Military Review

Stories about weapons. Rifles of the First World War. Mannicher rifle, model 1895, Austria-Hungary

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Back in 1888, the city of Friedrich Mannicher created the 8-mm rifle in store, which was tested and adopted for service in Austria-Hungary the same year. It was the first small-caliber Austro-Hungary rifle under black powder. Rifles of this type served in Austria-Hungary until 1895, when the heroine of our story, Steyr Mannicher M1895, was put into service.

With 1890 in the army of Austria-Hungary, smokeless powder was adopted, and Manlicher immediately created a cartridge with this powder with a steel-coated bullet.

The Austrian cartridge served as a model for designing cartridges for many systems, including the Russian cartridge that was used in the Mosin rifle.

The Mannicher rifle of the 1895 model was designed for the same 8-mm cartridge used for the 1888 rifle. Although both rifles have a common cartridge, the rifle designs are different.

The most prominent features of the Mannicher rifle are the “direct action” bolt, with a direct, without a turn, reload when recharging.



Turning the gate larvae to lock was carried out automatically by special spiral grooves on its stem. This increased the rate of fire and ease of use. weapons, but complicated its design, reduced reliability and increased the force applied by the shooter when reloading.



You can rightfully call the Manlicher rifle the “grandmother” of a Kalashnikov assault rifle according to the principle of the shutter.



The rifle's intimate shop was filled with a metal pack of 5 cartridges remaining in the store until they were used up, after which the pack falls through a window at the bottom of the store.



An unused pack can be removed through the open bolt after pressing the retainer located in the back of the magazine, combined with the trigger guard. These rifles used the original grooved packs at the top to facilitate loading.

M1895 was distinguished by high shooting accuracy, rate of fire and durability. Before the First World War, in the officer corps of the Russian Imperial Army, it was considered good practice to criticize these weapons for their sensitivity to contamination because of the large window in the receiver. However, the beginning of the hostilities did not confirm the essence of this problem: the pollution of the mechanism certainly took place, but most of them sank away as easily as they appeared.

Together with a rifle of the 1895 model, the bladed bayonet was adopted by the army of Austria-Hungary. The rifle was shot without a bayonet. The bayonet is worn separately from the rifle. The weight of the bayonet without scabbard is 280 g., The length of the blade is 254 mm.



However, the career of the rifle Manlichera was very short.

In the 1916 year, despite the high rate of fire, reliability, convenience, high-performance cartridge, the leadership of the Austro-Hungarian army decided to abandon the Manlicher rifle in favor of a simpler and cheaper Mauser rifle, whose design turned out to be more adapted to production in wartime .

There is an opinion that the possibility of using the industrial resources of the strategic ally of Austria-Hungary, the German Empire, played an important role in making such a decision.

In the Russian Imperial Army, the rifles of Mannicher, which fell as trophies, received a higher mark than before the war. And quite normally participated in the battles against the former owners.

Soldiers of Austria-Hungary parted with weapons in such quantities that the Petrograd cartridge plant produced serially ammunition for captured rifles Mannlicher.

The rifle took part in the Civil War and survived even to the Great Patriotic War, where it was used in small quantities by the militias.

An expert from the club talks about the rifle, its components and other things historical reconstruction "Infantheria" (Moscow region) Andrey Bondar.

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  1. bionik
    bionik 13 December 2017 15: 30 New
    +5
    The rifle took part in the Civil War and survived even to the Great Patriotic War, where it was used in small quantities by the militias.
    By the way, the Manlicher rifle served in the service of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. This was due to the creation of the so-called "Arthur machine gun" developed by Captain Shmetillo IB This development served as a longitudinally sliding bolt of direct action of this rifle.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 13 December 2017 15: 56 New
      +2
      The Russian imperial army during the occupation of Port Arthur fortress "by inheritance" from the Qing troops received a significant amount Manliher’s rifles, mostly of 1886 under a cartridge with smoky powder, and shutter direct action.
  2. Monarchist
    Monarchist 13 December 2017 16: 31 New
    +2
    Quote: hohol95
    The Russian imperial army during the occupation of Port Arthur fortress "by inheritance" from the Qing troops received a significant amount Manliher’s rifles, mostly of 1886 under a cartridge with smoky powder, and shutter direct action.

    For the first time I read about the “Shmetilo machine gun” in Stepanov’s book “Port Arthur”, and then on TV they talked about him, but in the book they talked about captured Japanese rifles, and on TV they talked about the Russian three-ruler
  3. Monarchist
    Monarchist 13 December 2017 16: 40 New
    +3
    It was news to me that the Manlicher cartridge was a prototype for the Russian rifle. I somehow did not think about what was the basis for the Russian patron.
    Judging by Fedoseyev and some other authors. Shutter Mauser the most successful
    1. figwam
      figwam 13 December 2017 17: 40 New
      +4
      To develop our rifle and cartridge, all foreign serial models were studied, including France, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Germany, etc.
    2. anatoliy73
      anatoliy73 13 December 2017 17: 54 New
      +3
      If sclerosis doesn’t “change me”, it was this cartridge with a flange that was accepted at the RIA as a temporary one (before adopting a more progressive flangeless with a groove). But we have nothing more permanent than temporary - and the cartridge to this day is on supply in the RA))) And as for the Mauser’s shutter, it’s not a shame but better — but sorry — their workers used barbells and micrometers in the manufacture. And with us, LECALS ! So the technology of mass production would not be pulled. That's why they always tried to do it - which is simpler and with more sparing tolerances. hi
      1. figwam
        figwam 13 December 2017 19: 27 New
        +2
        Our cartridge 7.62x54R was developed by Colonel N. Rogovtsev, but of course it is similar to other cartridges.7.62x54R Russia
        8x50R France
        8x56R Austria-Hungary
  4. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 13 December 2017 19: 06 New
    20
    Great rifle Manliher!
    "Green Van" and "Schweik" immediately remembered)
    1. The comment was deleted.
  5. John22
    John22 13 December 2017 21: 53 New
    +4
    I allow myself to disagree with the authors of the article and the speaker in the video. The 1st rifle cartridge of Russia with smokeless powder and a coated bullet was developed in 1889-90. commissioned by Colonels Rogovtsev, Petrov and Capt. Savostyanov. The basis was taken 8 mm cartridge for the French Lebel’s rifle M.1886 with smokeless powder P. Viel (1884 8x50P) (like the barrel of the same M.1886 was taken as a model for a Russian rifle). The original name is "3-line. Rifle cartridge." Designation 0,3x2,11R '' or 7,62x53,5R mm.
    The Manlicher cartridge appeared only in 1890. 8x50R
    1. Curious
      Curious 14 December 2017 00: 31 New
      +2
      Obviously, both of the mentioned cartridges influenced the development of the 7,62x54R cartridge.
    2. Aqela
      Aqela 26 December 2017 00: 28 New
      0
      I thought so too. It’s not somehow strange that the cartridge for the 1891 rifle was developed on the basis of the cartridge for the 1895 rifle wassat