Military Review

Conquistadors and Aztecs: when feathers are more precious than gold! (part two)

60
I personally had an interest in Aztec culture a long time ago, as early as 1977, while working as a teacher in the Berezovsk school in the Kondolsky district of the Penza region. There were many ducks of bright decorative coloring, from the feathers of which I adapted to make beautiful wall panels. To do this, take feathers from the wings with bright green "eyes", which are placed on the fabric left to left, and then on them - right to right, so that they all overlap each other like tiles. Outside, there was one solid emerald green background, shimmering in the sun with all the colors of the rainbow like the feathers of the quetzal bird ...
V.Shpakovsky



Today we will discuss one interesting feature of the inhabitants of ancient Mexico, or Mesoamerica, who really puzzled the Spanish conquistadors who arrived there. They were surprised to note that for some reason the main wealth of the country here was ... feathers! The Indians had enough gold and silver and precious stones. But they didn’t consider these metals to be the most valuable, but delightful in their beauty, unusually bright, fascinating eyes ... the feathers of tropical birds.

Conquistadors and Aztecs: when feathers are more precious than gold! (part two)

Legendary quetzal!

Birds inhabited the entire territory of Mesoamerica at that time, and their number was not only very large, but also diverse. On the territory of the Aztec state there were all sorts of herons, northern eagles and many waterfowl dwellers of alpine lakes. As well as especially revered quetzals and, more like bright flowers, inhabitants of the tropics, tiny hummingbird birds.


Ara parrot.

In any ancient city were artisans who were engaged in tailoring. Of course, there were such in urban settlements of Mesoamerica. The clothes were then sewn mainly from agave fibers, cotton was used for the nobility. But clothing made from feathers was considered especially valuable.


A tiny hummingbird birdie.

Most often, the Aztecs used goose and duck feathers (both wild and domestic birds). The bright feathers of tropical birds were considered expensive and very valuable material. The feather was delivered as a trophy or it came as a tribute from the conquered peoples. More feathers were delivered by traders from the southern regions of present-day Central America (mainly from areas of present-day Chiapas and Guatemala). The green feathers of the bird ketsal, multi-colored macaw parrots, as well as pink and gray herons were considered the most valuable, and therefore the most expensive.


Spoonbill.

The process of preparing feathers for use was fairly simple. First of all, they were cleaned with clay. Clay was dissolved in water and feathers were thrown into this solution. The feather thus treated was made soft and workable.


Gray Heron

Craftsmen worked, as a rule, in isolation, as a community, contacting only the merchants who lived next door. Such cooperation was beneficial to both parties, as artisans needed regular supply of feathers, and merchants needed a stable market for the goods they supplied from tropical areas. This was especially true of the emerald-green feathers of the quetzal bird, which was not found in the valley. In small numbers for their own use, these birds were kept in the imperial henhouse and from time to time they plucked out the most beautiful feathers in order to provide the material and work of court craftsmen. Masters sheathed the entire imperial court, created ceremonial costumes, clothing for dancing, festive capes. The emperor handed over amazingly beautiful products as a gift to commanders and high officials as a sign of his special favor.


The headdress of quetzal feathers, presented to the Spanish king Karl V. The Emperor Montezuma presented this precious headdress to 1519 in the year to Hernán Cortes. Today, Mexico is suing the court in The Hague for his return. (Vienna Museum of Ethnology)

Urban artisans worked more to meet the "daily demand", made shields, flags, capes. Along the way, all sorts of "trifles" were made: sultans, bracelets, belts, and plows.


Warriors in the feathers of the quetzal bird: 1 - Warrior Weschozing with a spearman, 2 –placed from Cholula, 3 - tip (general) from Tlashkali. Fig. Angus McBride

Craft tailoring of feathers was considered an honorable work among artisans because it required incredible assiduity, patience and artistic taste (as well as a sense of proportion!). In addition, feathers adorned the shields and military uniforms of especially distinguished soldiers. The chief leaders carried huge feather structures on their backs. Shields were considered a significant element of festive attire, there were up to seven types of traditional ornaments.


