Military Review

Secrets of the Bialowieza Collusion

47
The great Byron once remarked: "A thousand years is barely enough to create a state, one hour is enough for it to disintegrate into dust." For the USSR, this time has come 8 December 1991




Then in Belovezhskaya Viskulyakh, Russian President Boris Yeltsin, President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk and Chairman of the Supreme Council of Belarus Stanislav Shushkevich, ignoring the opinion of millions of Soviet people who spoke in March 1991 for preserving the Soviet power, declared that “the Union of SSR, as a subject of international political law and geopolitical reality, ceased to exist ”and signed the Agreement on the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

During the 26 years past after this event, a lot of memories of its participants appeared in the press, as well as the judgments of various witnesses, historians, and experts. Nevertheless, a number of fairly important circumstances of the Belovezhskaya collusion remain in the shadows. This concerns, first of all, the events that made the fateful meeting in Viskuli inevitable.

"Reformer" Gorbachev

The chain of events that caused the movement of the Union to Viskuli began in distant May 1983, when the secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Mikhail Gorbachev, suddenly wished to visit Canada to learn how Canadians are engaged in agriculture. There he was expected to meet with Alexander Yakovlev, the former ideologist of the Central Committee of the CPSU, and then the Soviet ambassador to Canada and the American “agent of influence” in combination.

In the evenings on the shady lawns of Ottawa, far from curious ears, the former Soviet ideologist suggested to Gorbachev that "the dogmatic interpretation of Marxism-Leninism is so unhygienic that any creative and even classical thoughts are dying in it." In his book, which had the symbolic name Omut of Memory, Yakovlev recalled: "... it was in conversations with me back in Canada when I was ambassador that the idea of ​​restructuring was first born."

Then March 1985 came, when Gorbachev, who was talkative and firmly believing in his exclusive mission, was elected General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU. So for the USSR began the six-year road to Bialowieza.

Former Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai Ryzhkov noted that “Gorbachev was corrupted by world fame, by foreigners. He sincerely believed that being the Messiah saves the world. He was dizzy ... ".
For this reason, the narcissist Gorbachev started perestroika, which turned into a “catastrophic” for the USSR.

Let me remind you that the failure of the Gorbachev "catastrophic" became clear to 1989. And in 1990, this failure began to manifest itself in the form of statements of independence of the Union republics. 11 March 1990 was the last to declare Lithuania’s withdrawal from the USSR. By the way, for Gorbachev this was not a surprise. After all, at a meeting with US President Ronald Reagan in Reykjavik (October 1986), he agreed with the proposal to withdraw the Baltic republics from the USSR. Gorbachev gave final consent to the withdrawal of the Balts from the Union during a meeting with another US President G. Bush in Malta (December 2 – 3 1989). Baltic separatists knew this.

It does not interfere to remind you that in 2009, in an interview with the Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper, Andrei Baranov (15.06.2009), Gorbachev said that, starting perestroika, he knew: "The Baltic republics will seek independence." In 1990, due to the crisis situation in the economy of the Union, caused by Gorbachev’s ill-conceived reforms, other Soviet republics began to declare their withdrawal from the USSR.

12 June 1990 Russia declared state sovereignty. June 20 The Declaration of Independence was adopted by Uzbekistan, June 23 - Moldova, July 16 - Ukraine, July 27 - Belarus. Then began a cascade of proclamation of sovereignties within the RSFSR. It came to the point that 26 October 1990 g. Declared its sovereignty Irkutsk region.
At the same time, Gorbachev pretended that nothing special was happening. The first alarming “bell” sounded for him at the IV Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR (17 – 27 December 1990). Before the work of the Congress began, MP Sozhi Umalatova suggested that the first thing on the agenda would be to raise the issue of non-confidence in the USSR president, saying: “it’s not the course that needs to be changed, but the course and the head of state”.

I remember this speech by Umalatova (I attended the convention as a guest). Most of the deputies in the hall listened to Umalatov with some kind of fear. After all, everything that was true, but what was preferred to be silent, suddenly sounded from the stands of the Kremlin Palace of Congresses. The situation was saved by Anatoly Lukyanov, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and Gorbachev’s loyal associate. He did not allow anyone to speak on the proposal Umalatova, and put it on a roll call vote.

426 was in favor, 1288 was against, 183 deputy abstained. It was natural, since by that time only Chairman of the KGB of the USSR Vladimir Kryuchkov had information about Gorbachev’s treacherous policy. But he chose not to support Umalatova’s proposal, although he knew that the 23 February 1990 was a meeting of representatives of the USSR KGB headquarters sent Gorbachev a letter stating that the delay in taking urgent measures to stabilize the situation in the USSR was in danger of a catastrophe. Therefore, Kryuchkov, as head of the KGB, was simply obliged to ask the president why he ignored the letter of the Chekists.

Kryuchkov also knew that in January 1990, US Secretary of State J. Baker stated: “The circumstances are such that Gorbachev will not survive ... The danger for him is not that he will be thrown out with a palace coup, but that this will be the street. ” But Kryuchkov preferred to remain silent ...

The next “bell” for Gorbachev sounded at the April 1991 city plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU, at which I, as a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU, attended. After the presentation of the new Pre-Council of the USSR Valentina Pavlova, the speakers began to harshly criticize Gorbachev. He could not resist and announced his resignation. However, Gorbachev, announcing a break, organized a collection of signatures in support of the Secretary General. After the break, the Plenum voted to disregard Gorbachev’s statement. So political Pinocchio remained in power.

Let me remind you that in March 1991, at the request of US President George W. Bush, ex-US President Richard Nixon arrived in the USSR for an inspection purpose. His conclusion to the White House sounded disappointing: “The Soviet Union was tired of Gorbachev”.
It was an accurate diagnosis. Gorbachev knew about this diagnosis and began feverishly preparing for retirement.

