budyonny, who commanded the North Caucasus Front: “In no case, under your personal responsibility, not to miss the enemy to Tuapse».

The 18 Army played a major role in the defense of the Black Sea city. In addition, 56-I army, 5-I air army participated in the battles. From Novorossiysk to the Tuapse region, the 32 th guards rifle division was transferred.

The forces were unequal. The fascists had a large numerical advantage. They had three times more guns, five times more aircraft. Mountain hunters specially prepared for such battles - the famous "Edelweiss" were involved.

Among those who opposed the invaders were the Kuban Cossacks. Miners from Donbass distinguished themselves in battles. Also in the battles participated sailors taken from ships. They fought so fiercely that among the Germans there was an order: “Miners and sailors should not be taken prisoner”.

In mid-August, the battles took place in the area of ​​the village of Khadyzhensky. There began the first failure of the Nazis in this direction. The plan of a lightning exit to the Black Sea failed. As a result, Hitler was so angry that he dismissed field marshal von List and von Bock and forced the resignation of the chief of the general staff of the ground forces, Colonel-General Halder.

The next attempt to capture Tuapse was Operation Attica, which began on September 25. For its implementation, the German command transferred mountain rangers from Elbrus region, as well as part of the troops from near Novorossiysk. Before the start of this operation, the enemy again subjected Tuapse to the most severe bombardment. The USSR did not have enough aircraft to repel these air attacks.

In early October, the Nazis captured the village of Shahumyan. By the middle of the month, a particularly dangerous situation had been created - on October 15, the enemy had broken through into the valley of the Pshish River, and the 23 numbers were on top of Mount Semasho.

... The mountains of Semashkho, Turkey, Two Brothers ... Picturesque landscapes, where everything seems to be created to live and enjoy beauty. But here every centimeter is watered with blood. Seven decades later, search teams find fragments of shells that have corroded weaponthe soldiers' flasks pierced by the bullets, the wreckage of the downed aircraft, and most importantly the remains of the dead fighters. From these mountains, if you look closely in good weather, you can see the port of Tuapse. Then, in October, 1942, the Hitlerites believed that the city was actually “in their pocket” - it was less than 30 kilometers away, and the advantage in manpower and technology gave them confidence.

It was then that Hitler already reported to his Turkish allies that Tuapse was practically captured. But they were in no hurry to enter the war - they wanted to wait for the full occupation of the city ... But the aggressive plans did not come true. Just in these mountains the enemy managed to stop and turn back.

During the month were bloody battles. The civilian population of Tuapse helped its defenders by passing food to the mountains, taking the wounded for treatment. (Actually, the city took the wounded earlier - those who arrived by ship to the port from the Crimea). It got to the point that there was not enough dressing materials, and women washed the used bandages.

If you walk through the city, you can see a lot of monuments to those who defended it. In the park, where the stele "City of Military Glory" stands, there are memorial signs in honor of the heroes, both fallen and survivors of the war. About each of them you can write a separate article.

Here is one of them - Stepan Vasilyevich Suvorov, the riding fourth battery of the 966 artillery regiment, originally from the Ivanovo region. He was jokingly called "Field Marshal" because of his last name, and his patronymic name as well. When a military operation failed in the area of ​​Neftegorsk and a handful of fighters turned up against hundreds of German mountain rangers, it was decided to retreat. Suvorov remained to cover the retreat and fired at the enemy with a machine gun until he was killed.

Another defender is Lieutenant Alexey Ivanovich Koshkin. During one of the battles that was unsuccessful, he ordered the soldiers to retreat. But he remained in the trench - to cover the retreat. When he ran out of ammunition, he blew himself up with a grenade, along with the Nazis, who hoped to capture him. He was posthumously awarded the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union.

... The weather was getting worse, there was not enough food. Fighting and even simply surviving became harder and harder. But the defenders of Tuapse succeed for success. 25 November, Soviet troops launched a counterattack. As historians later say, the Tuapse defensive operation ended and the Tuapse army offensive operation began.

