Military Review

Forgotten tune for "Lyra"

51



Ship-borne nuclear power plants with nuclear liquid coolant have a number of undeniable advantages. When creating submarines equipped with them, the designers proceeded from the fact that the liquid metal circulating in the primary circuit of the NPP with a high heat transfer coefficient provides the working “turbine” steam with parameters higher than those in the NPP with the classic water-cooled reactors (WWR).

The pioneers of refilling submarines with liquid metal were Americans. True, they had only one such boat built - SSN-575 Seawolf and the reactor on it was also installed one - type S2G. It was cooled with liquid sodium. The Seawolf, which entered the Naval Forces in 1957, was considered as an experimental alternative to the first US (and in the world) atomic SSN-571 Nautilus, which had a water-cooled reactor S2W. The Pentagon wanted to decide for the near future, which nuclear power unit for submarines is preferable.

Liquid metal perspectives seduced. When the pressure of the coolant in the primary circuit is 20 times lower than in a nuclear power plant with a BBP, the working steam temperature after the steam generator in the liquid metal NPU is higher in 1,8 – 1,9. However, the NPP itself from the Americans turned out to be quite complicated. In the second circuit between the tubes of the steam generator circulated an intermediate heat carrier - an alloy of sodium and potassium, heating the feed water, which evaporated in the steam generator. Sodium fiasco. An intense corrosion of the structural metal was observed against the background of growth in the last stresses, which were caused by a significant temperature drop in the reactor installation (250 degrees). And that is not all. In the event of an accident with rupture of the steam generator tubes, sodium and potassium would react violently with water, which would inevitably lead to a thermal explosion.

Despite the obvious thermophysical advantages of the S2G reactor, the American sailors were generally dissatisfied with them - the Seawolf nuclear power plant was less reliable than that of the Nautilus. In addition, large efforts have brought the need to constantly maintain the high temperature of the liquid metal while the boat is in the base, so that it does not freeze and “give the goat”, disabling the submarine

Therefore, the Americans exploited Seawolf c S2G not for long. Already in 1958, the boat has undergone a major renovation. The liquid-metal reactor installation was out of harm's place replaced by a more familiar and reliable one with the WWR S2WA - the type of reactor installed at Nautilus. With him, she served for many years.

Record holder

In our country, the task of using liquid-metal NPUs on nuclear submarines began to be addressed almost simultaneously with the United States. This was envisaged by the resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers adopted in 1955. Work on the 645 project began shortly after the first Soviet nuclear submarine K-3 of the 627 "Kit" project (with VVR) was laid in Severodvinsk. The K-27 project was laid out there in the 645 project in the summer of 1958, when K-3 passed sea trials in the White Sea. Five years later, K-27 was accepted into the USSR Navy. The chief designers of the 645 project were Vladimir Peregudov and, from 1956, Alexander Nazarov (SKB-143, now Malakhit SPMBM).

In itself, the K-27 was an "energy" modification of the first Soviet nuclear submarines of the 627 and 627 projects. Externally from them and did not differ. The main innovation of the 645 project was that instead of the WWR VM-A, the “Whales” in fact experimental K-27 installed two BT-1 reactors with a liquid-metal coolant, which was used to combine lead and bismuth. The nuclear steam generating plant (NPPU) with BT-1 was developed by the design team of KB-10 (the future of OKB Gidropress) under the supervision of Academician Alexander Leipunsky. Produced YPPU at the Podolsk machine-building plant.

Officially assigned to the experienced ships, the K-27 was a full-fledged combat atomar. In April, 1964 went from the Kola Peninsula to the Atlantic march to the equator all the way underwater, which was the first time for our sub-melt. For 1240 hours, K-27 has left 12 400 miles astern. Record! The commander of K-27, captain of the 1 rank, Ivan Gulyaev, was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union for his success in mastering new technology.

Like the Americans, the Soviet sailors immediately faced with the difficulties of operation. This is the need for constant (that is, both at the berth and at the dock) to maintain the temperature of the primary circuit over 125 degrees, and its contamination with radioactive polonium-210 (the product of neutron bombardment of bismuth), and the need for special equipment to prepare fresh alloy lead-bismuth and the reception from the boat of such a spent "cocktail", and the glowing. In addition, K-27 was very noisy and therefore more visible than the atomarins of a potential enemy. This grieved the admirals the most.

