Military Review

The head of CIAM: Russia participates in the creation of a supersonic hydrogen-powered aircraft

The head of CIAM: Russia participates in the creation of a supersonic hydrogen-powered aircraft

Creating a promising engine PD-35 will be funded for several years in advance, said Russian President Vladimir Putin. Mikhail Gordin, General Director of the Central Institute of Aviation Motors, told the TASS interview about which engines the future planes will equip with and when domestic airliners take off on electric propulsion. P.I. Baranova (CIAM, part of the Research Center "Institute named after NE Zhukovsky").

- Mikhail Valerievich, what are the main activities of CIAM? What are the key projects and research focused specialists of the institute today?

- CIAM is shaping the look of domestic aircraft engines - we are already working on creating technologies for advanced 2030-s power plants. We conduct a full cycle of research to create engines and industrial gas turbine installations based on them, as well as provide scientific and technical support for products in operation. Our main "product" is a scientific and technical background, that is, the creation of new knowledge and technologies necessary for designers to design modern engines for various complex systems.

For example, additive technologies are being actively discussed as an innovative method of producing parts and components (creating objects according to the 3D model data by layering a material - TASS note). New production technologies do not yet give a complete understanding of what defects are possible in production, how reliable such parts will be, and how fatigue phenomena will develop in them. In addition, you need to figure out how to design parts from new materials, because this is not written in the textbooks.

We are also engaged in fundamental research: knowledge in the fundamental sections of gas or aerodynamics must be purposefully expanded in certain directions in order to accomplish specific practical tasks.

- Do you develop engines for sixth generation airplanes?

- Now it is considered that the fifth generation engines are "in series" and the sixth generation engines are being developed. Development work on the sixth generation will probably begin only in ten years. On the fifth, they are now either completed or have already been completed. For example, PD-14 - the fifth generation civilian engine - is now completing the testing and certification process and after some time will be mass-produced. CIAM is actively involved in its creation: we have developed approaches to its design and have completed part of the design work. Now our main contribution is its engineering and certification tests. They are held on our unique experimental base. All nodes for PD-14 were also tested here, at the CIAM Scientific Testing Center, located in the Moscow region. Tests are carried out in high-speed flight conditions, as close as possible to real conditions, on special high-altitude stands. In general, all the most complex and energy-intensive types of mandatory tests of aircraft engines are performed in Russia only at the CIAM Center. And we are testing not only domestic, but also foreign power plants, such as the French company Safran.

Among the works in this field, carried out by CIAM in the last decade, it may be noted certification test modifications PS-90A and PS-90A1, PS-90A2 and PS-90A3, SaM146, auxiliary power units, as well as confirmation of the foreign power plants Certificates for use on Russian planes and helicopters.

And if we talk about the sixth generation, then only as a set of technologies, which is necessary in order to create such engines - in the West, in Russia.

- Does CIA work today on engines for supersonic flight? What should be a plane capable of carrying out a long (at least one hour) cruising flight at a speed several times higher than the speed of sound?

- We are participating in the international project for the development of the HEXAFLY-INT high-speed civilian aircraft. The leading world and Russian scientific organizations collaborate in this large cooperation project: TsAGI, LII named after M.M. Gromova, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, European Space Agency (ESA), ONERA, German Center aviation and Cosmonautics (DLR), CIRA, University of Sydney. The goal of the project is to create a hydrogen-powered aircraft capable of reaching speeds of about 7000–8000 km / h, which will allow, for example, to overcome the distance from Moscow to Sydney in three hours.

The main result of the work today is the demonstration in high-altitude conditions of a positive aero-propulsion balance (thrust exceeds total aerodynamic resistance) of a bench module with Mach number 7,4.

CIAM is working on the appearance of an engine and a power plant for a promising business passenger plane with supersonic flight speeds at Mach numbers 1,6 – 1,8, with low levels of sound impact, noise during takeoff and landing, and emission of harmful substances. Together with TsAGI, we carry out work on the choice of the appearance, calculations and testing of models of the elements of the power plant on experimental benches, including on our acoustic bench and in wind tunnels. We offer a highly efficient upper air intake, low-noise output devices with engine noise jet noise shielding.