About this 15 of May 2001, the former head of the office of the President of the USSR Valery Boldin told in an interview with the newspaper Kommersant-Vlast. He said that Gorbachev was already in 1990, Mr .: “I felt out of the game ... He was crushed. I tried to make a good face on a bad game. I realized this after I, the head of the presidential staff, began to receive incredible bills for the products delivered for him ... mostly delicacies and alcohol - sometimes boxes. Harvested for the future. For a rainy day. Then he called me and asked me to arrange his personal affairs ... ".

Well, by August 1991, the chair near Gorbachev turned into a hot frying pan. He learned that in September, 1991 planned to convene a CPSU Congress, which was to remove Gorbachev from the post of General Secretary of the Central Committee, and then at the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR to deprive him of his presidency and bring him to criminal responsibility for the totality of his crimes.

Gorbachev could not accept this. It was impossible to prevent the conventions and, above all, the Communist Party. There was no official reason to outlaw the party. A large-scale provocation was needed that would put an end to the CPSU, the KGB and the people's deputies of the USSR. It was for this purpose that Gorbachev, with the support of Kryuchkov, organized the so-called August 1991 coup. At that time, many in the Soviet Union were waiting for something like that.

11 February 1991 The Moscow Chekists invited me to a meeting. They were extremely interested in the bloody provocation at the Vilnius TV tower, which on the night of 13 in January 1991 was organized by the President of the USSR Gorbachev and the head of the separatist Supreme Council of Lithuania Landsbergis. This provocation, which resulted in the death of 14 people, allowed Lithuania to eliminate the remnants of the Kremlin’s control and prepare the appropriate structures to seize power.

At that time I was a member of the Central Committee of the Soviet Union, the 2 secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party / CPSU and a deputy of the Supreme Council of Lithuania. Therefore, I knew something of the secret intrigues of Gorbachev and Landsbergis. To the question of the security officers: “What should be expected in the future?” I replied: “Provocations of a union scale that will hit the authority of the CPSU, the KGB and the army!”

My assumptions about the provocations being prepared by Gorbachev with the State Emergency Committee were subsequently confirmed by Mikhail Poltoranin. In an interview with Komsomolskaya Pravda (18.08.2011), he stated that the State Emergency Committee was the greatest provocation of the President of the USSR.

In this interview, Poltoranin also said that Yeltsin and Kryuchkov actively assisted Gorbachev in the situation with the organization of the so-called August putsch. In addition, Poltoranin noted that on the eve of the “putsch” Yeltsin often communicated with Gorbachev.
The preliminary conspiracy of our “heroes” is indicated by their behavior after the “putsch”. It is no coincidence that Gorbachev then resignedly allowed Yeltsin to issue a series of decrees that went beyond the constitutional powers of the President of the RSFSR and aimed at misappropriating the federal authority.

There is no doubt that Gorbachev in this period has already set himself the task of pushing the USSR towards disintegration, which would ensure a safe future for him. And by December 1991, according to Gorbachev, it was time to put the finishing point in stories THE USSR. Here I will stop and proceed to the analysis of another chain of events, which also led the USSR to the Belovezhskaya agreement.

Yeltsin. For the sake of power ...

This chain of events is connected with Boris Yeltsin. To begin with, I’ll give a description that his former closest ally Mikhail Poltoranin gave him in an interview with the newspaper Fontanka.ru (08.12.2011). When asked what role Yeltsin played in the preparation of the Bialowieza Agreement, Poltoranin answered:

“Yeltsin played a decisive role. He was nothing sorry.

He didn’t care: whether to lead a democratic state, a fascist one, of whatever kind, just to be in power. Just to be controlled by no one. He met with Gorbachev, who also, in general, did not care, and they only “painted” the struggle between themselves.
But in actual fact there was no struggle! They literally agreed on nights. ”

And then Poltoranin said: “Yeltsin spent almost an hour of 4 spending time with Gorbachev before going to Belarus. And Gaidar, Shahray, Burbulis were waiting for him. The team has gathered, and Yeltsin still receives the last instructions from Gorbachev in front of Belovezhskaya Pushcha. Then he jumps out: “I have to go, meet Kravchuk!”. Mikhail Sergeevich said: “You talk to him there”. ”

17 March 1992 Ukrainian President L. Kravchuk in an interview with Moscow journalist K. Volina reported that Yeltsin flew to Viskuly with the consent and on behalf of Gorbachev, who was interested in Kravchuk's answers to three questions. I will quote these questions as they are stated in the book. Kravchuk “Our goal - a free Ukraine: speeches, interviews, press-conferences, briefings” (“Our goal is a free Ukraine: speeches, interviews, press conferences, briefings”). Kravchuk, LM Kiev: Globus Publishers, 1993.

Yeltsin told Kravchuk: “I want you to know that these three questions are not mine, they are Gorbachev, I spoke with him yesterday, and ask them on his behalf. First: Do you agree with the draft agreement? Second, should it be changed or corrected? Third: can you sign it? After I said no to all three questions, he asked me: “What is the solution?”. According to Kravchuk, Yeltsin replied that in that case he would also not sign the new union treaty.

So, Kravchuk, who was a member of the Bandera’s hundreds of “brave youths” in 1950, then implanted into the Komsomol and Party organs of the Ukrainian SSR, delivered a mortal blow to the USSR.
To confirm this episode of Kravchuk’s biography, I propose that readers turn to the book by Yuri Taraskin “War after the War. Memoirs of the counterintelligence officer ”(Moscow: ed.“ Kuchkovo Pole ”, 2006). He was an employee of SMERSH, who had been operating under cover for several years in the leadership of the OUN-UPA (banned in the Russian Federation).

But back to B. Yeltsin. In Sverdlovsk, the construction engineer Yeltsin, “by conviction” who joined the CPSU, was known for being ready “to break into a cake, but to fulfill any task of the party”. Becoming the first secretary of the regional committee, Yeltsin immediately executed the long-standing decision of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU to demolish the Ipatievs house (the place of execution of the royal family in 1918 year). Yeltsin’s predecessors didn’t do this in the regional committee.