Tlashkalan warriors: 1 is an archer in a headdress made of quetzal feathers and a white heron, 2 is a simple swordsman who was not supposed to wear feathering, 3 is a warrior of an elite unit of warrior herons. Fig. Angus McBride

The process of creating a mosaic of feathers was very time consuming and required constant attention. Initially, the scribe put the intended pattern on a piece of paper from the bast of ficus. Then cut out the stencil pattern. The stencil was used to transfer the pattern to a cotton canvas, and then the master fixed the first, “draft” layer of feathers. In the finished product, this layer was not visible, so for its application the cheapest material was always used, which was then simply painted in the desired color. The feathers were trimmed with a copper knife, fastened, and the resulting picture was immediately compared with the original. Well, the top, final layer of the picture was made from the best material. Here were the green feathers of the bird ketsal, and piercing blue feathers, coats, and scarlet herons, and bright yellow parrots and unusually deep turquoise-colored hummingbirds.


Mexican warriors in lush feather garments corresponding to their rank. Codex Mendoza, Bodleian Library, Oxford, F / 67r.

The whole family of an artisan was sometimes involved in the labor process. Men prepared stencils, children mixed glue from bat excrement, or rubbed special roots for glue. Women selected and then painted feathers.


The painting in the Bonampak temple with the image of fighting soldiers in feather decorations.

In the manufacture of capes, as well as hats, no glue was used at all. Such things were sewn. Feathers were either tied to the wrong side of the fabric, or tightly tied one by one. By the way, the headdress of feathers, which Montezuma granted to Hernan Cortes, was also made by hand.

Images of animals were also made of feathers. Skeletons of large animals were carved from wood. A skeleton of reptiles and insects was cut from maize stalks or paper strips. On top of it was covered with a special paste, which consisted of pounded dried stalks of maize, mixed with glue. So the body was formed. Then it was polished with a volcanic stone and covered with a cloth. The required image was applied to it, which was then “filled” with multi-colored feathers.


Interestingly, in order to get the quetzal feathers, he was never killed, and after catching a bird, feathers were pulled out of the tail, and released again.

In Mesoamerica, where the life of the ancient Aztecs was based mostly on rituals and rites, special clothing was used in great numbers. It had its own clothes for special occasions. It was decorated, of course, with feathers of rare species of birds. Some of the robes had their own names, for example, “divine costume”, “costume of quetzal feathers”, “costume of blue feathers”. Such clothes, as a rule, were intended for vestments of statues of gods. One of the ancient authors, describing the ritual clothes worn on the statue of the goddess of water, reported that she also used a special headdress made from feathers of a white heron. For brave warriors, headgear was sewn from the feathers of an eagle, because the eagle symbolized the sun.


The Tlashkalan warriors, allies of Cortez, attack their opponents. "History Tlashkaly. (Glasgow University Library)

In addition to iconic robes, feather clothing was also made for ambassadors. For example, white feathers, symbolizing peace, were used in cases where ambassadors went on a peaceful mission to an enemy camp.


Mitztek warriors: 3 - standard-bearer, 2 - priest, 1 - warrior-jaguar in a garment of quetzal feathers. Fig. Angus McBride

At the Aztec ruler of Montezuma, a magnificent canopy was woven from hundreds of emerald feathers of a rare quetzal bird (its numerous retinue wore mantles decorated with bundles of feathers of other, less valuable birds).

For warriors and priests there were many feather vestments, which sometimes, because of a sufficiently large number of feathers, were very heavy. If necessary, they are attached to the back or shoulders. These clothes were attached and special hats. There were twelve kinds of similar hats. Some were made in the "image and likeness" of real, and sometimes mythical creatures. For example, helmets are known in the form of an eagle's head and a heron.

Clothing and military equipment was a major part of the use of feathers. But besides this, feathers served for more practical purposes, for example, in the manufacture of arrows. Used feathers and as ingredients for medicinal drugs. Rare feathers were staked in gambling. Society’s need for feathers was heterogeneous. For example, some feathers were required in huge quantities constantly, others - exclusively for special occasions, as a rule, ritual, therefore, required seasonally. Others are generally needed only occasionally. Even feathers were used unequally. Some after the rituals were allowed to apply again. Some were used only once, after which the feather product was destroyed. It is clear that such an expense required replenishment, which means that the need for feathers was constant.


Warrior with makauavitl, decorated with feathers and in a feather headdress. Codex Rios, pp. 301. (Vatican Apostolic Library)

As already mentioned here, the Aztecs valued the quetzal feathers very highly (like jewels) (the bird itself was considered a symbol of freedom by the Aztecs, because according to legends, it could not live in captivity. And if it fell into a cage, it would die from a heart break). No less valuable were the feathers of the red macaw, as well as the pink spoonbill, the green parakeet, beautiful coats, the yellow-headed Amazon, the heron, and the eagle.