A large complex of works is carried out to determine the perspective schemes and parameters of the engine, including the schemes of a variable-cycle engine.

- Did the CIAM specialists participate in the creation of the engine concept for the advanced high-speed helicopter (PSV)?

- CIAM, together with TsAGI, participates in the research conducted by Russian Helicopters on the development of the concept of promising high-speed helicopters (cruising speed - up to 450 km / h and more - TASS note). The first stage of evaluation of the appearance of possible power plant options (engines and transmission) of such helicopters has been completed.

- Are the work on the creation of a large thrust engine (PD-35) for a promising heavy transport aircraft? When can such an engine be created?

- The new twin-turbojet large thrust PD-35 is designed for installation on promising wide-bodied aircraft, including the Russian-Chinese CR929. It will be much more powerful than the existing D-18T engines for the largest Soviet An-124 / An-225 aircraft. Currently PD-35 is at the stage of research and development (R & D). In the next six years, the necessary scientific and technical background will be created for the start of development work.

- What will this engine be?

- It will actively use composite materials. The efficiency of the engine increases with the degree of bypass, and in this case the fan becomes increasingly large. And the fan weight is up to 15% of the weight of the entire engine. The PD-35 fan blades, for example, have a length of about 1,1 m, the diameter of the fan at the inlet is about 3 m. The use of metals in this case leads to an unacceptable weight increase. It is proposed to manufacture the blades of polymer composite materials with metal plates. And every kilogram of mass saving of the fan leads to a decrease in the mass of the entire engine.

At the same time PD-35 can not be called the engine of the sixth generation. Domestic civilian engines, relatively speaking, are just beginning the fifth generation. It will most likely be "5 +".

Under the PD-35 program, research works are first carried out, 18 technologies are developed, a demonstration engine will be created on their basis, and then OCD will begin with a small “overlap” in time.

The PD-35 demonstrator will contain all the key features with maximum capabilities: fuel efficiency, ease of manufacture, maintenance, etc. Naturally, such a "super engine" will not go into mass production, as it will turn out to be too expensive and unprofitable. When the R & D stage begins, the tasks of developing its specific characteristics will be set, depending on the specific parameters that need to be achieved in order for this engine to be in demand.

Now we are developing technologies and appearance of the demonstrator for PD-35. To date, all the technical tasks for 18 technologies have been agreed, they are formed both by the industry and by us as the leading scientific organization in the field of aircraft engine building. As part of the research planned their detailed design, calculations, modeling, then - the manufacture of the sample.

- In the five to six years allotted for these research works, will we lag behind foreign competitors even more?

- Five years on the NIR is not very much. If there were no certain groundwork, it would definitely not be enough. But there is the experience of PD-14 and our Western colleagues. How much time will test the engine and when it comes out in a series - the question is not for us, but for the industry.

The task of CIAM is also to develop methods and criteria for testing parts of aircraft engines manufactured using new materials and technical solutions, since they will differ from traditional ones. For them, you need to create the entire methodological base. For example, one of the directions of work in the framework of this R & D is to make polymer-composite blades with defects and to see what the presence of these defects will lead to during testing. In doing so, we think through several different methods for the manufacture of blades. According to the test results, a choice will be made in favor of one or another option.

- Why is it needed?

- We have been working with metal for many years and we know what kind of defects there are when casting, machining, stamping. And we know what they lead to in different situations in the air. There is little experience with polymer composite materials, the statistics of the development of defects is not recruited.

- How long does it take to develop a sixth generation engine?

- In principle, the division into generations is conditional. Some technologies are already ready, some are in the process of development. Of course, we would like to invest as much money in science as possible, so rather we will be able to create something new. But the process of knowledge is not only regulated by money - it takes time and effort. There is such a thing as an S-curve, which models the development of various projects: first, there is a rapid development of technology - a sharp upward spurt, then comes a plateau - the saturation region. The area of ​​turbine in this curve is now closer to saturation. To increase the efficiency of engines by a few percent, you need to invest a lot of time and money. Of course, in this area there is still room for improvement, but each additional percentage of efficiency, each new quality is given hard and expensive.