Fights continued for almost a month. During this time, the Goyth and Semashkhovskaya groups of fascists were defeated. December 20 is officially considered the Day of Liberation of the Tuapse District. Although individual clashes in the mountains continued after that, they no longer posed a serious danger to Tuapse.

Hitler was forced to abandon further attempts to capture the city. Moreover, success in the mountains near Tuapse became the prologue to the liberation of the whole Kuban. If in August 1942 in this region, the invaders had success after success, then a serious rout under a small town became a very sensitive nose click. The enemy left there killed more than 25 thousands of their soldiers and officers.

In an amicable way, this city for its perseverance fully deserved the title of Hero City. But, apparently, the country's leadership decided that two Hero Cities located on the same coast of the Black Sea were too much ... In 1981, by a decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council, Tuapse was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War 1 degree. And in 2008, he became the City of Military Glory.

The entrance to the small museum of defense of Tuapse is not so easy to find - it is surrounded by shops and cafes. In the museum itself there are exhibits, mainly donated by search engines, enthusiasts who continue to find in the mountains wreckage of weapons, punched helmets and medallions of the fallen. There is also a small diorama, which depicts a group of anti-aircraft gunners. Being on the Pioneer Hill (now it is Gorka Geroev), they defended the city from the Nazi planes. This is not to say that this defense was effective - they tried to shoot down “Junkers” with outdated weapons. But still a few iron "vultures" who carried death to a peaceful city were shot down. Unfortunately, once a huge German bomb landed on Gorka, and the earthly path of this handful of defenders was interrupted ... Now the Eternal Flame is burning on the Hill of Heroes, and in memorials the citizens lay flowers at the memorial.