In May, X-NUMX of the year K-1968, which had just undergone a scheduled repair, went to work out coursework tasks for combat training, and at the same time to test the operation of the power plant. Alas, the “childhood diseases” of the project made themselves felt, and that campaign for K-27 was not the “last resort”, but the last one. As soon as the boat reached full speed, the fuel elements in the left-side reactor overheated, some of them collapsed. The boat surfaced and returned to the base on the right reactor. Unfortunately, the accident had grave consequences: the fission products penetrated into the habitable compartments. The entire crew overexposed, eight sailors died in hospitals, another one choked on board in a gas mask. Experts have concluded that the most likely cause of the accident was the "poisoning" of the reactor core with slag and oxides of lead and bismuth. This was taken into account when creating new boat reactors with liquid metal coolant. K-27 itself did not recover, sent to the joke. In 27, it was flooded northeast of Novaya Zemlya in the Kara Sea.

Automatic fighter

The K-27 operating experience turned out to be dramatic, but not at all useless. From it, conclusions were made that formed the basis for the creation of new nuclear submarines with liquid metal (also lead-bismuth) reactors and a durable titanium vessel - one pre-production 705 project and six serial 705K (generic name "Lyra", according to the conventional NATO classification - Alfa).

We started development in the same SKB-143 under the supervision of Chief Designer Mikhail Rusanov. Built on the Novo-Admiralteisky plant in Leningrad, the K-64 was purely experienced and did not last long because of the accident with the cooling of the coolant. Serial atomic six (K-123, K-316, K-373, K-432, K-463 and K-493), built both in Leningrad and in Severodvinsk at Sevmashpredpriyatiya and replenished the fleet in 1977 – 1981 years, thanks to the excellent tactical and technical data brought a lot of headaches the US Navy.

The characteristics were obtained due to the fact that the one-reactor YPPU BM-40А with lead-bismuth coolant surpassed the water-water NPI of other submarines of its time in operational maneuverability twice, in energy saturation - in 1,5 – 2,5, and in mass-specific characteristics - in 1,3 – XNXX times. It is noteworthy that the atomicines of the 1,5K project were almost equal in speed (705 knot) to the western anti-submarine torpedoes and developed a full speed in some minute. Having a truly "fighter" agility, "Lyra" could attack the enemy from the most disadvantageous sectors for them, although being detected by enemy hydroacoustics.

And that is not all. "Liry" equipped with integrated systems of automated energy management and weapons. This made it possible to minimize the number of crew - it was three times less than that of other submarine nuclear submarines: 31 officers and one midshipman. An interesting point: the political commander was absent in the carriage, and the party-educational (that is, not the party-political party usual in the USSR Armed Forces) work was assigned to the commander. On the navy these boats are deservedly nicknamed "machine guns."

However, the widespread and further development of the boat project 705K (they were part of the 6-th division of the submarines of the Northern Fleet) did not receive. "Lyra" served until the beginning of 90-ies (head K-123 - before 1996-th), on the one hand - proving exceptional tactical articles, and on the other - revealing significant difficulties in operation, associated primarily with the need to maintain a certain level physical and chemical characteristics of the coolant, because the alloy of lead and bismuth had to be always in a liquid state.

