Before 1 August 1914, it was assumed that the military supplies of the French army would be provided by state (military) factories. Private industry was supposed to supply, in the main, military factories with raw materials only.
From 1912, military plants were established, with the postponement of the call-up of their full-time staff, and from 1913, the postponement of the call was also provided for the personnel of private factories who worked for the army. 1 people worked at military factories for 1914 in August 34500, and only 12500 people were released from conscription.
20 September 1914 was the mobilization of private industry for the needs of defense, and two weeks later the question of withdrawing qualified workers from the army to work in defense was resolved.
By the middle of May 1915, the personnel of military plants reached 71000 people, and private factories working for defense - 242000 people.
In May, 1915 established the post of deputy minister for military supplies, and in June, a Department of Labor was established with it. Through the Department, the army was recalled to the 213800 factories of skilled workers. Subsequently, a personal review was replaced by an application for recall of a certain number of persons of relevant qualifications - and an 345000 person was released from military service.
By 1 in January, 1918. 1116 officers, mostly former breeders, engineers, workshop heads and craftsmen, after careful inspection, were attached to military factories - for technical work (without the right to wear a uniform).
The number of workers recruited into the army, but left to work in defense enterprises, constantly fluctuated: for example, 1 in January, 1916, there were 344850 people (107100 in state-owned military factories and 237750 in July 1) - 1916 people (503930 and 155870 respectively), and 348060 December 31 g. - 1917 people (528250 and 115500 respectively).
Through the Workforce Division, 1 June 1918 was used to recruit unmilitary 20840 and crippled 14350 - a total of 35190 people used exclusively in the private defense industry. In addition, through the authorities of the Ministry of Labor and Interior Affairs, non-military and injured workers have been brought into the private defense industry 20000. Owing to the transfer of these workers from one enterprise to another, industrial enterprises often experienced great difficulties - and it was even supposed to assign workers to factories.
Before the war, in military production, female labor was used only in state-owned factories - in total, by the beginning of the war, 4800 female workers were working there. After the announcement of mobilization, another 8400 women workers appeared. Since August 1915, more than 40000 women workers have been recruited to work in defense factories through the Metalworkers' Bureau and the Labor Department. Most of the workers were hired by the factories themselves. The workforce department gradually made factories increasingly employ female labor - and the results exceeded all expectations. Starting with the application of female labor in the field of accounting and control, it was gradually expanded to include turning and assembly work. Since July 1916, due to the prohibition to use the labor of those liable for military service for those jobs where it is possible to use female labor, the latter has been widely used even in heavy work - women became assistants to blacksmiths, foundry workers, and even workers in manufacturing aviation motors (drilling, turning and milling). The number of women workers in military industries increased from 13000 (at the beginning of the war) to 400000 (by January 1, 1918).
The labor of foreigners was also used. Source: militarization and hiring of colonial workers, hiring European refugees (mainly Greeks - 12400 people), inviting workers of Portuguese, Italians and Spaniards (all around 12000 people) and using labor of captured workers (34000 people). Most of the prisoners were sent for agricultural work. The use of foreign labor was difficult - especially for Indians, Arabs and Chinese, for whose leadership special organizations had to be created. Arabs, as workers, did not justify the hopes placed on them.
The number of foreign workers was relatively small - by December 1917 in state-owned factories there was up to 10000 and in the private industry - up to 100000 foreigners.
Foreigners received the same wage with the French.
The number of adolescent workers in the second half of 1917 varied around the number of 110000 people.
The replenishment of the factories with labor of all categories went through the Department of Labor, the regional branches of which were in Paris, Lyon, Toulouse, Nantes. There were also regional depot metalworkers.
The liable for military service workers initially enjoyed a temporary deferment, but since May 1915, all deferrals have been eliminated and military liabilities, registered as a depot of their corps, were, as it were, seconded to the factories. In mid-August, 1915 was followed by the so-called Dablitz law, which establishes the assignment of persons liable for a specific factory and grants them the rights of non-military workers (wages, disability, pension), with the exception of privacy rights - in the latter case a special control by officers “watching the military workforce”. In addition, their connection with the corps was not interrupted - and they were under its control (information about such a worker was entered into special nominal cards).