In June, 1985 Yeltsin, the first secretary of the Sverdlovsk Regional Party Committee, became secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. Gorbachev and Ligachev liked his toughness and decisiveness, then the “second” to the CPSU, and Yeltsin was “sent” to Moscow to “restore order” after conservative Grishin.

Yeltsin, without hesitation, dismissed the 22-x first secretaries of the Moscow regional committee of the CPSU, others brought to suicide, some to a heart attack. Apparently, it was for that, but Yeltsin carried out the replacement of many secretaries who had been dismissed on the principle of “awl on soap”. The conceit of Boris Nikolayevich, no less than that of Mikhail Sergeevich, soon let him down. At the October 1987 Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, Yeltsin allowed himself to criticize the activities of the Politburo and the Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee. He also expressed concern about the inordinate "praise of some members of the Politburo against the Secretary General."

Yeltsin's speech at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU was chaotic and not impressive. But, according to Gorbachev, he “threw a shadow on the activities of the Politburo and the Secretariat and on the situation in them,” and the CPSU was punished for this. I felt it on my own experience, when in 1981, for the most streamlined criticism of the Lithuanian Civil Code and the Central Committee of the Lithuanian Communist Party to ensure productivity growth, I was immediately sent to the 2-year study at the Vilnius HPS for "increasing the Marxist-Leninist level." Moreover, he was sent to a group of instructors of rural district committee of the party, although he had a higher technical education and was secretary of the RK in economic management in the large Leninsky RK of the Lithuanian Communist Party of Vilnius.

Boris Nikolayevich was removed from his post as first secretary of the Moscow State Committee of the CPSU and was appointed first deputy chairman of the USSR State Construction Committee. However, Soviet citizens, as always, chose not to report, for which Yeltsin was dismissed.

The secrecy of the speech of the First Secretary of the Moscow City Party Committee at the October Plenum was used by his supporter, the editor of the Moskovskaya Pravda newspaper, Mikhail Poltoranin. He prepared a version of the speech of Yeltsin, who had nothing to do with the fact that he spoke at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU.
In this speech, a talented journalist put everything he would like to say at this Plenum.

This was the revelation that the Soviet people had been waiting for a long time, during the so-called stagnation period. Yeltsin's speech, spread out by Poltoranin on a Xerox, was distributed throughout the Union at the speed of a forest fire. Soon in the eyes of the Soviet people, Boris Nikolayevich became a public defender, unjustly punished by the Kremlin party members. It is not surprising that in March 1989 Yeltsin was elected people's deputy of the USSR. At the 1st Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR (May-June 1989), he, thanks to deputy A. Kazannik, who gave up his mandate, became a member of the USSR Supreme Soviet and, as chairman of one of the committees of the Supreme Soviet, became a member of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet.

During this period, American Sovietologists became interested in Yeltsin. In the Soviet “historical closet” they sought out the old tricky idea and decided to reanimate it with the help of a disgraced Russian politician. In the USSR, the absence of the Communist Party of Russia was simply explained. In the monolithic Union it was impossible to create a second equivalent political center. This threatened to split both the CPSU and the Union. With the advent of the charismatic figure of Yeltsin, the Americans had the opportunity to realize plans to create such a center in the USSR.

In September, 1989, a certain organization that seems to be dealing with AIDS, invited Yeltsin, USSR people's deputy, to lecture in the United States. More than strange: a former builder of Yeltsin and AIDS ... But neither Gorbachev nor the State Security Committee alerted this. In the US, Yeltsin spent nine days, during which he allegedly gave several lectures, receiving for each 25 thousands of dollars.

It is hard to say what these lectures were like, since the Soviet guest was constantly, to put it mildly, “tired” all the days of the visit. But he remembered well the recommendations that he was inspired by American experts. They were simple and very attractive - to declare the sovereignty of Russia, to introduce the institution of the presidency there and become president.

This was all told by the same M. Poltoranin in an interview with Komsomolskaya Pravda (09.06.2011) entitled “Who brought Yeltsin to power?”. He stated: “The idea of ​​the presidency Yeltsin brought from America back in 1989 year. In the US, a lot of work was done with our politicians. But Yeltsin was very influential. ”

I note in particular that the CIA, which closely watched over Yeltsin during his visit to the United States, reported to the new American President George Bush that Yeltsin would give the States more, faster and more reliable than Gorbachev.

That is why Bush initially made a bet on Boris Nikolayevich, and not on Mikhail Sergeyevich.

In May, 1990 Yeltsin began to implement the American recommendations. Moreover, it seemed that Gorbachev did everything to facilitate Yeltsin’s return to power. 29 of May 1990 in the absence of real opposition from the Gorbachev team to Yeltsin’s team, Boris Nikolayevich was elected Chairman of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet. Gorbachev, the day of the election of the head of the Russian parliament and his future political gravedigger, met on a plane over the Atlantic, heading once again to the USA.

12 June 1990 At the first Congress of People’s Deputies of the RSFSR, the Yeltsin team was able to include on the agenda the issue “On the sovereignty of the RSFSR, the new union treaty and democracy in the RSFSR”. The congress was invited to adopt the Declaration of Sovereignty of Russia, which provides for the priority of Russian laws over the allies. Gorbachev attended the congress. After reading the draft Declaration, he said that he did not see anything terrible for the Union, so the federal authorities would not react to it. For the President of the USSR, a lawyer by profession and the guarantor of the integrity of the USSR, the Declaration should be assessed as a criminal violation of the USSR Constitution. But…

In August, 1990 Mr. Yeltsin, being in Ufa, offered the Supreme Council and the Government of Bashkiria to take as much power as "they can swallow." This desire largely determined the true parade of sovereignties within the RSFSR. It came to the declaration of sovereignty by the Russian regions.