Apart from the USSR (Russia), no one has such a long experience of using such reactors on submarines. Monopoly in the underwater nuclear (as, indeed, in the surface) shipbuilding keep water-cooled nuclear reactors.
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  1. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 16 December 2017 19: 31
    12
    Thanks for the interesting stuff. A very outstanding project. The 705 project is the so-called "Goldfish" (including the price). About the K-123. She was the record holder for the time of repair in the Soviet Navy - 9 years (from June 1983 to August 1992) Well, there's nothing to be done - a liquid metal reactor, it is like that. In June, 1997 was expelled from the fleet.
    1. Romario_Argo
      Romario_Argo 17 December 2017 01: 58
      +6
      The appearance of submarines 705 and 705K with high speed (41 knots) comparable to the speed of anti-submarine vehicles (~ 50 knots), a great depth of immersion (450 meters) and high maneuverability reduced the effectiveness of anti-submarine weapons to the "0", US Navy .
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 17 December 2017 11: 45
        +1
        That's right. The Americans had to urgently develop rocket torpedoes. Well, to us, respectively, a similar system "Waterfall".
        1. Romario_Argo
          Romario_Argo 17 December 2017 13: 45
          +1
          the U.S. Navy has neither jet torpedoes nor PLUR
          we have them all: VA-111 Flurry, 91РТ2, 91Р1, RPK-6М Waterfall
          Americans have only a sane torpedo Mk-48 Mod 5 - 60 nodes, 40 km, 800 meters.
          according to TTX Physicist-1 (UGST) and Physicist-2 (UGST-M - 65 nodes) are inferior to Mk-48
          and the case torpedo reached parity: 65 knots, 60 km, depth 500 m.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 17 December 2017 17: 16
            +2
            UUM-44 SUBROC (English SUBmarine ROCket), which was in service from 1965 to 1989 of the year, can be considered the US counterpart of the Waterfall. A significant drawback was that she had only JabCh.
            Our "Flurry", of course, is unique, but it does not have a seeker, because at its speed with its noise it is unrealistic to visit it on its own.
            1. Doliva63
              Doliva63 17 December 2017 18: 25
              +5
              In the confrontation with us, YABCh Sabrok, it seems, is the case. Who is simpler - for them Asrok on surface.
              All this I studied in the 70s, there was an open press. Some stagnation in the Yankees.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 17 December 2017 19: 24
                +2
                Yes, they are in the open press all this PR. In the "Military Foreigner" was. Then I was struck by the standards for swimming presented to their "fur seals" - they were lower than our third sports categories. And our classes regularly (once in the 3 of the year, it seems) were published by Soviet Sport.
                1. Doliva63
                  Doliva63 19 December 2017 21: 55
                  +5
                  In the USSR, it was like the analogue of "seals" - combat swimmers MCI. There, someone was intended to "work" in water, someone to "work" on land. And the standards were different. The comrade, when he served there, competed with the "seals" - they never lost. Much more dangerous than the "seals" were the "green berets", "imprisoned" for work under water. Ours did not always cope with them.
                  I myself, as a land explorer, had little interest in this, but my colleagues and comrades had many who served in the MCI, they told different things.
                  Topic for a separate conversation drinks
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 19 December 2017 22: 09
                    +2
                    About the "seals" of Amer’s, I also mentioned that in many ways the image of their special services is highly publicized. I have no doubt that there are cool pros, but the publication of the standards (moreover, normal swimming, not in clothes with weapons) made a strong impression on me. Perhaps this (understated standards) was done in the middle of the 70's in order to attract Latinos and blacks to the sun.
                    1. Doliva63
                      Doliva63 19 December 2017 23: 21
                      +4
                      They became interested in their standards only in the 80s. Berets, rangers, SAS, German deep intelligence. Kotikov had nothing to draw from - our range on the sea did not extend. Here I am not an appraiser.
                  2. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 19 December 2017 22: 12
                    +1
                    Our combat swimmers were restored in the 1967 year after an almost 10-year break, Khrushch Kukuruzny eliminated this structure at the end of the 50's
                    1. Doliva63
                      Doliva63 19 December 2017 23: 07
                      +5
                      Are the current Khrushchevs better? As far as I know, maritime special forces (i.e. reconnaissance and saboteurs for operations in foreign waters) were again liquidated. Now PDSS is our everything.
                      Remained only in Pennant, if Pennant is still there. But this is not the structure of Moscow Region, they have their own tasks.
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 20 December 2017 08: 21
                        +1
                        I don’t want to talk about the current employees of Lenmebeltorg. Although they kicked him out of the leadership of the Moscow Region, they still have to rake and rake what they have done. Naturally, combat swimmers are needed in the MO structure to work with the “external enemy” (Kuprin).
            2. Romario_Argo
              Romario_Argo 17 December 2017 22: 02
              0
              I wrote some crap. what is the meaning of your comment ???
              I called the current list of weapons!
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 17 December 2017 22: 31
                +2
                Well, at the moment we don’t have boats of the 705 project. So who wrote the crap?
  2. cerbuk6155
    cerbuk6155 16 December 2017 21: 38
    +5
    Interesting article. Not for nothing I read. Plus. soldier
  3. MOSKVITYANIN
    MOSKVITYANIN 16 December 2017 22: 26
    +8
    Not often here such articles can be read recently .....
  4. Anyone
    Anyone 16 December 2017 22: 26
    +8
    The entire reactor was dismantled from the last boat of this series in Gremikha (ZATO Ostrovnoy). It was a unique operation that was not done either before or after. The reloading of submarines with liquid metal coolant was carried out only there. Today, Gremikha is a ghost town with destroyed houses, abandoned equipment and the remaining 2 thousand of the population (out of 40 thousand).
    705 project in Gremikha:
  5. Romario_Argo
    Romario_Argo 17 December 2017 01: 20
    +1
    IMHO, the nuclear submarine of the 5 generation of the Husky will be sized as the nuclear submarine of 705 Lira, not more than 4000 tons of displacement
    about the same automation and crew in 40 people, a nasal spherical hull and onboard non-rechargeable torpedo tubes (10) as on 885 avenue, onboard PTZ Package-PL (8), 4 VPU (16). The total BC will be 26 Torpedo / RCC / PLUR / SLCM
    1. MOSKVITYANIN
      MOSKVITYANIN 17 December 2017 01: 36
      0
      Submarine 5-th generation "Husky"