Photos used:
Elena Gromova
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  1. XII Legion
    XII Legion 20 December 2017 06: 59
    Battle city
    Open Air Museum of Military History
    The status of a hero city certainly deserves
    Thank you
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 20 December 2017 07: 44
    near the village of Khadyzhensky
    ... Now the city of Khadyzhensk, on the outskirts of the city, surrounded by fir trees, there is a monument that died the brave during the Great Patriotic War, as well as opposite the House of Culture of oil workers. When the Germans occupied Khadyzhensky, they tried to establish the work of the oil fields. Workers were brought from Germany itself in order to restore the work of oil wells. Soviet specialists were also attracted who did not have time to evacuate. N. Burlak became such a specialist, but she went on sabotage, the machines went out of order, the mobile station generator burned out . The enemy failed to restore the Khadyzhenskoye oil fields ....
    1. Okolotochny
      Okolotochny 20 December 2017 22: 39
      Strange, he lived in Khadyzh for three years, he was in the Palace of Culture several times, but I don’t remember the monument. Alexey, I don’t have a question for you, for yourself. hi
      1. elenagromova
        21 December 2017 02: 49
        It seems like, at the House of Culture of Petroleum, there is a bust of V. I. Lenin. And there is the “Oilman” stadium and not far from it - indeed, one of the mass graves.
        But they could have put a new monument at the House of Culture, I do not exclude.
        In general, I feel that it will be necessary for Khadyzhenskiy to do
        1. parusnik
          parusnik 21 December 2017 07: 54
          In the park, if memory serves, the monument stands .. And the second on the outskirts ...
          1. Okolotochny
            Okolotochny 21 December 2017 17: 12
            Alexey, I've never been to the park. In the early 2000s it was desolate. Now I do not know.
        2. Okolotochny
          Okolotochny 21 December 2017 17: 14
          Helen, hi From the House of Culture turn left. And about three hundred meters away. one-story building under the trees, there was a kindergarten. On it I remember a memorial plaque that in this house was the headquarters of the Taman Red Army. The movie "Iron Stream" remember? "Where is my company ?!" It turns out that the Taman army made its way to Tuapse through those places. And the places there are really beautiful.
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 21 December 2017 17: 58
            From our town, the Taman army began its glorious journey ... The monument stands and a map in the form of a bas-relief
  3. Okolotochny
    Okolotochny 20 December 2017 08: 01
    Lena, thanks. He served in those places in Khadyzhensk. The places are beautiful and soaked in blood. Ensign Beketov (if memory serves) every year, in the summer, on his vacation went with friends to the mountains and was engaged in search work. For their money.
    By the way, Khadyzhensk is also interesting in that during the Civil War, the Red forces passed through the city (the film "Iron Stream"). In the headquarters building, then by the way was a kindergarten. Now there is or not - I do not know.
  4. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 20 December 2017 08: 42
    The topic, of course, is necessary. The city is undoubtedly wonderful. The author is to study, study and study. What is the phrase worth
    [/ quote] Tuapse remained almost the only naval base in the Black Sea [quote]
    Elena, did you look at the map before writing this? Sukhumi, Ochamchira, Poti and Batumi then did not belong to the USSR, or what? Moreover, the fleet from Sevastopol was relocated to Poti. About the "obsolete weapons" of anti-aircraft gunners. On the canvas, the anti-aircraft gunners fire from the 40-K ship’s galley mount of the 45 mm caliber, the gun is rather weak in its characteristics, but it cannot be called obsolete (1936 development of the year). To study, study and study, as the classic said at the 3 congress of the RKSM (1920 g)
    1. elenagromova
      20 December 2017 15: 19
      Well, what to say? These Georgian ports had their own difficulties. Sukhumi was also under the threat of capture by the fascists, who came from mountain passes. The fascists in general had their own plans for Georgia. They did not even bomb her too much to try to exploit the contradictions between Georgians and Russians.
      Offer those who fought in the area of ​​Novorossiysk, to supply, bypassing Tuapse, from Sukhumi and Poti?
      In addition, the Nazis would not stop at Tuapse. Would go further along the coast.
      It does not matter what year the development of an anti-aircraft gun, if it did not cope well with the German aircraft of the time. The domination of fascist aviation in the sky was, alas, a reality.
      In general, Hitler, who attached great importance to the seizure of Tuapse, and the Soviet leadership, who also realized the importance of defending the city, did not understand anything. Why, like, defend Tuapse, if there is Poti? Oh well...
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 20 December 2017 19: 29
        [/ quote] Why, like, defend Tuapse, if there is Poti?