Well, then everything developed, as if by thumb. After all, if we take for granted the speech of Vladimir Kryuchkov, Chairman of the KGB of the USSR, he uttered 17 June 1991 at a closed meeting of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, then 2200 enemy agents of influence acted in the country. And it is known that the list of these agents was attached to the text of Kryuchkov’s speech. Judging by the scale of the deficit that these agents managed to create in the country, they acted extremely efficiently.

But Kryuchkov at a meeting of the Supreme Council was limited to general words. Apparently, his position was again determined by the fact that he and his department were themselves involved in creating situations in the country that had caused serious damage to the state security of the USSR.

Viskuli is the ultimate ...

A few words about what happened in Belarusian Viskuly during the preparation and signing of the Belovezhsky Agreement. First of all, about the idea of ​​meeting the three heads of the union republics in Viskuly. There are many versions of this. Let me offer one more. There is no doubt that the main theme of the meeting in the Viskulyy far from Moscow was the desire of republican leaders to discuss the treaty on the establishment of the Union of Sovereign States (SSG) without the intrusive dictate of Gorbachev's talker.

It should be borne in mind that Moscow, as a meeting place, immediately fell away. Not only Kravchuk would not fly there, but apparently Shushkevich too. Yeltsin, who had strained relations with Kravchuk, would have refused to fly to Kiev. Belarus remained. Shushkevich was persuaded to organize a meeting, promising to discuss issues of transporting oil and gas through the territory of the republic, which promised her considerable funds. By the way, Kravchuk was also keenly interested in discussing with Russia the supply and transportation of oil and gas to Ukraine. Moreover, he passionately wanted to hunt in Belovezhskaya Pushcha.

As for Yeltsin, he was flying to Belarus, as was said, with the consent of Gorbachev, and his team consisting of G. Burbulis, E. Gaidar, A. Kozyrev and S. Shakhrai carried with him brides for the preparation of the text of the Bialowieza Agreement, which abolished the USSR.
In this regard, we can assume that Gorbachev and Yeltsin, during their 4-hour meeting on the eve of departure, worked out two options for the outcome of the meeting in Viskuli.

The first. Kravchuk will agree on certain conditions to sign a new union treaty. However, this version was unlikely, since 1 December 1991 in Ukraine held a referendum on the independence of the republic, during which 90,3% of voters supported this independence. And, although the bulletin raised only the question of supporting the Act of Independence of Ukraine, adopted by 24 on August 1991, and did not speak about Ukraine’s independence as part of the USSR or outside, which is extremely important from a legal point of view, Kravchuk and his team presented the results of the referendum as unanimous the desire of Ukrainian citizens to be outside the Union.

Second. This, the most likely option, was that Kravchuk, under any conditions set forth by Yeltsin, would refuse to sign the new union treaty, and then it would be possible to denounce the 1922 treaty on the creation of the USSR. In exchange for the Union, it was proposed to create a new state association - the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), in which Gorbachev could claim a leading role.

However, no one believed the promises of Gorbachev. Therefore, it was decided to hold a meeting in Belarus, in a fairly isolated place, but where it was possible to fly by plane. It is also desirable near the Polish border, so that in the event of hostile actions by Gorbachev, you can go to Poland on foot.
Shushkevich recalled the farm Viskuli in Belovezhskaya Pushcha, where 1957 was built by order of Nikita Khrushchev, a hunting government residence was built, in which there were several wooden cottages. To the Polish border here 8 km. To the military airfield in Zasimovichi, capable of receiving jets - about 50 km. The cottage was equipped with government communications. An ideal place to meet high-ranking guests.

On Saturday 7 December 1991, distinguished guests and their attendants gathered in Viskuli. President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev did not fly to Belarus. He preferred to land in Moscow and wait there for the outcome of the situation. Based on the currently known information, it can be argued that neither Kravchuk nor Shushkevich planned to adopt the Bialowieza Agreement at the meeting.

Kravchuk came to hunt and discuss the issues of oil and gas supplies, so he immediately went to Pushcha to hunt. On, as the dacha staff recalls, his guards scared away the boars and bison. Chirping in the tower, Leonid Makarovich empty-handed, returned to the warm room.

As for Shushkevich, he did not prepare the residence at all for the elaboration and adoption of such a serious document as the Belovezhsk agreement. There were not enough seats for accompanying heads of state of advisers, experts, and guards. In the residence not only there were no rooms for serious work, but there was not even a typewriter or other office equipment. For a fax, the plane was sent to Moscow. Something had to borrow from the administration of the reserve "Belovezhskaya Pushcha", including a typist for printing a document.

But by 16 an hour. 8 December 1991 the document was ready, and under the gun of television and photo cameras Boris Yeltsin, Leonid Kravchuk and Stanislav Shushkevich put their signatures to the Agreement on the termination of the existence of the USSR and the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Yeltsin immediately rushed to call President George Bush Sr. and report that the task he had received in the US in 1989 was successfully completed. This also had to be so humbled by the head of Russia, one of the leading states of the world! Unfortunately, Boris Nikolayevich when he was president of Russia, remained at the errand of the Americans.

Fictitious Bialowieza Agreement.

On the signing of the Bialowieza Agreement and the telephone call to Yeltsin, Bush, Gorbachev was reported immediately. But the train, as they say, has already left. Yeltsin, calling Bush, hinted to Gorbachev that he no longer considers him a partner.

The president of the USSR had the opportunity to bring to justice the participants in the shameful Belovezhskaya conspiracy. For almost 24 hours Soviet special forces were awaiting relegation to Belarus to arrest the conspirators.
Flight to the airbase "Zasimovichi" less than an hour. But there was no order from the president of the USSR, although the laws of the USSR and the results of the March 1991 of the All-Union referendum on preserving the Union, which confirmed the desire of 77,85% of the population to live in a single country, allowed Gorbachev to take the most severe measures against the Belovezhskaya conspirators.

