Military Review

And once again elusive

34



Today, the largest aircraft have a maximum take-off weight of about 600 tons. These are An-225 Mriya and A-380. The screen effect increases the lifting force of the wing by two to four times. By naval classifications - almost a frigate, far from an aircraft carrier.

When using integral forms of a ground-wing glider ekranoplan, for example, a direct single wing offered by Vladimir Yatskov (“Farewell Montana cargo ship returns”), it is possible to create in the medium term an acceptable design with a maximum take-off weight of up to three thousand tons, which is very decent. Cruising speeds that provide maximum screen effect will vary from 300 – 350 to 500 – 550 kilometers per hour (300 knots).

Based on this, we estimate the range of action and the autonomy of the combat wig. An-225 takes when flying to the maximum distance 230 tons of fuel - 38 for each engine. Approximately the same figures for An-124 and other large aircraft. Take as a basis for calculations. It is important to note that in the on-screen mode, the E-plan, other things being equal, can cover a greater distance on 25 – 30 percent than an aircraft at medium altitudes. This means that at cruising speed when loading fuel 40 tons per engine, the range of our “frigate” will be 17000 – 19000 kilometers. But the amount of fuel can be brought up to 1200 tons (vs. 800 calculated). And then we get 26000 – 30000 kilometers. For an ordinary ship of a similar displacement, the range is unreal.

On the main limiter - the fuel, we calculate the autonomy of the wig: from three to four days. This is comparable to the duration of the first operations in modern warfare.

Minus the estimated weight of the structure (including the booking), we get the permissible weight weapons for this type of ships - from 300 to 600 tons. It is enough to accommodate a powerful arsenal.

Management at AUG

Important details that determine the importance and necessity of ekranoplans for the Navy: movement at low altitude and high take-off weight. The first factor makes them a bad target for air-to-air and ground-to-air missiles. Equipping the upper surface with composite armor capable of withstanding warhead fragments gives the ekranoplans almost one hundred percent invulnerability. Shooting RCC on them is ineffective due to the high speed movement.

The main threat to the ship - fighters and attack aircraft with guns and NURSami. However, there is the problem of detection and targeting. When the radar of the aircraft in the mode of selection of moving targets (MTS) on the course angles close to the traverse, "blind zones" occur: the stations will not allocate an ekranoplan as a moving target. The vessel can only be detected from the bow and stern of course angles. This is an extremely tough nut for air defense, which largely determines the real scope of such equipment in our fleet.

First of all - the fight against aircraft carrier formations and groups with powerful protection. The high speed of E-plans eliminates the departure of enemy surface forces from the blow. Significant dimensions will allow for the placement of anti-ship armament ammunition on board, sufficient to use four or five flying ships to crush even an aircraft carrier group (or at least inflict such a defeat, which will deprive its ability to resist, leaving other forces of a heterogeneous attack to be torn apart).

When equipped with hypersonic Zircon anti-ship missiles, even a single ecruplan can do it. Its air defense system for countering fighters in combination with constructive protection will provide high combat stability even in the near defense zone of an enemy naval compound with actual invulnerability in the long-range and medium, from which the anti-ship missiles will be used. For additional exploration and target designation, such ekranoplans can carry small-sized, including disposable UAVs.

The likely appearance of the E-plan is as follows: displacement - 2500 – 3000 tons, cruising speed - up to 350 kilometers per hour with a range of 5000 – 6000 miles (range - 2200 – 2800 miles). The main armament: 16 – 24 RCC (“Onyx”, “Caliber” or “Zircon”), an air defense missile system - modification of medium range for firing at air targets with 16 – 24 ammunition unit (for destroying enemy fighters to the missile launch), one two 30-mm AU, four - eight small UAV intelligence. The emergence of such E-plans will make it possible in the medium term to solve the problem of combating aircraft carrier and other surface groups of the enemy. Such vessels will require eight to ten in each of Russia's oceanic fleets.