      go to replace existing submarines or in addition?
      1. Romario_Argo
        Romario_Argo 17 December 2017 01: 48
        +3
        885 Ash-tree submarines are replacing the SSBNs of 949A / AM Antey, although they will still be operational until 2030, and the Husky nuclear submarines will replace the 971 Schuka-B submarines, also somewhere to 2030
        although with a displacement of up to 4000 tons, the Husky submarines will be able to stamp as Varshavyanki Ave. 636.6
        1. bk0010
          bk0010 18 December 2017 00: 36
          0
          In vain, IMHO, they do not produce Pike-B, it is still quite consistent ...
          1. Krasnyiy komissar
            Krasnyiy komissar 18 December 2017 11: 54
            0
            Pike-B is the past, Ash is the present, and Husky is the future of Russia's submarine fleet. What is the point of building an outdated project if Ash is built in series and contains equipment exclusively made in Russia?
            1. bk0010
              bk0010 18 December 2017 12: 31
              0
              One boat is not a series, but he is still one. Ash is very expensive and takes a long time to build, what is the solution to the problem now?
  6. Curious
    Curious 17 December 2017 02: 28
    +4
    "Built at the Novo-Admiralty Plant in Leningrad, K-64 was purely experimental and did not last long because of an accident with solidification of the coolant."
    Two teams took up the creation of a power plant for the nuclear submarines of project 705: the Podolsk OKB Gidropress and the Gorky OKBM.
    K-64 had a power plant developed by the Gorky OKBM. From the very beginning of the K-64 operation, failures and accidents followed, the largest of which led to the solidification of the coolant and the complete failure of the reactor. In August 1974, the boat was withdrawn from the combat strength of the fleet, and even before that, the entire program for building the series was suspended.
    The "debriefing" at the highest level led to the abandonment of the Gorky option in favor of the BM-40A power plant with a capacity of 150 MW, developed in Podolsk. It turned out to be much more reliable, in any case, on the six subsequently built submarines of the improved project 705K, not a single sailor was killed due to radiation accidents.
    The project crew was determined at 16 people. At 29, the leadership of the Navy insisted.
  7. NikWik
    NikWik 17 December 2017 15: 07
    +9
    Quote: Curious
    And that's not all. Lira was equipped with integrated systems for automated control of energy and weapons. This made it possible to minimize the number of crew - it was three times less than that of other submarine nuclear submarines: an 31 officer and one midshipman. An interesting point: the political officer was absent in the carriage, and the party-educational (that’s the way, and not the party-political party habitual in the USSR Armed Forces) work was assigned to the commander. In the Navy, these boats are deservedly called "machine guns."