I repeat. The cessation of the existence of the Union was beneficial to Gorbachev, whose ideology in life, as the head of his personal guard, Vladimir Medvedev, aptly noted, was the ideology of survival. As a result, Gorbachev was left to be content with a list of personal material claims against Yeltsin, who became his "apostatized" for his non-conflict departure from the post of President of the USSR. They seemed exorbitant to Yeltsin, but Gorbachev’s patrons from the States recommended that the President of the Russian Federation consider them acceptable.

Over the past years, much has been said about the fictitious nature of the Bialowieza Agreement. I will remind only the main thing. 11 December 1991. The USSR Constitutional Oversight Committee adopted a Statement in which it recognized the Belovezhskaya Agreement, contrary to the USSR Law “On the Procedure for Solving Issues Related to the Release of the Union Republic from the USSR”. The statement emphasized that according to this Law, some republics are not entitled to decide issues relating to the rights and interests of other republics, and the authorities of the USSR can cease to exist only “after deciding the fate of the USSR in the constitutional order”.

To this I will add estimates from the Resolution of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of 15 March 1996 for N 157-II DG "On legal force for the Russian Federation - Russia of the results of the USSR referendum 17 of March 1991 on the issue of the preservation of the USSR". The Resolution stated that “officials of the RSFSR who prepared, signed and ratified the decision to cease the existence of the USSR, grossly violated the will of the peoples of Russia to preserve the USSR, expressed in the USSR referendum 17 in March 1991 of the year, as well as the Declaration on State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ".

It was also emphasized that the “Agreement on the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States from December 8 1991 of the year, signed by the President of the RSFSR B.N. Yeltsin and the State Secretary of the RSFSR, G.E. Burbulis and not approved by the Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR - the highest body of state power of the RSFSR, did not have and has no legal force as it relates to the termination of the existence of the Union of the USSR. ”

This is the official legal assessment of the Bialowieza Agreement and its signatories today. But it will not return the lost country.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.stoletie.ru/territoriya_istorii/tajny_belovezhskogo_sgovora_284.htm
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  1. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 15 December 2017 06: 41 New
    +7
    Gorby now sits with Western medals in the West, despised by his compatriots. EBN is rotting in the earth, at the last moment, apparently realizing what he’s doing and actually transferring power to an adequate person ... Ukrainian “exes” are engaged in self-PR and are also not interested in anyone ... Shushkevich with his opposition is in trust with the population somewhere on level of statistical error and nobody needs it either ...
    Someone from the great said: "Life is like a wheel rim - some empires crumble and fall, others create and rise, and the wheel of life continues to roll further ..."
    The Great Country has not sunk by summer is not the worst for ordinary people ... Maybe the turn has come and the real Evil Empire to cease to exist with its "heroes" of collapse? ..... winked repeat
    1. Tatyana
      Tatyana 15 December 2017 09: 56 New
      13
      Peerless article! Read to everyone! Anyone who doubted something else will receive an exhaustive answer. That is exactly how it was. I remember well the events of 1989-1991 of the year. Only for some reason, then, the military on the ground did not believe all this! But civilians in the field were already clear!
      Power in the USSR / Soviet republics fell into the hands of pro-American traitors to the Soviet people and state - in general, in the hands of the most inveterate political bastards!
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 15 December 2017 12: 45 New
        +9
        Hello, Tatyana hi
        Quote: Tatiana
        Whoever doubts something else will receive an exhaustive answer

        If it were all as simple as the Swede writes !!!
        Quote: Tatiana
        in general, in the hands of the most inveterate political bastards!

        Now, if the Swede, having gathered courage, would have named the names of these bastards, he would have no price!
        laughing How is Mayakovsky?
        Party and Lenin twin brothers!
        We say Lenin means party!
        I rephrase a little ..
        We say Misha mean Paradise wassat
        There would be no Raisa Maximovna, there would be no Gorbachev as a politician! So the question arises, who brought "member of the government" Raisa Maximovna gold with diamonds, what would Mikhail Sergeyevich go on the right path? Gorbachev, in essence, is the Vice Chairman of the Pound and nothing more! A Swede casually pronounces the name “Kryuchkov” in his article a couple of times, but immediately hides the owner of this name for nothing meaningless phrases “didn’t want”, “didn’t say”, “didn’t report”. But Kryuchkov was one of those who pulled Gorbi for strings ...
        1. Tatyana
          Tatyana 16 December 2017 10: 54 New
          0
          Serg65
          But Kryuchkov was one of those who pulled Gorbi for strings ...
          Not really, rather the opposite.
          Kryuchkov was a near man! It was for this quality that Mishka Gorbach nominated him as the head of the KGB, for which Kryuchkov was grateful to him, and with this thanks Kryuchkov Kryuchkov was essentially neutralized by Gorbachev.
          Kryuchkov brought Gorbachev to view the KGB information about Gorbachev himself, not taking any proactive repressive actions against Gorbachev himself within the KGB’s authority, supposedly thinking that Gorbachev himself would change his mind and stop his subversive work against the USSR.
          In my eyes, Kryuchkov is Gorbachev's direct accomplice in the collapse of the country and was under Gorbachev’s heel.
    2. Serg65
      Serg65 15 December 2017 12: 02 New
      +6
      Quote: Rurikovich
      Maybe the turn has come and the real Evil Empire to cease to exist with its "heroes" of collapse?