On closed MTVD, E-plans can be used for the destruction of small ship groups, mainly in areas with powerful air defense and anti-hacking defense. To do this, it is enough to have ships with a displacement of 100 – 150 tons, a speed of 250 – 300 kilometers per hour with a range of 500 miles with four to eight short range anti-ship missiles and one to two AU MPA caliber 30 millimeters for close combat with fighters. For the Baltic and Black Sea fleets, four to six such E-plans are enough.

Visitors from the future

Another important task, in the solution of which WIGs can be very effective, is the fight against submarines, especially submarines armed with ballistic missiles.

For greater autonomy, anti-submarine airship for action in remote areas should have a displacement of up to three thousand tons. The search-aiming complex can be created on the model of an aircraft: a system based on the RGAB and a magnetometer, as well as equipment for detecting the wake. Means characteristic of displacement ships and submarines are unacceptable for this type of vessel. The arsenal is also aircraft: 8 – 12 small anti-submarine torpedoes. Autonomy should be comparable to the duration of the anti-submarine operation - a few days. Since it is necessary to operate in the air defense zone, the e-plan needs an air defense system with a range of 120 – 160 kilometers at air targets and one or two AUs MPA 30 caliber millimeters. To collect information from the RGAB, taking into account the low altitude, it is advisable to have two to four reusable small-sized UAV repeaters.

If we accept that the search capabilities of submersibles with ekranoplan are equivalent to aircraft, the probability of destruction during the operation of a SSBN of the USA in the areas of their combat mission by forces of six to eight such ships can reach 0,5 – 0,6. This is an exceptionally high figure when compared with today's 0,02 – 0,05. As part of our ocean fleets should be on 10 – 12 such ships.

Flying ships can play an important role in landing. Their speed qualities make it possible to overcome the enemy’s fire resistance zone in a time that almost eliminates effective resistance. This is important for the first, most mass wave of the landing, an exciting bridgehead with a powerful, layered PDO.

The size of such an E-plan should be maximum - about three thousand tons. Since the condition for the success of the landing operation is the conquest of supremacy in the air and on the sea in the landing area, such means of self-defense as in shock and anti-submarine counterparts are not necessary in this case. It is enough one or two AU MPA to repel attacks single EHV. However, the need to suppress PDO. Here various MLRS are best suited. This may be a "Hurricane" or the latest modifications of "Grad". Given the likely volume of fire missions on board such a landing craft, it is advisable to have 12 – 16 guides for MLRS caliber 220 millimeters or 40 – 60 120-mm with double ammunition. With such equipment, an ekranoplane with a displacement of three thousand tons can accommodate a company of marines with standard armament and equipment. Hence the need for 12 ships in each fleet (both ocean and sea).

Destruction of enemy ground targets could be carried out by strike E-plans designed to combat surface ships. When equipped with Caliber missiles in the variant for firing at ground targets, one such vessel will be able to destroy up to three relatively large targets and 7–9 point targets per exit. Having the ability to restore combat efficiency after firing in terms comparable to the time required for a second flight aviationE-plans will be able to solve an operatively significant volume of fire missions in a relatively short time.

These are the main and most important tasks solved by ekranoplanes with high efficiency. However, such powerful ships are not always advisable to attract, for example, for patrols. Tasks that do not require significant combat potential may be assigned to vessels of lighter classes (within 200 – 400 tons), which will be designed as a dual-purpose technique.

WIG has a good future. Our country still retains primacy in this area and it must be urgently substantiated, until the idea was intercepted by others, as it was already more than once in post-Soviet Russia.