    In fact, there were 24 officers, 6 midshipmen and 1 sailor in the state on pl. usually he lived in a technical crew and took him only at sea. Regarding the political leader - he really wasn’t there, but the secretary of the party desks got us instead of the deputy. organization.
    1. NikWik
      NikWik 17 December 2017 15: 32
      10
      And a little more about the organization: Instead of the commanders of the BCh-1, 3, 7, we had an assistant commander for navigation, an assistant for armaments and an assistant for electronics. The freed assistant commander did not have his duties hung on the weapons assistant. The mechanoids left the commander of the BS-5, and instead of the commanders of the divisions were senior engineers. In general, the crew consisted of engineers, senior engineers and assistant commanders.
      In general, an article for a layman is good. A PLUS
      1. Doliva63
        Doliva63 17 December 2017 19: 02
        +4
        Engineer and Senior Engineer belay Cool you, submariners! laughing drinks
    2. Doliva63
      Doliva63 17 December 2017 19: 14
      +4
      One day in the 80s a caperang from some academy came to us for an internship. He said that he was not even a political officer, but the head of the "goldfish." And he said that there is a pool on the boat and so on. "Nishtyaki." Lied, mean?
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 18 December 2017 08: 33
        0
        [quote] [/ quoteLied, then? [quote] [/ quote]]
        Estessno, doing my favorite thing
      2. NikWik
        NikWik 18 December 2017 15: 20
        +6
        Of course I lied. firstly, the Golden Fish is the K-222 - a second-generation nuclear submarine armed with P-70 Amethyst cruise missiles, the only ship built under Project 661 Anchar and has nothing to do with 705 projects. Secondly, there was a pool, a sauna and a gym, but not in fly swatter, but, for example, in Sharks. There are immeasurably more places there and better living conditions. Thirdly, the chief of software (the head of the watered department) lives at the headquarters of the division, and not on the submarine. Well, and then, he’s also a political officer to hang noodles. Although among the deputies I know a lot of worthy guys.
        1. Svarog51
          Svarog51 19 December 2017 03: 28
          +5
          Edward, I welcome you hi Why do you rarely visit the site? It is extremely rare to find specialists to find out first-hand information. You are one of them. And meeting you on the site is the same as finding your boat in the ocean. This is for you.
          hi
          1. NikWik
            NikWik 19 December 2017 19: 28
            +6
            Thanks for the clip. At 705, I came to the projects as a lieutenant, an acoustic engineer. And ended the service on the Sharks. That is, served on the smallest and largest production nuclear submarines. And until now I think our kids are the best boats, far ahead of time, despite all their shortcomings.
            And I visit this site quite often, especially in the military history section. Simply, having reached the level of caperang, there is no desire to argue with "couch strategists." And then, too many things concerning the fleet can be understood only by living them and letting them through you.
            1. Svarog51
              Svarog51 19 December 2017 20: 08
              +6
              Yes, I agree with you, there is no point in arguing with “couch strategists”. But to express one’s point of view, especially in a relevant topic, is a must. Who in the subject - he will understand and appreciate your opinion. The site is multifaceted, people are different, and grains of valuable information have to be mined as gold in the mine. Nevertheless, I will take the liberty and ask you to write more comments. Yours faithfully hi
        2. Doliva63
          Doliva63 19 December 2017 22: 14
          +4
          Thank you for your reply! drinks
          Maybe he served on the Shark, but the Goldfish sounds! laughing
          He said that without him the commander of the rocket could not launch - like, there were 2 different “keys”. The commander and him. So?
          And that in a strong case they had 2 lungs. Here in the transitions between them was a swimming pool, gym, etc.
          Please do not consider a spy. The country once trusted the first admission laughing Curiously simple. If the bar is already removed, of course.
          1. Svarog51
            Svarog51 20 December 2017 02: 19
            +5
            Valentine, welcome hi drinks
            And that in a strong case they had 2 lungs.

            On the contrary - in a lightweight case there are two durable ones. Between them and missile silos were located.
            He said that without him the commander of the rocket could not launch - like, there were 2 different “keys”. The commander and him.

            This was practiced on all boats in order to exclude the launch of missiles in the event of any troubles in the crew. There was also a special officer present. But in general, the Shark is a strategist, and Lyra is a hunter. Boats for various purposes.
            1. Doliva63
              Doliva63 20 December 2017 20: 54
              +5
              Salute, Sergey! drinks
              Durable with easy, I confused it, you dumbass! Between them, once not only rocket mines were located, but also ballast tanks. It’s good that I didn’t have time to boast that I’ve studied the theory of a submarine! laughing
              About the special agent - is he on the boat ?! Damn, an extra pair of lungs, in my opinion. I had nothing and I don’t have it, I still am friendly with one of them, But, it seems, in the Strategic Missile Forces it is the only one in the entire regiment. And the launches in the ShPD kashda are their own, no? In general, redundant, in my opinion.
              The other side of the coin - nowhere, it turns out, the success of the combat mission was not so dependent on the political leader as on the SSBN! Locked in the cabin, bastard, refuses to enter the key - and. I experienced pride in the institution of commissioners drinks laughing
              1. Svarog51
                Svarog51 20 December 2017 21: 19
                +4
                I didn’t have anything against the NGO and I don’t have it, I still am friendly with one of them,