With feathers of rare birds, it was easy to pay tribute. Thus, the conquered provinces once every three months, sometimes every six months, brought tribute to the Aztecs in the form of feathers. Live birds were also delivered as tributes.


Samples of tribute that the Aztec paid conquered tribes. Among them are products from feathers. Original of the Codex Mendoza. (Bodleian Library, Oxford)

Feathers were part of a special, in their own way very complex identification system adopted among the Aztecs and replacing them with European heraldry. This system determined which feathers to use for rituals, which - for feathering arrows, and which for some other purposes.
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  1. XII Legion
    XII Legion 20 December 2017 07: 13 New
    21
    Very beautiful
    Interestingly
    The designation of ranks with feathers is probably the most beautiful of all options for attributes
    1. kalibr
      20 December 2017 07: 26 New
      12
      Yes, probably. The Persians had their own attributes - the shah raven, the shah lev, the shah leopard, the Romans (shields) and plaques-phalars, the samurai back flags - sashimono, knights of Europe - blankets, shields, surco ... But the Indians outdid everyone naturalness and beauty.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 December 2017 09: 05 New
        12
        The most uncompromising in attributes were, of course, the inhabitants of the Pacific region. Tattoos did not come down. Here you can’t tear off “epaulets”, only with your head.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 20 December 2017 11: 29 New
          11
          Here you can’t tear off “epaulets”, only with your head.

          a sad joke - that is, it’s impossible to prove that you are not a “Communist-Commissar-Jew”. request Derevyanko beat this moment very well in Brest Fortress. soldier
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 20 December 2017 11: 49 New
            +7
            That's right. Well, and besides, no Maori or Polynesian could have thought of changing their own tattoo, even by a point. A tattoo is a belonging to the family, status, own achievements, it is all life. Her change is blasphemy !!! It’s easier to rush to sharks ...
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 20 December 2017 16: 33 New
              +6
              A tattoo is a belonging to the family, status, own achievements, it is all life. Her change is blasphemy !!! It’s easier to rush to sharks ...

              these are just ideals! good and that’s all - "communism", "communism" .. wink
          2. kalibr
            20 December 2017 13: 39 New
            +2
            Do you remember Davydov from "Virgin Soil Upturned", with a tattoo in all his belly ?!
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 20 December 2017 14: 18 New
              +5
              I remember the newly-minted Swedish king Bernadotte from Pikulevsky “to each his own” with his tattoo on his chest “Death to the Kings!” fellow Although there is an opinion that the tattoo was on the arm, and it read "Long live the republic!" (Valentin Savich generally wrote extremely inaccurately historically). In any case, the king didn’t go to the general bathhouse with his subjects. laughing
  2. Kapitan a
    Kapitan a 20 December 2017 07: 26 New
    19
    The importance of feathers in society. Did not know. Steeper than current is war over manure.
    1. XII Legion
      XII Legion 20 December 2017 07: 41 New
      19
      Yes, I heard about this
      Because of the cave (that is, bird droppings)
      1. Black5Raven
        Black5Raven 20 December 2017 17: 26 New
        +7
        Quote: XII legion
        Because of the cave (that is, bird droppings)