        No need to juggle, this is not my phrase, but yours. I drew your attention to the raw text. Judging by the fact that you do not consider Poti to be a Soviet port (where, by the way, the battleship “Paris Commune” was located - it was renamed “Sevastopol” from the 1943 of the year) and other main ships of the Black Sea Fleet (the cruiser “Voroshilov”, etc.), your education took place in post-perestroika times, when the USSR was already destroyed, and the textbooks were Sorovskys.
        Farther. Phrase
        The Nazis generally had their own plans for Georgia. They didn’t even bomb it too much to try to use the contradictions between Georgians and Russians. [Quote]
        says the same thing, you have formed recently. What contradictions could there have been under Stalin, who, in the event of the slightest occurrence in the field of nationalism, sent a party and economic asset to explore Siberia?
        Regarding air defense - its effectiveness is largely determined by the density of the fragmentation field in the region of the air target, that is, the number of guns and the training of anti-aircraft guns. Unfortunately, due to Tukhachevsky’s experiments with the “universal cannon”, by the beginning of the war, we were unable to establish small-caliber anti-aircraft guns (61K) on the right scale. You can read about it in the memoirs of Vasily Grabin, "The Work of All Life." Accept criticism and do not be offended. An article is the same work as a drawing. Here, for example, you undertook to draw a person dear to you, but if you have not studied drawing, then you yourself will know what. The same thing happened with the article. Successes.
        1. elenagromova
          20 December 2017 21: 01
          Well, if an anatomist looks at almost any portrait, he will definitely notice something wrong from his point of view.
          I am glad that you are so well versed in the "hardware" - I myself focus more on the human aspects, and not on the iron ones.
          But you below admit that the quality of a monument may not be exactly the technique that actually participated in the battles. Indeed, people thought about something else, not about exact correspondence. Can you assume that the artist also depicted an instrument in the diorama? Just the fact is that the anti-aircraft gunners could not stand up to the planes very well due to the fact that they did not have the newest, effective weapons. But they are heroes, because they resisted even with such weapons. That's what I'm talking about ...
          As for Georgia .. You didn’t discover America, pointing out that the Georgian SSR was part of the USSR. But, first, Hitler really counted on interethnic contradictions, therefore he believed that if Tuapse and Sochi were captured, then he would not have any particular problems. Secondly, it happens that there are many ports, and there are only one suitable ports that can be used for specific tasks ...
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 20 December 2017 21: 52
            Regarding interethnic relations under Stalin. Hitler, actually, he wanted a lot of things, but it didn’t work out. You see, even now, after the Georgian-Ossetian conflict, both Georgians and Ossetians respect Stalin very much and each of these people considers him to be his own. That is, Hitler could certainly hope for Georgian separatism, only in those years it was an attempt with unsuitable means (there is such a legal term). And the territory of the Georgian SSR was not bombed by the Luftwaffe solely because there were more urgent tasks, the same Novorossiysk with Tuapse, for example. In general, the Germans were distinguished by the ability to concentrate the striking forces of their Air Force in the most important areas due to secondary ones. About the image on the diorama. By the appearance of the canvas, we can conclude that it was created in the 50-60 of the year, when there were still many direct participants in the battles, and the youngest of them was about 30-40. It is unlikely that they would not have indicated the wrong image of the gun. So, most likely, the anti-aircraft defense there consisted of four Maxim machine guns and such 45-mm 40K guns, and the fact that it was on a pedestal installation indicates that it was most likely removed from a damaged ship, probably , such as "Sea Hunter". The documentary of the canvas is impressive.
            1. elenagromova
              20 December 2017 22: 52
              Well, consider that you have at least some benefit from my material - namely, to look at this canvas. Photo, of course, not very - try, take off the "soap box" in low light ... But still.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 21 December 2017 08: 20
                I hope for mutual benefit from our communication - the artist also needs to know the anatomy of the object that he depicts. Try to write "Lady with an Ermine," as Leonardo da Vinci did without knowledge of anatomy.
      2. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 20 December 2017 19: 52
        Again. The text could be corrected if you wrote about Tuapse "Tuapse was an important Navy in the Black Sea. " And the article would immediately get better.
        1. elenagromova
          20 December 2017 21: 41
          You can say - the most important. After the fall of Sevastopol and the battles for Novorossiysk ...
          I can not fix after publication. In principle, it would be possible to correct, but not the word "important", namely the word "most important"
    2. Proxima
      Proxima 20 December 2017 22: 47
      Quote: Aviator_
      Elena, did you look at the map before writing this? )