Atom on departure

Is it possible to equip WIG nuclear power plants? Attempts to create atoms were made at the end of 50-x - the beginning of 60-s. Neither in the USSR nor in the USA did anything work out. We have tried to put nuclear engines on the Tu-119 (Tu-95) and M-60. There was an atomic An-22 experience. The main problem that remained unresolved, both in our country and in the Americans, is the strong radiation of a reactor operating in a more intense regime than on ships and submarines. It was supposed to accommodate a crew of two pilots in isolated compartments with biological protection weighing more than 30 tons. At the same time, after the flight, the board could be incredibly strong fonit, and work on it was allowed only after several weeks after landing. Even for the simplest regulations, the entire engine compartment was required to be undocked, not to mention the need for special aerodrome support and related equipment. Technologies that allow the operation of a ground-effect vehicle with a nuclear installation on board (and a sufficiently large crew) have not yet been created.
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https://vpk-news.ru/articles/40369
34 comments
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  1. dog breeder
    dog breeder 16 December 2017 15: 28
    +6
    Dreams, dreams ... If in due time they brought everything to mind. Or in the current budget of the country was laid down in the article of military spending! Billions are being exported over the hill, which would greatly help the country in spending not only on this idea. It’s time for the GDP to take measures so that the “EARNED” remains in Russia.
    1. ProkletyiPirat
      ProkletyiPirat 16 December 2017 15: 41
      +4
      Ecoplanes are not applicable, not applicable at all, the reason is very simple, they need high speed, great scope and a flat surface, where did you see a flat surface at sea? any wave, even without touching the ekranoplan, influences it through the influence on the "air cushion" or "air screen". This conceptual limitation prevents the ekranoplans from flying up. If you come up with a way to compensate for longitudinal and transverse changes in the air screen, then it will be possible to talk about their possible use in reality, and not the heads of science fiction ..
      1. Kir
        Kir 16 December 2017 16: 12
        10
        I advise you to carefully read the WIGs on seaworthiness, to some extent they have the same dependence on it as WUAs, plus they can go at altitudes of 30-50 meters, so ... By the way, people are clearly more competent than you They planned to build them in a rescue version, operating up to 6 meter wave height.
        1. tchoni
          tchoni 16 December 2017 17: 09
          +3
          And in the Atlantic, where AUGs love to frolic, 10-12 meter waves are not uncommon ...
        2. ProkletyiPirat
          ProkletyiPirat 16 December 2017 21: 53
          +2
          Quote: Kir
          I advise you to carefully read on the seagoing WIG

          Thank you, I read it, and I advise you to re-read it, only by turning on your head and trying to throw out the informational shit that you are trying to dust your brains with.
          Quote: Kir
          People Explicitly More Literate Than You Planned

          People are MUCH more literate and rockets are building you and me, but that doesn’t stop them from falling ... hi
          Quote: Kir
          They planned to build them in a rescue version, operating up to 6 meter wave height.

          This "fairy tale" you tell the woman from the neighboring entrance! For reference and to explain the first part of my post, I explain that the ekranoplanes are not able to work when the sea waves several meters, but they can take off and fly with such waves, but ONLY transverse to the waves, as soon as you start to unfold or simply move along the waves, the air screen will collapse and you bite your nose in the water at a speed of movement: ~ 500km / h after which little is left of you! hi
          "together, we wave a pen from the whole world to all fans of ekranoplanes and scream" we are waiting for you to visit! "we have beer and girls! and even a sofa!".
        3. DanSabaka
          DanSabaka 17 December 2017 07: 06
          +1
          planned to build them in a rescue version

          planned, planned, but not planned .....

          Of all the tasks and goals described in the article, I did not notice a single unsafe aircraft ...
          3-5 days of autonomous swimming (patrolling)? haha taking into account the higher speed of aircraft, this is no longer essential ....
          And let's not forget about the gigantic cost of ekranoplanes, especially considering the cost of R&D and the creation of the necessary infrastructure ....
          1. Kir
            Kir 22 December 2017 21: 41
            0
            This is not a single one, but somehow, in terms of what is now being thought and most likely there will be no future seaplanes with such a carrying capacity, plus the flight altitude makes them a problem target.
            It is necessary to look at R&D, since it is not a fact that Alekseev and (or) Bartini have no backlogs; the same is true about infrastructure.
  2. tchoni
    tchoni 16 December 2017 15: 36
    10
    Urgently, orderlies, doctors, sedative! The author is clearly raving!
    1. avt
      avt 16 December 2017 17: 05
      +4
      Quote: tchoni
      Urgently, orderlies, doctors, sedative! The author is clearly raving!