        The bats are guano. Extremely valuable fertilizer.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 20 December 2017 07: 58 New
    10
    Given the technical level of the Aztecs .. painstaking and masterly work ..
  4. Conductor
    Conductor 20 December 2017 09: 29 New
    10
    Thanks, very interesting article. And the photos are great. But why are the Meks suing, 500 years have passed, and the gift is after all)))) We have spied on the Amers, suing for every sneeze.
  5. Curious
    Curious 20 December 2017 10: 55 New
    11
    Birds - an ancient symbol of the eternal, soul, spirit, divine manifestation, air spirits, spirits of the dead, ascension to Heaven, the ability to communicate with the gods or enter the highest state of consciousness, thought, imagination.
    The symbolism of the bird's feather is based on the weightlessness of feathers, the ability of birds to fly, and the spiritual qualities endowed with birds.
    In ancient Egypt, the pen - the supreme power, truth, flight, weightlessness, dryness, height. Feathers are an attribute of several gods of heaven, but especially the goddess of truth (justice) Maat.
    Among the Scandinavians, the goddess Freyja has a magic feather cape that allows her to fly through the air. A feather cloak is an attribute not only of celestial gods such as Freyja, but also of Celtic druids, who tried using magic to travel outside the material world. The Celts, decorated with feathers capes worn by priests, personify the path to another world. Fairies also wear feather dresses.
    In Taoism, a pen is an attribute of a priest, “feathered sage” or “feathered visitor”, a message with the other world.
    The feathered shaman robes give the ability to fly to other worlds and take trips to gain knowledge.
    In China, an ornament with the motifs of plumage, grain and wood combines opposite concepts into a single symbol: lightness and elevation, symbolized by plumage, and earthly life force (the growth of a tree whose seed is a prototype of life itself).
    The snake, covered with bright green feathers of the Quetzal bird, is considered a symbol of the great Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, as well as his authority over heaven and earth. In North America, it was believed that the chiefs' hats made of feathers equated them with the Great Spirit and with the power of the gods of air, fire and thunder. The feathered Sun, a disk with feathers directed both inward and outward, is a symbol of the Cosmos and the Center among the low Indians. Feathers are also a widespread symbol of ascending prayer; hence the symbolism of the feathered sticks of the Pueblo Indians, which were used in rituals to cause rain on the days of the solstice.
    Among the American Indians, the feathers of an eagle represent the Thunder Bird, the Great Spirit, the spirit of the universe, as well as the rays of light. In Toltec culture, feathered sticks personify prayer and contemplation.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 20 December 2017 11: 10 New
      +6
      I can add that the symbol of Ukraine is by no means a "trident", but a diving falcon, the ancient ancestral symbol of the Rurikovich.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 20 December 2017 12: 14 New
        +5
        I did not believe until I saw this sign in Staraya Ladoga in the museum. Yes it looks
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 20 December 2017 12: 29 New
          +4
          Actually, there is a version that “rurik” is not a proper name, but “drove” taken from the name of the bird. And, to the question of symbols, it is very easy to draw by hand.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 20 December 2017 13: 28 New
            +4
            Actually, there is a version that “rurik” is not a proper name, but “drove” taken from the name of the bird.

            Anton, don’t be famously, don’t remember. And then we will be decomposed into haplogroups.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 20 December 2017 13: 57 New
              +7
              I don’t care, Nikolai! Adherents of one idea are distinguished by narrow thinking, unquestioning judgments and the denial of the existence of other opinions, and therefore are called "obsessed". There are many ways to counter such individuals, but all the "exorcisms" are energy and emotionally costly. As for me, one remedy helps - a silver bullet in the head. And yet, the half-breed born by a Kazakh woman from the Somali father, raised in the Russian paradigm, will be Russian, despite the proto-Aryan haplogroups.
              "I am a Tatar in person
              But with the surname Khokhlyatskaya
              How am I longing kabat
              Fitted under the wheel "
              (Y. Shevchuk)
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 20 December 2017 16: 30 New
                +3
                I don’t care, Nikolai!

                I warned... wink it seems like it's time for me to become a preacher. what love me mentally and rejoice! fellow
                1. kalibr
                  20 December 2017 16: 59 New
                  +2
                  Well, who got it ... your ... Don’t remember the devil in vain, he will not come !!!!!!!!!!
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 20 December 2017 17: 05 New
                    +4
                    eeeee, I did not croak! repeat If ... take the beginning of this thread .. - then .. anti-Rev. Victor Nikolaevich! laughing (deftly I found the switchman wink )
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 December 2017 17: 36 New
                      +2
                      Technically merged! hi
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 20 December 2017 17: 37 New
                        +3
                        heroically blocked you too wink drinks
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 20 December 2017 19: 05 New
                    +3
                    This is about the Lord - in vain, and about the devil - by night.
          2. Curious
            Curious 20 December 2017 14: 03 New
            +7
            A whole article can be written about the etymology of "Rurik". Especially now, when the genre of folk history is on the rise.
            If we turn to historical science, which is criticized by the adherents of “Fomenkovism” and “Klesovism”, for example, the works of Aplon Grigoryevich Kuzmin, this name can be the addition of the Celtic “rick” (“king”) with the Latin root rus, ruris, meaning “field”, “ village ”,“ agriculture ”.
            The Swedish scientist L. Grot says that the name Rurik can most easily be taken as a derivative of the tribal name of Ruriks, or Rauriks (one of the Celtic tribes - according to: Vasilyeva N.I., and she takes data from: A. G. Kuzmin. Old Russian names and their parallels). The name of the tribe comes from the river Ruhr or Raura. Currently, the tributaries of the Meuse and Rhine have this name. In the Middle Ages, the Oder also had a tributary of Rurik. In the time of Julius Caesar, ruriks, not wanting to submit to the Romans, most of them left their homes. But even later, people from the Ruhr River received the nickname "Rurik." The scattering of the tribe in the first centuries of our era assumed a fairly wide distribution of the name on the continent. Thus, Rurik and in his homeland could be called Rurik, or something like that, similar names are found in Europe.
            Appear in this etymological detective story and encouraged, among whom A.D. Menshikov. It is the stylized image of the falcon - TWO CINEMA OF RURIKOVICH - most often cited as an argument about the origin of Rurik from encouraged.
            Articles written by unprofessional historians often say that the Rurikovich trident looks like a falcon in a “peak”. But this is not quite right. From encouraged by the Rurikovich, the sign that was originally used by them (Rurikovich) could be inherited. And it was a two-pronged one. The trident is the first of the Rurikovich began to use only Vladimir Svyatoslavich (Holy).
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 20 December 2017 14: 33 New
              +3
              The scattering of the tribe in the first centuries of our era assumed a fairly wide distribution of the name on the continent. Thus, Rurik and in his homeland could be called Rurik, or something like that, similar names are found in Europe.