At the very beginning of this curve is the electric movement. We believe that in the next few years there will be a rapid growth of technologies related to the electrification of transport, both in the air and on the ground.

- What is it - an electric motor?

- While this is an electric motor and a propeller. Anyway, we are talking about screw engines. On the way to creating a fully electric engine, all developed countries are now in the process of developing a hybrid engine, which has a turbine and a generator that generates electricity. The second option - the rejection of the turbine and the preservation of electricity in batteries or fuel cells. This is a more distant horizon, because while kerosene is a very effective source of energy in terms of weight. When burning a small amount of kerosene, it gives that amount of energy that no battery can yet provide. But the world is actively developing ever more capacious and lightweight batteries and fuel cells operating, for example, on hydrogen. Work is underway on the weight efficiency of the entire engine.

A separate problem for an electric aircraft is the amount of energy required for aircraft needs and its flow control. There is the issue of managing the heat released, with which you need to do something.

In general, hybrid and electric traction is a very promising direction, one of the defining technologies for the future of aviation. Now there are many small airplanes for one or two people in the world, but they can all fly very shortly. At the stage of the demonstrator of technology and research, the flight hour is excellent, further questions begin. While in the world there is no electric aircraft that could carry passengers or cargo. Pilots enthusiasts fly on them, because the reliability issues of such equipment are not yet fully resolved. There is still a very long way ahead.

- Do you have such demonstration planes in Russia?

- We are working on them. So far, nothing but models, does not fly. A few years ago, a drone flew on a fuel cell. Currently, we have a project to create a demonstrator of a hybrid power plant with an electric motor based on high-temperature superconductivity. There are no similar projects in the world. Our base is a special conductor cooled by liquid nitrogen, which at a temperature of minus 196 ° C has the effect of zero resistance. As a result, a high efficiency is achieved and the engine mass and dimensions are significantly reduced. Two such 500 kW engines each will be able to equip a regional aircraft for 19 seats. We can reach the level of a demonstrator with a pilot in 2019 year. A manned aircraft for two places we can do right now. It would be more funds, probably, would take off next year.

- Let's talk about engines for small aircraft. For TVS-2-DT, created by SibNIA to replace An-2, it is planned to install TPE331 from Honeywell. Why we do not have new developments in this segment?

- The problem is not in the absence of new developments, they can be. These planes and their engines belong to previous generations. We need large investments in the design, testing and creation of production facilities, the profitability of which is very low. And Western countries, unlike us, have retained their production.

Recently, a conference was held at CIAM just on the topic of creating a unified federal concept for the development of engine building for small and regional aviation. A working group was established to submit proposals to the government.

Modern domestic gas turbine engines for aircraft and helicopters of small and regional aviation are simply not available today. Currently there are only two domestic engines in development: TV7-117CT-01 for the Il-114-300 and VK-800С for the re-motorization of the L-410 aircraft.

Attempts are being made to establish the mass production of small-sized engines (mainly piston engines), since they are also used on unmanned aerial vehicles. However, they need to be developed in a wide range: from 50 – 60 to 300 – 500 hp

Another important area of ​​research is work on a single-section experimental rotary-piston engine, on the basis of which it is possible to create a model range of aircraft engines with power from 100 to 400 hp. This is the size of the engine for the Yak-152. But it is a technology demonstrator. It is necessary to calculate how much a foreign engine will cost, and how much a domestic engine will cost.

To ensure the competitiveness of domestic small-sized engines, it is necessary to create a scientific and technical reserve for electric "smart" engine technologies. Research in these areas is carried out at CIAM in conjunction with branch design bureaux. The implementation of technologies should ensure a reduction in the specific fuel consumption of the 2035 – 15% by 20, a reduction in mass to 30% and an increase in reliability and service life by two to three times.

One of the directions that allows to drastically improve the characteristics of piston engines is the use of turbo-compound circuits, in which the energy of exhaust gases is used to obtain additional power used to drive an air propeller or electric generator.