      Greetings, my dear Belarusian friend hi
      Well, if Uncle Vova puts his hand in it, this Empire may fall apart, although looking at the historical path of human development, empires are not durable recourse . By the way, I would be the president, I would definitely put my hand bully
      1. Rey_ka
        Rey_ka 15 December 2017 13: 16 New
        +2
        Not yet time. Until the full cup of bread and understanding, the United States will be on Earth. Evil on Earth is exactly as much as God allows.
      2. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich 15 December 2017 18: 55 New
        +1
        Quote: Serg65
        Greetings, my dear Belarusian friend

        Good evening, dear Sergey! drinks hi
        Because of the emergency, there’s no time for a week to really sit on the net recourse
        Quote: Serg65
        By the way, I would be the president, I would definitely put my hand bully

        good You are not alone wink fellow
    3. Azim77
      Azim77 15 December 2017 12: 42 New
      +1
      Quote: Rurikovich
      at the last moment, apparently realizing what he was doing and actually transferring power to an adequate person

      I suppose they did. Those who were either profitable or expensive to save Russia now (I want to believe in the second, and not in the clan wars of the Rockefellers and Rothschilds). Because EBN protege, similar to him, would have destroyed her further ...
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 15 December 2017 12: 48 New
        +4
        Quote: Azim77
        EBN protege, similar would have fallen on him and her

        Wildly sorry, but the like is who ???
        1. Azim77
          Azim77 15 December 2017 12: 54 New
          0
          And what was little heard then of the oligarchs and “their own” in the EBN family? Choose who is prettier. Even if it weren’t for them, then some manual share-boy, and the same Nemtsov, could continue the work of EBN.
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 15 December 2017 13: 09 New
            +6
            Quote: Azim77
            from the same Nemtsov could continue the work of EBN.

            Nah, my friend, Yeltsin Nemtsov could not stand !!! Terechka Dyachenko brought Berezovsky and Chubais closer to his father’s body, but Boris Nikolayevich saw through them a year later and put up with it only because of the money ... cabbage is vigorous and there is no one to choose !!!
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 15 December 2017 07: 47 New
    +5
    What is written in an article in the Yeltsin Center will not be told or told ....
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 15 December 2017 07: 47 New
    +4
    V.V. Putin: " Lenin planted an atomic bomb under a Russian building".
    Enough to read the so-called. The Decree on Peace and the "Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia", where the principles of the collapse of the country were officially proclaimed.
    So they worked in 1986-1991.
    Gorbachev is to blame for the fact that he strengthened these principles in every way and did not make any efforts to turn the USSR into a unitary Russian state, with the destruction of the "statehoods of national republics."
    1. Curious
      Curious 15 December 2017 09: 07 New
      15
      Shoulder straps new - old songs.
      I remind you of the events of March - October 1917, when the beloved Russian Empire crackled at the seams. Poland, Finland, Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic states, Transcaucasia, Bashkortostan, Kazakhstan, Crimea, Tatarstan, Kuban, the North Caucasus, the Don Army, Siberia engaged in "arrangement of local autonomy." All this long before the Decree on Peace and the Declaration began. Obviously, the processes underlying nationalism, national identification, etc. a bit more complicated process of cooking mamalyga.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 15 December 2017 09: 21 New
        +5
        T. Curieuse, I DO NOT communicate with you, the reason is known to you (disdain) and accepted by you.
        Why, then, are YOURSELF DURING ALL THE TIME? request
        1. Curious
          Curious 15 December 2017 09: 27 New
          +9
          I am not discussing with you, but with your comments. You are present in this discussion indirectly, like Underwood, or something. So do not tear your heart, all agreements reached remain valid.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 15 December 2017 18: 29 New
            +1
            Well! And you were worried. Just reincarnation, even without changing the mortal shell. Wait, the Red Malificent will be back too. All according to Hitchcock.
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 16 December 2017 10: 27 New
            +3
            Quote: Curious
            I am not discussing with you, but with your comments. You are present in this discussion indirectly, like Underwood, or something. So do not tear your heart, all agreements reached remain valid.

            Comrade Curieuse, I DO NOT communicate with you (I disdain, because you are a swindler). Your comments, I DO NOT read and do not answer them.
            Kindly, save me from your annoying, intrusive, annoying, persistent attention.
            "He is at the door, and he is at the window" (C) request
            1. Curious
              Curious 16 December 2017 12: 18 New
              0
              Alas, alas. With all my desire, but I can’t. There are things that cannot be ignored. You yourself have chosen your thorny path.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 17 December 2017 10: 53 New
                +1
                Quote: Curious
                With all my desire, but I can’t.

                That you - DO NOT - can (and this is, if desired! belay ) -Many things explain, yes yes .
                Nevertheless: Have you, Comrade Curieuse, ever met an individual that you sent, sent, and she is all .... comes back and comes back? No? Right?
                Here I am in amazement! belay request
                1. Curious
                  Curious 17 December 2017 16: 48 New
                  0
                  That you are amazed, the whole site knows. You haven’t reported anything new here.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 18 December 2017 11: 26 New
                    +2
                    Quote: Curious
                    That you are amazed, the whole site knows. You haven’t reported anything new here.

                    It is wonderful! yes
                    but you still didn’t answer the simplest question:
                    Have you, Comrade Curieuse, ever met an individual that you sent, sent, but it nevertheless ... comes back and comes back?

                    In men, this does not happen. But this is only for men ....
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 18 December 2017 22: 37 New
                      0
                      I met! I met! Olgovich called. Oh, how it was and wherever they sent it! And they continue to send. Coming back. Just recently, once again returned.
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 19 December 2017 09: 10 New
                        0
                        Quote: Curious
                        I met! I met! Olgovich called. Oh, how it was and wherever they sent it! And they continue to send. Coming back. Just recently, I returned

                        She is imposed on YOU ?! Maturing? You sent her, one time, the second, and she again climbed up to you, bothered you, pestering with your "knowledge"? No?
                        On the contrary?
                        Then what are you talking about? request
    2. solzh
      solzh 15 December 2017 09: 17 New
      +8
      Have you read Lenin yourself? Most likely not, did not read. You just hear the ringing. Read Lenin carefully, maybe you’ll understand what's what.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 15 December 2017 09: 22 New
        +4
        Quote: solzh
        Have you read Lenin yourself? Most likely not, did not read. You just hear the ringing. Read Lenin carefully, maybe you’ll understand what's what.