              thus, it proves once again that the pyramids and the Chinese wall were built .. further theories diverge, depending on the tenacity of the “historian”. request drinks
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 20 December 2017 14: 33 New
              +2
              Victor Nikolaevich! (Offended, with a tear in his voice) I was talking about the version! laughing
              On the other hand, there is a continuity of characters and a difference in one stroke. Although, the Clear Sun was still a beetle, it could be pulled by the ears to strengthen the vertical of power.
            3. venaya
              venaya 20 December 2017 15: 31 New
              +1
              Quote: Curious
              .. now that genre of folk history on the rise. .. The Swedish scientist L. Grot says that the name Rurik can most easily be taken as a derivative of the tribal name rurik, or raurikov (one of the Celtic tribes ..

              But in this place I’ll ask in more detail: As far as I know, the term “Celts” itself was born only in the XNUMXth century! But the Rurikovich are from the region of Vagria (Varyazhskaya Rus) to Staraya Ladoga in time in the region of the XNUMXth century. The term "Celt" itself has nothing to do with any ethnic group, it denotes only the type of tip for a spear common at a certain time. I repeat: “Celt” is not an ethnic group, but an element of a warrior’s equipment at a certain time. As in this case, we can talk about a certain ethnic group, the language of this ethnic group, or a certain tribe. In my opinion, such a passage can just talk about what is considered to be "folk history", although this term is strange and foreign and bad, but for this design"thinking"fits best.
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh 20 December 2017 16: 13 New
                +3
                The ancient Greeks called these peoples "Galatians", the Romans - "Gauls."
                Do not like the term "Celts", call it "galls" in Roman.
                1. venaya
                  venaya 20 December 2017 16: 34 New
                  +1
                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  Do not like the term "Celts", call the "Gauls" in Roman.

                  I must say that here on the Russian-language site, in Russian, I do not need to use the terms of one of the endless simplified dialects of the Russian language itself. I already wrote here that in Latin the term “gal” means “rooster”, why should I insult people of a certain ethnic group with a foreign dialect for them, because even then they were highly developed people with a high culture, writing, and even their own name. According to modern data, these were Wends, and they still often call themselves that. I think that from the point of view of human culture, it makes more sense to use the self-name (s) of this people, I think that it will be more decent from the point of view of ethics of behavior for decent people, and all other terms should be attributed to foreign nicknames. Latin terminology does not always seem convenient and acceptable, and in all cases it is not worth relying on it, because it is also not a self-name, but an insulting strange-foreign cliche (it drove, according to prison). By the way, in Rome itself, before its capture by the wild pleiens, a language similar to the language of these same Wends of the present Vendée was used, naturally with its own dialect, and there is no such term as “Gauls” as I understand it.
                  1. voyaka uh
                    voyaka uh 20 December 2017 16: 59 New
                    +3
                    In fact, in Rome they wrote in Latin. And so much is written that
                    you cannot read in three lives. The ancient Romans loved to write detailed
                    descriptions of his life, stories, campaigns, philosophical treatises, comedies, pamphlets - volumes and volumes.
                    And about the Gauls there is enough. And about other nations, in particular all those
                    which later became conveniently referred to as Celts for convenience.
                    1. venaya
                      venaya 21 December 2017 03: 58 New
                      +1
                      Quote: voyaka uh
                      Generally in Rome they wrote in Latin. .. And about other nations, in particular, all those that later became conveniently called generalized - Celts.