- It turns out that the prospects for training aviation are deplorable?

- Thousands of engines are needed to recoup the new development. Sometimes it's easier to buy or localize production. This is a difficult problem. Piston engines, probably, can be developed only on the basis of import substitution. Of course, engines for UAVs can go into mass production, as scientists are now thinking about the concept of "swarm", that is, a large number of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicle). There are already many projects, we regularly conduct an examination of some of them. Everything is evolving, but there is a big problem with the regulatory framework for unmanned aircraft.

- What can you say about the sensational statement of Chinese scientists this year, who reported on the creation of a “working” version of the EmDrive microwave engine? Is his work really impossible to explain by the fundamental laws of physics? Theoretically - is it possible to create something like that?

- The EmDrive engine consists of a microwave-generating magnetron device and a resonator. Its principle of operation is a new concept of electrojet engines, which directly convert the supplied electrical energy into cravings. There is no violation of the laws of physics here. The engine produces a "constant" thrust, without spending fuel, and using the energy of microwaves.

However, if evidence of EmDrive's health existed, they would require serious work by theorists. For the time being, the lack of explanation is an unshakable rock, about which all the arguments of enthusiasts of the “impossible” engine break. Someone likes to notice what works — well, it’s not necessary to know how. But such an approach can lead to unexpected problems in practical use. For example, if the engine is connected to a magnetic field, then it may unpredictably behave among the magnetic fields of outer space. But no one needs the apparatus to lose its only source of thrust somewhere halfway to Mars or distant Kuiper belt objects. By the classical requirement to present reliable evidence must necessarily be attached and the requirement to explain everything that happens in the engine. While the creators of EmDrive can not show either one or the other.
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    HEATHER 16 December 2017 06: 21
    A little off topic.
    1. Grandfather
      Grandfather 16 December 2017 06: 33
      Quote: VERESK
      A little off topic.

      why Putin does not claim “dangerous maneuvers”, dangerous rapprochement and “unprofessional behavior” ??? laughing
      1. HEATHER
        HEATHER 16 December 2017 06: 37
        Just GDP gave an eternal carte blanche to our pilots! drinks Here are the guys and have fun! They are the same Russian! good
        1. Grandfather
          Grandfather 16 December 2017 06: 39
          Quote: VERESK
          Just GDP gave an eternal carte blanche to our pilots! drinks

          during this flight, the main ones are not the GDP, in fact, in the hands of the pilots of Sushki, not only the life of the President, but also World History. drinks
          1. HEATHER
            HEATHER 16 December 2017 06: 42
            This is clear. More than once in the late 90s I met Board No. 1 of Krasnoyarsk. I understand a little what’s what. Plus a couple of escort fighters.
  2. Chertt
    Chertt 16 December 2017 07: 01
    A beautiful rainbow article with many beautiful words, But as soon as the conversation comes to practical matters M. Gordin is blown away.
    - Let's talk about engines for small aircraft. For TVS-2-DT, created by SibNIA to replace An-2, it is planned to install TPE331 from Honeywell. Why we do not have new developments in this segment?
    About training aviation
    - It turns out that the prospects for training aviation are deplorable?
    Sometimes it’s easier to buy or localize production. This is a difficult problem.

    But here we are developing the engine of the future, honestly, honestly. And we will plow, any there
    1. HEATHER
      HEATHER 16 December 2017 08: 20
      Why do not we have new developments in this segment? Yes. ASH-62FN! wassat
    2. Vasya Vassin
      Vasya Vassin 16 December 2017 10: 19
      I have a residue after Barguzin. It is quite possible to suspect that one verbiage remained in this direction.
      1. Chertt
        Chertt 16 December 2017 10: 26
        Quote: Vasya Vassin
        I have a residue after Barguzin

        Dear, Most serious "experts" believe that all the tears according to Barguzin do not have real soil under them.
        1. Vasya Vassin
          Vasya Vassin 16 December 2017 10: 28
          I’m not talking about specialists, but about how it was presented. We will do, we will build, we will establish, and then !!!!! And then what happened? What do we have in the end? If this project had serious technical difficulties, why was it so inflated that it would be more disgraced in the end?
          1. freejack
            freejack 16 December 2017 11: 51
            What do we have in the end?