                That's right, you will definitely come to him upon return. The boat is a division of the Strategic Missile Forces under water, and even the Supreme had a question - how so, the divisional commander - the general, and the commander of the SSBN - capra. But they didn’t decide. In my opinion, the submariners were wronged in vain; their service is much more complicated and dangerous. IMHO. And if sclerosis doesn’t change me, the second key for launching missiles was not stored by the political officer, either by the missile or the special agent. It is necessary to ask the sea, if interested, I can strain a familiar specialist and find out who can clarify the situation on the site. wink
                1. NikWik
                  NikWik 21 December 2017 20: 01
                  +4
                  Intervening all the same. There are really two keys. Second, the truth is not with the deputy. I won’t talk to anyone, it seems like it’s not a secret now, but, as they say, well, it’s on .... Now about the military ranks. If we compare the positions according to the charter, then any nuclear submarine is a regiment. and regardless of displacement. - and 705 project and Shark. Also, to the article, quite annoying. Both there and there, the commander of cap. 1 rank, the old man, the mechanic - cap. 2 ranks, and so on on the list. Although the combat potential in front of the Shark and the Strategic Missile Forces division is resting. Moreover, promotion on kids is much easier. The title rear admiral as a submarine commander was still received by one person - the commander of the main Shark, captain 1st rank Alexander Vasilyevich Olkhovikov, a hero of the Soviet Union, later commander of the 18th division of the TARPK SN
                  1. Svarog51
                    Svarog51 22 December 2017 02: 39
                    +4
                    Edward, I welcome you hi Thank you very much for the clarification, on land such details have only just begun to open to us. Previously, only crumbs reached information. It seems that Brezhnev was still interested in the title of commander of the Shark. Indeed, 24 ICBMs on board. I was not interested in how many Yars or Poplar units are in the land division, but I think that there are no more. And the commander is their general. It's a shame for the naval. Why do I know this, we (I live in Ivanovo) have such a division in Teykovo.
                    1. NikWik
                      NikWik 22 December 2017 08: 20
                      +3
                      More precisely, the Shark has 20 missiles with ten goals each. In the Strategic Missile Forces division - in different ways, but my acquaintance divisor had 3 missiles in position. Maybe someone happens more, I don’t know here.
                      1. Svarog51
                        Svarog51 22 December 2017 08: 40
                        +5
                        The Strategic Missile Forces division does not seem to be fully enlisting in the BS, I don’t know for sure, I need to be interested in the missile defense. But the Shark, if not cool, with full armament goes into autonomy. And more missiles and longer service, and much more dangerous. It's a shame, yet for the sailors. IMHO.
          2. NikWik
            NikWik 21 December 2017 20: 16
            +4
            Here, to the point, the sauna and the pool on the Shark are not between the buildings, but on the starboard side in compartment 8, exactly under the cabin of the political officer (deck below).
            1. NikWik
              NikWik 22 December 2017 08: 22
              +4
              Wrong, 8 compartment - this is the left side. As they say - a monkey also falls from a tree
              1. Okolotochny
                Okolotochny 22 December 2017 13: 48
                +5
                For non-naval - maybe a detailed drawing would have been thrown off, so to speak, for a better perception of the material? Joke.
                1. NikWik
                  NikWik 22 December 2017 19: 36
                  +4
                  No problem. specially for you found on some Hungarian site. The picture is almost accurate.
                  1. NikWik
                    NikWik 22 December 2017 19: 38
                    +4
                    here's another shark to understand its size
                    1. NikWik
                      NikWik 22 December 2017 19: 42
                      +4
                      and this is already on the topic of the article: pr 705. here, too, almost everything is accurate.
  8. mkpda
    mkpda 20 December 2017 13: 58
    0
    It is a pity that the project 705 served so little and did not receive development. He clearly overtook time.
  9. NikWik
    NikWik 22 December 2017 10: 19
    +4
    Svarog51,
    It also happens that we stand in the database for three to four months. Almost the same as autonomy, but not leaving the pier. we will get from the pier where they ask. And at the expense of the admiral ranks - apparently someone decided that it would be too much for the admirals to be in the fleet. Well, I didn’t get admiral spiders on epaulettes, and all right. Not for this served.
  10. kig
    kig 16 January 2018 07: 23
    0
    I have quite a lot of experience operating domestic ship automation systems, Merchant ships, and not warships, but I think that there is not much difference between them. I am sure that the principle of creating such systems, and especially the elemental base, is the same for them. Therefore, I strongly doubt that the automation on the boats worked as the designers promised. In general, it is impossible to automate everything, and especially to take into account all possible unforeseen situations and automate the solution of the problem. Decisions must be made by man, and all sorts of automation systems should give him as much information as possible. Therefore, I would very much like to hear the opinion of those who happened to serve on these boats. I suspect that not everything there was so wonderful as they are now described in the articles, and these uninhabited and maintenance-free compartments should have been a constant headache for the crews and coastal specialists.