                      I note that in Rome itself there were many forms of writing, and not just one Latin, today only Russian-language ones are deciphered. The term "Celts" itself is more like a certain "drive", there were others, for example, the term "barbarians", which is also not a self-name. I am writing about the fact that many of these peoples had their own names, and if they are known, it’s more decent to mention just them and not use offensive modern term-drives.
              2. Curious
                Curious 20 December 2017 17: 10 New
                +3
                "As far as I know, the term" Celts "itself was born of God only in the XNUMXth century!"
                Not in the XVI, but in the XVII. Since then it has taken root. And your "historical" wailing you can properly arrange and send to the magazine "Études Celtiques" (until 1934, "Revue Celtique"). There they are, without a doubt, interested. And then they have a creative crisis. Pour a fresh stream into Celtology.
                1. kalibr
                  20 December 2017 19: 17 New
                  +4
                  I am generally surprised by people who loudly, including here, declare some of their deep knowledge, based on communication with some ... "knowledgeable people" and questioning everything, but not in a hurry to publish their discoveries . Now it’s easy. You pay money and publish what you want. In a scientific journal. There are those where there are no reviews. But ... not in a hurry! IN - the limit! It’s ridiculous.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 20 December 2017 19: 40 New
                    +2
                    "What are we doing, science fiction writers? We carry garbage to the masses!" (O. I. Divov)
              3. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 20 December 2017 18: 17 New
                +4
                Right now, “Olgovich” will come, he will popularly explain to you who, where and why he came from. Then the "operator" will catch up and one of the "Fomenkovites". And the kit for the coven will be complete. And we have a good laugh over the "battle of the titans"
            4. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 20 December 2017 18: 37 New
              +2
              Viktor Nikolaevich, what about the folk history genre?
              1. Curious
                Curious 20 December 2017 18: 52 New
                +4
                In the middle - the second half of the 90s. a huge number of quasi-scientific works on history have appeared, created by people who are far from professional occupations in historical science, and proclaiming the need for a radical revision of the model of history that has developed on the basis of fundamental scientific research.
                The collection of literature of this kind was called "folk history." Options for the reconstruction of historical reality are imposed on society, which do not have the slightest scientific justification. At the same time, historical science is subjected to the most aggressive criticism, the readers are convinced in every possible way that professional historians are untenable in their craft and are susceptible to deliberate falsifications.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 20 December 2017 19: 00 New
                  +3
                  And, that is, I did not miss anything meaningful. And "folkhistorics" are ordinary ghouls.
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 20 December 2017 20: 58 New
                    +4
                    and "Victor Suvorov" among them. But this is generally a separate case. Few people have done more harm to the idea of ​​history. Nevertheless, it’s a pity that this bastard was not shot. But .. in "sick - vaccination" soldier
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 December 2017 21: 36 New
                      +3
                      I read at a young age, somewhere between Nikulin and Gumilyov, and both were more impressed.
            5. Cat
              Cat 20 December 2017 21: 14 New
              +4
              By the way!
              From encouraged by the Rurikovich, the sign that was originally used by them (Rurikovich) could be inherited. And it was a two-pronged one.

              A number of authors on heraldry derive the "two-pronged" as a loan from the Khazar Khaganate. Moreover, they attribute this loan to Svyatoslav Igorevich.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 20 December 2017 21: 48 New
                +3
                An interesting version, but what could this Khazar symbol mean?
                1. Cat
                  Cat 20 December 2017 22: 27 New
                  +3
                  To be honest, I don’t know.
                  The use of the image of the tamga trident was temporary, which meant that it was not the emblem of Vladimir and the generic sign of the Igorevichs, but recorded the fact of his victory over the Jewish Khazaria and the emergence of a new stronger state entity.

                  But, even if the Khazar tamga was used for a short time on coins at the dawn of the formation of the early feudal society of the Eastern Slavs, which fully corresponded to the customs of that time and was understandable to those around it, this was no reason to recognize it as a symbol of the statehood of the Russian people, and even more so the “Ukrainian” one.