      Etozh Kostya Sivkov! In general, he fell into .... the coefficients, so it does not come out of them. But the publication counter is ticking to a pro-scholar at the geopolitical academy of all sciences.
  3. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 16 December 2017 15: 43
    0
    Wow! This is Kostya shy of prospects and dreams. To deploy an armada of ekranoleta there are not many left. Find production facilities. Find engineers, craftsmen, workers are not thieves and idlers. There is enough money for more. There is nobody to do it. Sabotage and theft.
  4. Kir
    Kir 16 December 2017 16: 07
    +3
    I apologize, But the writer is very illiterate, since the knot is 1 Nautical mile, where the speed is already over 560, or then it was necessary to write in the same statutory, or land differently.
    1. opus
      opus 17 December 2017 18: 04
      +1
      Written by a well-known military and political analyst, Doctor of Military Sciences, specialist in military political science, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Missile and Artillery Sciences, Captain First Rank, First Vice President of the Academy of Geopolitical Problems.
      wassat
      Like this. Takmo and live.
      1. Kir
        Kir 22 December 2017 21: 47
        0
        To be honest, it’s strange that a graduate of the Navy was so mistaken, though which of the faculties.
        I know who Sivkov is, only by his analysis.
  5. Rostislav
    Rostislav 16 December 2017 16: 13
    +5
    I don’t know how with practical implementation, but I read with enthusiasm.
    In one I agree with the author - ekranoplanes can solve many issues, especially when developing vast northern territories.
    1. t7310
      t7310 16 December 2017 16: 38
      +1
      airships as well as ekranoplanes are also a promising direction
      1. ProkletyiPirat
        ProkletyiPirat 16 December 2017 21: 57
        +3
        do not compare the ass with your finger, and do not insult the airships with such a comparison ...
  6. Old26
    Old26 16 December 2017 17: 34
    +4
    Quote: Kir
    I advise you to carefully read the WIGs on seaworthiness, to some extent they have the same dependence on it as WUAs, plus they can go at altitudes of 30-50 meters, so ... By the way, people are clearly more competent than you They planned to build them in a rescue version, operating up to 6 meter wave height.

    About any 50-meter altitude is out of the question. The EMNIP effect of the screen acts at a height equal to 1/4 of the wing chord. You then have the "Width" of the wing should be 200 meters. You have confused the ekranoplan with ekranolet. he really can briefly rise to heights of 200-300 meters

    Well, the phrase Sivkova
    When equipped with hypersonic anti-ship missiles “Zircon”, even a single-wing extrapoplan will be able to give US AUGs.

    generally killed. Wing of 3000 tons (minimum), huge in size - will hit the AUG? The author probably forgot that the aircraft carriers, among other things, also have AWACS aircraft, which usually barrage at a distance of 400 km and from a height of 8-9 km have a detection range of 600 km with a radar. That is, this ekranoplan will be discovered at a distance of 1000 km, which it will overcome in 1,5 hours. What, during this time, counteraction to this single-winged winged aircraft is impossible to carry out ???
    The lifeguard may sit at a wave height of 6 meters, but will it take off? In addition, the experience of rescue operations suggests that. that it’s unlikely that the rescued can be on the surface a compact group. And how the ekranoplan will collect them in the storming sea?
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 16 December 2017 23: 05
      +1
      Quote: Old26
      from a height of 8–9 km they have a radar detection range of 600 km.

      Over-the-Air Radars? Do such people put on-board aircraft AWACS?