            Operating time. Last year, they made throwing tests. And they were considered successful. it is possible that on occasion one can always return to this work. and so ...

            Firstly, there is the principle of reasonable sufficiency.

            Secondly, with all the technical difficulties, it was easier to hide the missile train in the USSR. (then we were actually a closed country). Now Russia, where glasnost prevails?! ...
            Do you want to announce about him at the stations in the loudspeaker? .... laughing
            1. Vasya Vassin
              Vasya Vassin 16 December 2017 12: 49
              What is the use of throwing something there or not, if there is no finished product? You say that it will be possible to return to this work. When, then when do bombs fall on their heads? Then you need to get back to work? Oh well...
              1. freejack
                freejack 16 December 2017 15: 39
                What kind of extreme? ... You are very naive to believe that even in the USSR, out of about 20 meals embodied in the project, only 1 reached the Army. This is understandable. The reasons for this may be mass — unjustified high cost, low efficiency, obsolescence - while the project was implemented in iron, etc.

                Now the picture is fundamentally different. Tell me - what is the main advantage of the BZHRK? It is one - stealth. those. to be sudden at some point in Russia will not work. Our railway is the entrance yard! ... Intelligence satellites of the 80s and now ... The difference is more than 30 years and the technological era !!! ... What is the meaning of the BZHRK if the potential adversary knows everything about them .. .

                Don’t worry - the funds allocated for it have probably been redirected to a more important area - it can accelerate zircon or Su-37. These big heads decided ... And the liberoid troll will say that "the next cut ...". It's all old, how th ... but a mammoth! ... wink
                1. Vasya Vassin
                  Vasya Vassin 16 December 2017 17: 23
                  Why, then, was the initial foam of days as a PR case? So I ask what. It was not necessary then to yell at every corner that we will build, we will do, we will revive. Silently in a rag, they would conduct their experiments for excrement.
                  1. freejack
                    freejack 16 December 2017 19: 41
                    It used to be ... Now everyone demands publicity ... Now everyone is commenting: they decided to resume this project at a new level - the project was created like that - the first throw tests were made - the project was frozen for an unknown period ...
                    We all asked for publicity! Here she is cute in action! Is this good or bad? I do not know. I personally like to be informed. But you need to understand another thing: if the game went open, then the fakes and dez from the MO will also be thrown into the open ... And now sit and figure it out ...)))
          2. zoolu350
            zoolu350 17 December 2017 03: 30
            There are simply different approaches to presenting information. In the USSR and China, at first they did something, and only then they inform the population, allies and enemies. And in the Russian Federation, the oligarchy at first all promotes with varying degrees of pumping, but the practical yield is quite low, that is, PPC.
  3. sa-ag
    sa-ag 16 December 2017 10: 56
    Supersonic and hydrogen ... On the Tu-155 tank with hydrogen occupied 2/3 of the cabin
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 16 December 2017 12: 16
      Hydrogen is part of the environment in which the flight takes place. Therefore, the question is how to turn the air into a very short-term stage of destruction of this air and in the place where this process needs to happen in order to get the whole complex of positive results. No miracles and the simplest solution, but within the framework of such a human imagination, which is not characteristic of everyday life.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 16 December 2017 15: 54
        Finally gridasov has appeared! Long gone, now another thing!
        [/ quote] Hydrogen is part of the environment in which the flight is carried out [quote]
        Of course it is, if the flight takes place in an aquatic environment.
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 16 December 2017 16: 22
          And the nebulae around the wing, the body of the plane or on the tops of the mountains and in general, does the air environment not contain water. so as not to see the changes that occur in it as a result of changes in a whole complex of interrelated processes.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 16 December 2017 17: 29
            [/ quote] And the nebula around the wing, the body of the aircraft or on the tops of the mountains [quote]
            Especially penetrating about the tops of the mountains turned out. I think the plane on top of the mountain will no longer need any engine, but perhaps this is from my folly. I'm sorry.
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 16 December 2017 18: 38
              Actually, I'm talking about the fact that if you try to increase the radius of the rotor blades or turbines or increase the speed of their rotation, then modern engines will not work - they will collapse. In other words, what happens as a nebula and if this process is activated, and it is identical to the operation of the propeller blades, this has limits after which the propeller will collapse. Therefore, modern designs have no prospects. I only about it
  4. gridasov
    gridasov 16 December 2017 11: 32
    "Our main" product "is a scientific and technical reserve, that is, the creation of new knowledge and technologies necessary for designers to design modern engines for various complex systems."