Monitoring of military labor, established from 15 July 1915, was expressed in accounting, supervision of the correct use of the worker, correct working conditions, vacations, movements, supervision outside the work, consideration of claims, relations with trade unions, supervision of labor protection and pr. Observers were recruited from the labor inspectorate employees of labor inspection, and then replenished with maimed officers. If in November 1915 was supervised by 4419 enterprises, in December 1917 was 14325 enterprises.
Interesting numbers. Over 1916 - 1917 Observers registered accidents at 130682 subsidiaries (of which 454 are fatal).
Regardless of observing the military workforce, the control and inspection of the plants was carried out by numerous commissions and authorized persons. The government and the Ministry of War wanted not only to monitor the correct use of military service workers, but also to control them - so that only qualified workers whose presence was really necessary remained at the factories.
The laws of Dublin (1915) and Mourier (1917) provided for the formation of mixed commissions (on a parity basis) from employers and workers — chaired by a delegate from the War Department, such commissions monitored military service workers. Such commissions by October 1917 functioned 32.
In 1915, the exclusive right of the state was declared in resolving issues arising from the relationship between employers and military service workers. The main issue - wages - attracted particular attention and was decided by the state after preliminary mutual discussion with employers and workers.
By decree of 1917, special conciliation chambers were established, which consisted of two representatives of employers and two representatives of workers — both of them necessarily unmobilized.
Due to the increase in the working population of the cities, in connection with the deployment of the military industry, the Military Workforce Division was entrusted with all the concerns for improving the housing and food situation of the workers, creating cooperatives, etc. The state-owned factories should not only take care of the workers living with them, but also about the convenience of living their workers in private apartments. Watching the military workforce was made a duty to monitor the quartering and workers of the private military industry. In case of emergency requests from householders (requirements for rent exceeding normal norms), the company managers and observers informed the commanders of military districts of the names of such householders - and the latter’s premises were simply requisitioned for workers ’housing (with the definition of rent at normal rates).
Due to the continuous rise in food prices, special attention was paid to the opening of factory restaurants, food stalls and cooperatives. By May 1917, around 100000, workers and workers of the private defense industry were fed at 182 restaurants and the same number at 60 restaurants of state-owned factories. 81 grocery store was open to state-owned factories (and as many to private defense factories).
Charities, partly with workers delegates, fed more 150000 people to 162 restaurants and maintained 16 grocery stores with their own funds. The number of these institutions is constantly increasing. And then, in order to alleviate the food problem, the Minister of Supply established the Power Division of Military Plants - he was provided with working capital by the parliament, and he also raised considerable funds from enterprises and cooperatives.
In connection with the expansion of the use of women's work in defense work, the Women's Labor Committee was established in April 1916. His duties included consideration of all issues of hiring, paying, using, organizing female labor and improving the material and moral position of female workers.
In July, 1916 established a list of jobs where male labor was prohibited, and listed jobs that should be performed exclusively by women. Along with this, rules were introduced for the application of female labor (labor for 16-18-year-old girls), night work, leave for the time of mobilized husband leave, maternity protection, etc.
It was not until the end of 1917 that all the organizational work for the recruitment and use of labor for defense purposes was completed, and the Workforce Division was reorganized into the Labor Administration.
When in May –June 1918 Paris was under threat of the last German offensive, the Labor Office prepared a program for evacuating more 100000 mobilized workers in the Paris region to the east, and also developed a corresponding instruction approved by the Minister of Supply.
According to this instruction, all the mobilized workers were equated with military personnel, were obliged to obey all orders of the factory administration implicitly and could leave the factory only after the evacuation plan was completed. They could not leave the factory even in case of danger and, having received an order for care, they left as part of a detachment and under the command of their masters, engineers or directors. Unauthorized departure from the factory was considered as leaving the post in the face of the enemy.
We see that it took the French 3,5 of the year to fully address issues related to the mobilization of industry and the militarization of labor (Russia by this time was actually out of the war). And the militarization of labor in “democratic” France was very high - not comparing to the labor system that continued to live according to the laws of peacetime by the main part of the population of Russia. Probably the French are right?
The Great War in Images and Paintings No. 9.