      Quote: Old26
      barrage at a distance of 400 km

      And how many of them should be in the air at the same time in order to block the AUG from all angles, if they are at such a distance?
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 17 December 2017 05: 14
        0
        Quote: Spade

        And how many of them should be in the air at the same time in order to block the AUG from all angles, if they are at such a distance?

        so from all? mid-Atlantic or what? A Flock of Gigantic ESs Perform a Thousand Miles Bypass am
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 17 December 2017 10: 14
          0
          It is all. Enemy aircraft can appear from any angle.
    2. Prosha
      Prosha 18 December 2017 20: 00
      0
      And in general, why reinvent the wheel, there are already means to combat AUG - submarines with Caliber are pretty cheap and cheerful)
  7. m.cempbell
    m.cempbell 16 December 2017 17: 58
    +4
    Tale of course, but this idea is interesting. I think that the construction of such monsters, as described in the article, is impossible for the reason that it will not work to disperse a 3000-ton ship to the speed of exit to the screen even on smooth water. “Lun” used 8 turbojet engines to disperse, and such hippos will need 8 turbojet engines. I do not presume to judge, but the idea is interesting, although at the current stage of development its applicability is not clear ...
  8. Vicon
    Vicon 16 December 2017 19: 28
    +1
    To create such systems, one needs the country's combined economy, not separate "successful" enterprises, but whole associations of factories, institutes of design bureaus, etc. In an incomprehensible socio-economic system, such projects will not be viable or very expensive.
  9. Dimka75
    Dimka75 16 December 2017 21: 30
    0
    Aerodrome? The airport? Sea port? Where will this miracle be parked, serviced? Or will it be stored in a dirigible on a rope in limbo?
  10. Cherry Nine
    Cherry Nine 16 December 2017 22: 37
    +7
    Say NO to drugs.
  11. Old26
    Old26 16 December 2017 23: 43
    +2
    Quote: Spade
    Over-the-Air Radars? Do such people put on-board aircraft AWACS?

    And you look, what will be the radio horizon at a flight altitude of 9 km?

    Quote: Spade
    And how many of them should be in the air at the same time in order to block the AUG from all angles, if they are at such a distance?

    If the memory does not change simultaneously in the air 2 "Hokaya". Go "eights", which increases the field of view

    Quote: m.cempbell
    Tale of course, but this idea is interesting. I think that the construction of such monsters, as described in the article, is impossible for the reason that it will not work to disperse a 3000-ton ship to the speed of exit to the screen even on smooth water. “Lun” used 8 turbojet engines to disperse, and such hippos will need 8 turbojet engines. I do not presume to judge, but the idea is interesting, although at the current stage of development its applicability is not clear ...

    In a previous article, Sivkov has calculations of the number of engines. For the ekranoplan in 1900-3000 tons, the number of engines should be about 30 according to his calculations.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 17 December 2017 10: 50
      +2
      Quote: Old26
      And you look, what will be the radio horizon at a flight altitude of 9 km?

      The standard formula D = 4,12 √h1 + √h2 gives 398 km. With a target height of 50 meters
      Quote: Old26
      If the memory does not change simultaneously in the air 2 "Hokaya". Go "eights", which increases the field of view

      Zarubezhnoye claims that on duty it is one Hokka troika and two Hornets. Which during patrol is removed from the center of the order by no more than 100 km.
      It turns out that the ekranoplan can get to the AUG for a range of 500 km for three minutes of flight for the Zircons, which are discussed in the article.
  12. lazy
    lazy 17 December 2017 05: 41
    0
    The problem of airships is that having large sizes and flying low enough they are very sensitive to weather conditions, the same to ekranoplans, to what sea disturbance can they move? because at "10000m above the ground" they can’t climb
  13. Filxnumx
    Filxnumx 17 December 2017 11: 32
    +1
    that is, for the USA AUG, the wave of 10-12 meters is definitely nothing? It’s like a little excitement, allowing the air group to act
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 17 December 2017 12: 58
      +4
      The air group will not operate. However, AUG will be able to move.
      In general, the problem is sucked from the finger. Recall the famous "Eaglet". He was not an ekranoplan, but an ekranoslet. With a practical ceiling of 3000 meters. Too much excitement will only reduce its fuel efficiency, since it will not be able to use the screen effect.
      That is, in reality, excitement can only hinder at the take-off / landing stage.
  14. Old26
    Old26 17 December 2017 16: 57
    +3
    Quote: Spade
    It is all. Enemy aircraft can appear from any angle.