                  I dare to suggest that just a trophy liked. To be honest, the similarity in person.
                  1. Curious
                    Curious 20 December 2017 22: 39 New
                    +4
                    Yatsenko S.A. Signs-tamgas of the Iranian-speaking peoples of antiquity and the early Middle Ages, M .: Eastern Literature, 2001.
                    1. venaya
                      venaya 21 December 2017 04: 11 New
                      +2
                      Quote: Curious
                      Tamga Signs Iranian-speaking peoples of antiquity and the early Middle Ages .. 2001.

                      I note that in the 1935th year, after A. Hitler was brought to power, Persia, was renamed in the then Nazi fashion in Iran - meaning the country of "Aryans." Many millennia in this country (formerly empire) and neighboring countries spoke the language Farsi, and not in the Iranian language. I have not been surprised for a long time by your openly Nazi distortions in the name of the ancient language, it is 2700 years old and it originates from the ancient forms of the Russian language. I think that the conclusions regarding your personal addiction to Nazi terminological innovations are too noticeable and do not require additional comments.
                      1. Curious
                        Curious 21 December 2017 09: 01 New
                        +1
                        Contact the VPA directly, they will probably understand you there. By the way, this is the name of the book, if you have not noticed.
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 20 December 2017 23: 27 New
                    +3
                    I found an interesting article about the origin and development of the symbol on chernov-trezin.narod.ru.
    2. Mikado
      Mikado 20 December 2017 17: 06 New
      +5
      In Toltec culture, feathered sticks personify prayer and contemplation.

      in the culture of the Good Doctor, not the feathered, but the weighty wand of the Good Monk personifies humility and re-education wink drinks
  6. soldier
    soldier 20 December 2017 12: 18 New
    19
    The combination of functionality and beauty
    How can one not recall the cockerel feathers of bersaliers))
    Informative article, super!
    1. kalibr
      20 December 2017 13: 37 New
      10
      Thanks! I will tell Svetlana, she will be glad ...
  7. Lexus
    Lexus 20 December 2017 14: 59 New
    +4
    It turns out that the conquistadors piled on them in a timely manner ... And then there would be no birds in America.
  8. Fitter65
    Fitter65 20 December 2017 16: 18 New
    +2
    Warriors in the feathers of a quetzal bird: 1 - a warrior of Huesocingo with a spear-thrower, 2 - a priest from Cholula, 3 - tilt (general) from Tlashkala.

    Somehow, even the picture shows that with the spear thrower there is a character under number 2, and here the number 1 is simply signed "Warrior Uesocingo", but the priest, number 2, just stands with a spear thrower, or rather with a javelin ... Although number 1 judging by the "suit" belongs to one of the elite units. The following figure, position No. 3 almost one-on-one repeats No. 1 in the previous figure, changes in the headdress and color of the shield. It seems that the artist was drawing from eyewitness accounts, which neither I have never seen the Aztecs (Incas, Mayans and other proto-Americans) just "chopped blo ", and we try this as a documented vpulit fakt.Tipa very rare artifact, buy not regret it.
    What is it?
    is the gun from which Caesar himself was shot !!!
    -But after all, at that time there seemed to be no pistols ...
    -That I say that a very rare thing!
    1. kalibr
      20 December 2017 16: 56 New
      +5
      All drawings were made on the basis of codes and paintings in Bonampak. I once wrote how difficult it is to make drawings for Osprey. As critics, they are very experienced and knowledgeable. And the poses of all people are somehow repeated. For example, the pose "for the most part" is the same for women and men.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 20 December 2017 19: 55 New
      +3
      Who is "us"? There is no need for sharp generalizations. And if it’s specifically about you, then why did you surrender to Osprey in general and McBride in particular.
      “Nixon is worried:“ Well, there’s nothing from Zhenya Rain ”" (S. Dovlatov)
  9. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 December 2017 18: 21 New
    +3
    Mikado,
    Protected. 1/0. In compensation for moral damages, I can come and carry out educational work with your neighbor.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 20 December 2017 20: 55 New
      +2
      yah. You must first catch "hot" (literally). And then the devil knows whom to suspect. Half the city can be suspected, not counting the guests.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 December 2017 21: 32 New
        +2
        What a right, rich personal life at your front door. Nekrasovsky's "Main Entrance" whines miserably in the corner. Okay, I can take out the tray after the cat, is that normal?
  10. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 20 December 2017 23: 09 New
    17
    Formidable warriors
    God forbid to get caught)
    Birds are an important element of many rituals.
    Fine good