        Read. Similar advice and YOU. But still you do not understand .....
  4. IGOR GORDEEV
    IGOR GORDEEV 15 December 2017 09: 13 New
    +3
    Former Soviet Prime Minister Nikolai Ryzhkov noted that “Gorbachev was corrupted by world fame, by foreigners. He sincerely believed that being the Messiah saves the world. He was dizzy ... ".

    Where was our KGB and other specials. service? This is what turns out to be a bunch of traitors who commit anti-state activities, but there is no one to stop them?
    1. venaya
      venaya 15 December 2017 09: 33 New
      +2
      Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
      Where was our KGB and other specials. service? This is what turns out to be a bunch of traitors who commit anti-state activities, but there is no one to stop them?

      I think that you were not careful enough in this matter. See: with the beginning of the reign of L.I. Brezhnev, the leadership of the KGB passed to a person with obvious oddities, namely to Y. Andropov. It is now difficult to determine exactly who led whom in this case, or Brezhnev Andropov, or vice versa, I think the second option is the most likely. Do not forget that almost all the "perestroika" were supervised by the KGB, here is the question: was the KGB simply "in the know or in proportion"? I think the answer to this question is open, because in this organization there were people with fundamentally different views, which seriously confuses this whole situation.
      1. captain
        captain 15 December 2017 10: 08 New
        +2
        Quote: venaya
        Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
        Where was our KGB and other specials. service? This is what turns out to be a bunch of traitors who commit anti-state activities, but there is no one to stop them?

        I think that you were not careful enough in this matter. See: with the beginning of the reign of L.I. Brezhnev, the leadership of the KGB passed to a person with obvious oddities, namely to Y. Andropov. It is now difficult to determine exactly who led whom in this case, or Brezhnev Andropov, or vice versa, I think the second option is the most likely. Do not forget that almost all the "perestroika" were supervised by the KGB, here is the question: was the KGB simply "in the know or in proportion"? I think the answer to this question is open, because in this organization there were people with fundamentally different views, which seriously confuses this whole situation.

        Dear venaya. You confirmed my idea that the CPSU was a Russophobic organization (ordinary members were there as extras). The collapse of Russia, the collapse of the USSR. None of the 19 million Communists came out to save the USSR. The Chekists (the glorious heirs of the “iron” Felix) knew everything and the leaders of the CPSU acted with their tacit consent. Gorbachev, Shevarnadze, Yakovlev, Yeltsin, Kravchuk, Volkogonov and others. The VO website very often writes about Gorbachev's betrayal. But then I have a question; why didn’t the Communists rebel against this handful of traitors (including those who pour hot tears on the Communist Party in VO) did not all right party members come out? Why did people not care about the collapse of the USSR? The Communists were fed up with their lies, so the people did not go to defend the true Leninists. For 75 years they had been waiting for a bright future for their children and realized that the children of the true Leninists had a bright future. Look where the children and grandchildren of Khrushchev, Andropov, Stalin, Gorbachev, Yeltsin live ... I recommend that you search among the workers and workers of the village for children of the leaders of the CPSU starting with the district party committees. You will find, write to me please, it is very interesting to see this tractor driver or miner from the face.
        1. Nikitin
          Nikitin 15 December 2017 10: 24 New
          +3
          Quote: captain
          The VO website very often writes about Gorbachev's betrayal. But then I have a question; why didn’t the Communists rebel against this handful of traitors (including those who pour hot tears on the Communist Party in VO) did not all right party members come out?

          ALL the top of the Communist Parties nat. The republic was treacherous — Kravchuk, Snegur, etc. The SAMA CPSU created them like that. As it raised nationalist writers, teachers, "artists", etc., who ruined the country, they did not fly from Mars ..
        2. Karen
          Karen 16 December 2017 15: 41 New
          +1
          On New Year's Day, when I go to congratulate the sidekick, I’ll ask him who they then photographed from the Chekist authorities, who shared with the liberals a bag of money from Moscow - to promote chaos and the collapse of the country.
          _______
          Olgovich - my respect !!!
          I will inform you about the Caucasus in 1917.
          The Transcaucasian Commissariat has always considered the local territory as part of Russia ... It was Lenin who, from Berlin, pushed Transcaucasia ... Then it even came to curiosities ... Other parties won the elections in Baku, but they voluntarily left power to the Bolsheviks .. It didn’t help - Lenin ordered the Bolsheviks to disband the Armenian national armed formations, and themselves - to drape north, for which they caught the traitors ...
    2. Serg65
      Serg65 15 December 2017 12: 52 New
      +6
      Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
      Where was our KGB and other specials. service? This is what turns out to be a bunch of traitors

      laughing You between the phrase “Where was our KGB and other special services” and the phrase “This is a bunch of traitors” remove the question mark and put a hyphen and get the exact answer to your question!
    3. MrK
      MrK 15 December 2017 14: 22 New
      +3
      Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
      Where was our KGB and other specials. service


      From the book of Alexander Kurlandchik - “Cursed” Soviet power on Proza.ru.
      “... In the recently published memoirs of V.F. Kebich - the former Prime Minister of Belarus, one of the signatories of the“ Bialowieza Charter ”there is a chapter“Mikhail Gorbachev knew about the ongoing coup and had a real opportunity to prevent it". We read: “Dinner began at about one in the morning (this is December 9 1991 of the year.). At the suggestion of Yeltsin, they drank only "Bialowieza ...
      ... In the midst of the feast, when the people had little control over their behavior, the Chairman of the KGB of Belarus, Eduard Ivanovich Shirkovsky, approached me. Putting aside, he whispered: Vyacheslav Frantsevich, this is a real coup d'etat! I reported everything to Moscow, to the Committee ... I’m waiting for the Gorbachev team ... After all, there is a fact of treason, betrayal, if you call a spade a spade».
      Further V.F. Kebich writes: “Alas, Moscow was silent. They simply could not report to Shirkovsky about the message to Gorbachev, I rule it out. ” Of course, they reported on the traitors to the main traitor. But he was silent. ”
  5. free
    free 15 December 2017 09: 19 New
    +5
    Burn in hell geeks!
  6. Gardamir
    Gardamir 15 December 2017 09: 28 New
    0
    The cat threw kittens is Yeltsin's fault.
    The cat left the kittens. Gorbachev is to blame.
    It’s just that the State Department, the fifth column, interfered with these two, what's on the list? ..
  7. Serge72
    Serge72 15 December 2017 09: 44 New
    18
    3 bad guys power dismissed
    And to the referendum
    Did not pay attention
    Why not punished?
    Another question...
    Important and interesting topic.
  8. moskowit
    moskowit 15 December 2017 10: 01 New
    +5
    In the USSR, the absence of the Communist Party of Russia was explained simply. In the monolithic Union it was impossible to create a second equivalent political center. This threatened to split both the CPSU and the Union.