    Well, enemy planes cannot appear from all directions. Imagine that AUG is located at a distance, well, for example 1000-1500 km. Which plane will approach AUG from any direction? The same TU-22M3 with one missile has a combat radius of 2 kilometers. From what angle can he approach the AUG if it is in the open ocean (sea)? Not at all. Therefore, I think that in any case, both AWACS aircraft will scan the space around the AUG, although the likelihood that the AUG will be otakovyvat "behind" is extremely small.

    Quote: Spade
    The standard formula D = 4,12 √h1 + √h2 gives 398 km. With a target height of 50 meters

    You're right. I was mistaken in naming a range of 600 km in relation to the ekranoplan. This is the detection range of a bomber going at an altitude of about 1 km (assuming that it is the Hokai E-2C). Although in terms of the ekranoplan's detection range, it will be approximately 420 km.

    Quote: Spade
    Zarubezhnoye claims that on duty it is one Hokka troika and two Hornets. Which during patrol is removed from the center of the order by no more than 100 km. It turns out that the ekranoplan can get to the AUG for a range of 500 km for three minutes of flight for the Zircons, which are discussed in the article.

    You know, comrade, despite the fact that ZVO is a good magazine - I’ve been reading it since 1973, but it doesn’t always happen like they say in magazines .. Yes, there was a time when the same E-2C was in standby mode at a distance 100-120 km at an altitude of 4,5-7,5 km with two interceptors. Previously it was F-14, now F-18 ..

    But at the same time, depending on the type of radar and the detection range, they were different. And the barrage zone is also different.
    In particular, the E-2A / B Hokai AWACS aircraft with the AN / APS-96 radar patrolled at a distance of 320 km from the aircraft carrier.
    E-2C, depending on the type of radar, patrolled at a distance of 370 to 450 km (at 6 hours of patrol flight)
    The latest model - the E-2D aircraft already has a refueling system in the air, it can barrage for already 12 hours. The detection range of the same bomber aircraft is about 700-750 km. Taking into account that the flight altitude is no longer 9 km, but 11,3 km, the radio horizon for the ekranoplan flying at an altitude of 50 meters will be approximately 470 km. Plus the patrol area is increased. So it’s quite real that the ekranoplan’s detection range is 1000 km, or even more.
    Well, “Zircon” to a maximum range of 400 km (I think this figure is the most real) yes, it will fly 3 minutes, but its scissor will be spotted an hour before it enters the launch distance
    1. shahor
      shahor 17 December 2017 18: 05
      0
      And here is the gravitsap! Not detected AWACS!
      If you install Zircon, then ....
  15. cannabis
    cannabis 17 December 2017 23: 57
    0
    For Russia, the fleet (acre underwater) is an expensive toy. What is the Fleet historically famous for? Marine Corps and Ushakov's victories. In other times, he either locked himself in the Marquise puddle, drowned in the Black Sea ports, made his way in the oceans or interned in Algeria. Yeah, let's get some more monsters! But if the author spoke out to mislead the enemy, then he certainly is a plus! "Dad! What is the correct name -" Statosrat "or Sratostat"? - right son will be "Dirozopl!"
  16. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 18 December 2017 18: 54
    0
    All speculative warfare at sea and on land inevitably stumble upon the fact that at some stage the parties begin to use nuclear weapons one by one (if the parties to the conflict are in different configurations - Russia, China and the USA). From this moment on - that aircraft carriers, that which are military ekranoplanes, that the BDK, that the ships of the littoral zone - become targets, and that if they are lucky, because their importance as targets in the exchange of blows disappears.