      And you, man, before you blame a woman, take a look at the map yourself! If Tuapse were captured, a 160-kilometer stretch of the Black Sea coast from Novorossiysk to Tuapse would be captured! The Caucasian ridge, combined with the adjacent coast, make crazy logistics! It's all about the passes. In Novorossiysk, the pass (Grushevka) was blocked by the Germans, similarly, the pass in the Dzhugba area. There was a pass in the Tuapse area, for which there was a fight. Should Tuapse fall, the entire Black Sea Fleet could safely be scrapped! And the remaining ports you brought (Sukhumi, Ochamchira, Poti and Batumi) would not have done the weather. Battleships and cruisers can not fight in the collective farm reservoir. recourse request
  5. soldier
    soldier 20 December 2017 12: 20
    Beautiful city and port
    Super article
  6. BAI
    BAI 20 December 2017 13: 22
    The USSR did not have enough aircraft to repel these air attacks.

    Probably all the same with the 5th Air Army.
    But he personally saw this gun, for some reason it is not in the article.

    On business matters, I had to wander around the neighborhood there - not like fighting, walking hard.
    1. elenagromova
      20 December 2017 15: 20
      Well ... All the monuments can not be photographed ...
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 20 December 2017 19: 42
      On the 85-mm pedestal, the 52K anti-aircraft gun of the 1939 model of the year, is not the fact that it was precisely this that participated in protecting the sky over Tuapse. On the pedestals in 60-70, they usually put what was at hand, for example, from tanks usually stand T-34-85. A pleasant exception is the monuments made immediately after the war or even during it. So in Sevastopol, above the bus station is the T-34 with an 76 mm gun, the same is in Simferopol, and in Bakhchisarai behind the Khan Palace, the military rarity of the T-70 is generally. In Chernivtsi, too, the T-34 with the 76 mm gun was. These are all exceptions, in Orenburg, for example, in the 1969 year, in honor of the 50 anniversary of the defense against Dutov on the Boulevard, instead of a three-inch 1902 year, the A-19 gun of the 1931 model of the year was installed, which is historically wrong. Well then, the right tool was not found, and the anniversary date was approaching.
  7. NF68
    NF68 20 December 2017 17: 41
    + + + + + + + + + +
  8. dsu05
    dsu05 20 December 2017 19: 08
    For me, Tuapse is the closest place to Orlyonok, where you can get by train.
    The bus transfer point, so that in an hour you can drive through the mountains from the station to Orlyonok
    (and back in a month - already "with tears in his eyes", although it was 42 years ago-
    in Aug-Sep 1975, I remember well).
    But for some reason they didn’t talk about the defense of Tuapse even in the Soviet years
    (and they didn’t take them to the museum, although they walked past and around and waited for hours on the bus).
    1. elenagromova
      20 December 2017 21: 39
      The museum of defense of Tuapse was opened only in 1999 year, on the initiative of one very punching local historian Eduard Pyatigorsky. Prior to this, of course, the exposition devoted to the war was, but not in a separate museum, but in the Local Lore.
      In his opinion and in the opinion of some other experts, the battle for Tuapse is one of those battles, the significance of which has not been adequately appreciated.
  9. Evgenijus
    Evgenijus 20 December 2017 20: 49
    A good description of the struggle for the city, but it is a pity that it is not in the military-academic style. After reading the materials on the VO about Stalingrad, this article is no longer so interesting (for a purely staff worker). But for "general education" it is normal, it is possible to apply for schoolchildren in the patriotic education of them.
    1. elenagromova
      20 December 2017 21: 35
      That is why articles in a different style are needed, so that, say, an article in a military-academic style is far from being read by everyone without proper training. In the same Stalingrad battle, someone will write about who fought from which flanks, someone will pay attention to the feat of one particular fighter, someone to the general moral situation, someone will focus on one episode ... And so right. There is always a reason to remember this or that battle, and each author will see it differently.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 20 December 2017 22: 00
      Here I am about the presentation style of the material.
  10. forester
    forester 20 December 2017 21: 42
    Thanks for the article Elena !!! Interesting and informative!
  11. Captain Nemo
    Captain Nemo 20 December 2017 22: 56
    Thank. Suddenly . I am ashamed that these facts were a discovery for me
    1. elenagromova
      21 December 2017 00: 16
      There is nothing to be ashamed of. There are too many episodes of this war, too many cities in our country. Probably, even historians do not know about all the episodes. We learn all our life, learn something new every day, and that's good.
  12. nnz226
    nnz226 21 March 2018 14: 25
    On the approaches to Tuapse, 100 000 of Soviet fighters and commanders died. And how much did the Wehrmacht “soldiers” put? This is a question: did the Germans fill up with corpses, or did they know how to fight ??? And the number of Germans fertilizing Tuapse land is not less than our losses? Or less?