    An attempt of such a “maneuver” was quickly discerned by I. Stalin. In 1949, the organization of the Communist Party of the RSFSR was nipped in the bud. True, the measures were harsh, but as shown by successful resuscitation of this idea implemented in the 1991 year, necessary .... This is the so-called "Leningrad affair"
    So, Kravchuk, who was a member of the Bandera’s hundreds of “brave youths” in 1950, then implanted into the Komsomol and Party organs of the Ukrainian SSR, delivered a mortal blow to the USSR.

    It turns out that Kravchuk is an ideological enemy and his exaltation minus the work of the bodies of the Committee on Ukraine ....
  9. apro
    apro 15 December 2017 12: 02 New
    +1
    By and large, the collapse of Russia began with Catherine 2, by decree on the liberties of the nobility and the tightening of serfdom, the governing layer corrupted, and the working one rotted. Human material began to fade, the ideology of nobility was beyond its means.
    1. moskowit
      moskowit 15 December 2017 12: 20 New
      +3
      The manifesto is signed by Emperor Peter the Third on February 18 1762 of the year ....
      The manifesto on the liberty of the nobility is one of the key legislative acts of the short reign of Peter III. According to Jacob Shtelin, Peter, still being the heir to the Russian throne, spoke about his desire to give the Russian nobility the freedom to serve and not serve, as well as the right to freely leave the country. Having become emperor, Peter III 17 of January 1762 of the year during his first official visit to the Governing Senate announced that “from his highest to loyal paternal grace, he deigned to continue the service of the nobility of his own free will, as long as he wished, and when wartime was, then they all must appear on such a basis, as in Livonia with the nobles the actress ”. In this regard, the senators were ordered to prepare a draft manifesto, which they had done by February 8 1762 year. 18 February (1 March) 1762 year Peter III signed this project. Under this legislative act, for the first time in the history of Russia, nobles were exempted from compulsory civil and military service, could, at their request, resign and freely go abroad. True, during the war, the government had the right to demand from the nobles to return to military service. If at the same time the noble was abroad, he was obliged to return to Russia under pain of confiscation of land tenure. In addition, nobles who did not reach the rank of chief officer were forbidden to resign without serving 12 years. The main provisions of the manifesto of Peter III were confirmed by Catherine II in the "Charter of the Nobility of 1785."
  10. nnz226
    nnz226 15 December 2017 15: 09 New
    +2
    The drunk is dead. Two + spotted still smoke the sky .... Help or what?
  11. Andryukha G
    Andryukha G 15 December 2017 18: 53 New
    +1
    There is no secret, the agent of influence of the United States destroyed in one night a state that has been under construction for more than 500 years, and except for a curse, he deserves nothing in his life!
  12. midshipman
    midshipman 15 December 2017 19: 17 New
    +7
    Vladislav told a lot. But the betrayal of Shevarnadze, Gromyko, when G.V. Romanov. these two voted for the tagged. Romanov proposed a completely different path of development for the USSR (not perestroika). But it did not happen. Why am I saying this. I was personally acquainted with G.V. Romanov and L.N. Zaykov. I had to meet with a drunk on the affairs of Moscow enterprises of the MCI of the USSR, when the drunk was the First Secretary of the CPSU Civil Code. The impression was disgusting. But he was chosen and this is our tragedy. I have the honor.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 15 December 2017 20: 12 New
      +1
      Everything is clear with Shevardnadze, but Gromyko!?!?!?
      1. venaya
        venaya 15 December 2017 20: 24 New
        +3
        And what is not clear here? Michman clearly wrote:
        Quote: midshipman
        .. betrayal Shevarnadze, Gromykowhen the Secretary General of the CPSU should be elected G.V. Romanov. these two voted for labeled.

        Apparently, Gromyko also managed to get the destroyers to work. Find out the reasons for his decision, but usually there are no answers to such questions, but it's a pity ..
  13. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 15 December 2017 20: 34 New
    0
    The USSR collapsed Kravchuk. He supported the GKChP, and two days after the defeat of the coup, in order to sit in the president’s chair (and not be arrested like other members of the GKChP or simply deposed as an accomplice - then this happened quickly), declared Ukraine’s independence, mixing all the cards. Nobody could imagine the USSR without Ukraine.
  14. Vikis Ismagulov
    Vikis Ismagulov 3 January 2018 11: 35 New
    0
    The whole history of the USSR said that this Union would collapse, led by the CPSU, but with the help of the United States and Gorbachev's betrayal, it collapsed earlier. The USSR formed a handful of abandoned Jews, who were a weapon of stock in Russia against the Romanovs. The cruelty of the civil war in Russia continued until the collapse of the USSR: if you are not from the CPSU, then against the CPSU. Everything that is created artificially is sometimes destroyed, and in our case with the USSR, nudges
  15. atos_kin
    atos_kin 6 March 2018 13: 14 New
    0
    Disorder: There is a Yeltsin center, but the Gorbachev center is absent, although the “labeled” one also worked hard. Well, nothing, for the six remaining years of rule, there will be someone and what to direct the people's money to. During this time, you can pick up a receiver like Yeltsin, who also knows how to build centers. Russia is a central power.