    The so-called experts do not even fully understand what a breakthrough should be in a new era of aviation development. How much you can explain that the engine is only the drive for the operation of the device, which combines the interaction of the aircraft body with the space in which it moves. A completely new principle of operation of the propulsion device and the propulsion device itself, which can use the potential of the external environment and the qualitative parameters of this potential, and not only its kinetic energy of elasticity, are necessary. With which it is in contact and which must be overcome by increasing energy costs with increasing speed. Therefore, all the talk about the prospects of any aircraft is a "bitcoin of engineering." As you flew within certain potential opportunities, you will fly if you do not change the scientific fundamental approaches. In general, the level of hyper speeds is no longer evaluated by the aerodynamic concepts of processes. These are all magnetodynamic interactions and mathematical methods for analyzing such processes should be based on the analysis of super-large data. Which also do not.
    1. sa-ag
      sa-ag 16 December 2017 11: 36
      Quote: gridasov
      These are all magnetodynamic interactions.

      Well, there was the Ajax project back in the early 90s, kerosene fuel, which decomposed from the temperature of heating the airframe to hydrogen, etc., was supplied to the MHD generator, etc.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 16 December 2017 12: 11
        Everything is very close to the truth, But too far to be understood as a system process. Therefore, that experiment has no results. And the rationale is very simple. Even on the fingers.
  5. gridasov
    gridasov 16 December 2017 12: 00
    The EmDrive engine consists of a microwave magnetron device and a resonator.

    It is not necessary to convert the supplied energy to electrical energy and then transform it into power processes of jet propulsion. All this can be done by a mover already using the energy of an elastic medium, which is also an electric motor on simpler but more efficient processes. After all . what happens to scientific thought? Ideas and solutions are absolutely correct. However, they are like torn private solutions that do not have an algorithmic understanding of those processes that need to be considered as system processes. Therefore, very long periods of their development and, in general, with unknown target results. And why? Because there are no methods of analysis considering processes from beginning to end. The ideas are great, but when they start to implement it they spend huge resources on fitting all the other nuances with the main task. Therefore, the Chinese lie because they do not know how to “suck” even a perfect and unique invention or discovery. Because you need to see the whole system of interactions and transformations and understand the whole methodology of the development of processes.
  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. shinobi
    shinobi 17 December 2017 09: 47
    Well, let's put the hydrogen engine on hydrogen worked back in the 80s. A full-fledged aircraft laboratory based on the Tu-134 flew on it. And put it on the table. Economically unprofitable. Associated costs were high. We need to bring to mind the concept of natural gas dvigunov.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 18 December 2017 15: 31
      Well, what do you mean? That there is a new and effective technology that allows you to fly efficiently or something else. There is nothing positive left., Except that this new technology, so to speak, is more expensive and more complicated, at least at this stage of general development. Therefore, it’s not enough to talk and create a new technology. It is important that it can be a step forward in all parameters of efficiency. To make it easier by orders of magnitude, cheaper, and open up real possibilities for a more efficient flight of the aircraft. Therefore, everything that is currently positioned does not have, above all, a long-term development perspective. Nothing proposed is fundamentally new to altered physical processes.
  8. M. Michelson
    M. Michelson 18 December 2017 07: 11
    About hydrogen here it seems like one common phrase (and without reference to Russia). Why put it in the headline? sad