Military Review

How the first volley of Katyusha deprived the Germans of faith in victory

14 July 1941 of the year. In the direction of the Belarusian railway station Orsha is moving a convoy of Soviet troops. The column consists of seven unusual trucks. They are taking to the place of testing a new, unprecedented weapon. Even the battery commander does not know about his real capabilities and the scale of the application.

Station Orsha. German troops are preparing to strike at Smolensk. At three o'clock in the afternoon of 14 on July 1941 of the year, a fiery tornado struck the German units. In 15 seconds, 112 rockets were fired. They completely destroyed the Orsha station along with the equipment and manpower of the enemy.

It was the first in stories combat salvo "Katyusha" - the most powerful rocket artillery machine of the Second World War.

After the first use of "Katyush" Hitler summoned Admiral Canaris, Chief of Military Intelligence, to the carpet and gave him a uniform dressing. Abwehr overslept the development of the latest Soviet weapons. In addition, according to incoming data, the Russians use shells with white phosphorus, which can burn even under water.

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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Misak Hananyan
    Misak Hananyan 11 December 2017 18: 20
  3. 97110
    97110 11 December 2017 18: 50
    112 rockets. They completely destroyed the Orsha station along with the equipment and manpower of the enemy.
    Yeah, there were shells. Completely station ... Nesto and brake shoes did not survive? To be proud of the feat of grandfathers is necessary. But the people are literate now, they are interested in affairs in the Donbass. It would not be bad to describe how the nodal station is completely destroyed, what role the transported ammunition, oil products play. And in how many days the Germans restored the completely destroyed station. And how many hours did the Soviet railway workers do the same? And count the rails from P43 to P65, for updating.
    1. Cxnumx
      Cxnumx 12 December 2017 06: 43
      Quote: 97110
      Completely station ... Nesto and brake shoes did not survive?

      Tell me, a tank with a detonating bk - completely destroyed? a tower that has flown a dozen meters away can even keep its shape (do not care that everything except the armor inside is scorched and crumpled into a cake), and the hull can generally stand intact. or consider such a tank simply "unusable"?)). he’s skating rinks are so almost indestructible + there are many of them))
      Quote: 97110
      what role are transported ammunition and petroleum products.
      probably very significant, because fires at oil depots / refineries / ammunition depots - this is very difficult and dangerous, especially if it's all together, especially if there is nobody to put out anything. even if there is solid concrete "if the temperature is two hundred and fifty degrees, then concrete loses its strength by only twenty-five percent, and if within five hundred degrees - the building material is completely destroyed." 250 degrees just in a good fire can be done))
      1. 97110
        97110 12 December 2017 11: 15
        Quote: K0
        Tell me, a tank with a detonating bk - completely destroyed?

        What do you want to say? What is a reprint of a combat leaflet of a training battery for VO enough? Our morale has risen, now pride in grandfathers will give strength to survive the activities of Mutko near Russian sports and the shame of the upcoming Olympics? After your comment, I climbed into Yandex. And here is what I saw right there:
        4) Why did Flerov’s battery fire on Orsha on July 14 at 15.15, when the Germans had not yet occupied Orsha? (A. Petrov claims that Orsha was occupied on July 14, a number of publications indicate the date on July 16, and Source No. 2 says that after the salvo in Orsha the Germans did not have 7 days).
        A normal reason for the report on the complete destruction of the nodal station 112 shells? Your tank is destroyed, because they will not restore it, only with a broom. And the Germans, nevertheless, restored the station. The author did not write, what on the completely destroyed station did not allow her to work? Was the top structure of the track destroyed? Are ballast prisms destroyed? Or was it enough to remove the burnt wagons? Agree that the Katyushin RS is not equal to the FAB-100. But the bombing of railway stations by aircraft did not completely destroy the station. Separate funnels fell asleep, changed damaged rails, sleepers and - go ahead! It's like a broken rink changing a tank, so that it would be more understandable to you. I’m not a zhrodzhnik, but environmentalists have been tearing me for a deadlock, calling it "an unauthorized landfill in the water protection zone." I am therefore interested.
        1. Cxnumx
          Cxnumx 12 December 2017 12: 22
          Quote: 97110
          A normal reason for the report on the complete destruction of the nodal station 112 shells?

          if at the station there was at least 1 train with oil products (and taking into account the fact that this is a large transport hub, there probably were several of them), then as a result of a fire, even one train of this composition has to change the paths it stood on. taking into account wooden sleepers, the paths became completely unusable (at best, pull away the burnt cores along them, and then change the sleepers; given that in such fires the temperature can easily reach several hundred degrees - concrete parts and partially metal become unusable. products. for me - this is the destruction of the goal.
          as for the "myths" then:

          given the secrecy of development (often intentional distortion of information) - a myth can easily become a reality.
          1. 97110
            97110 12 December 2017 13: 54
            Quote: K0
            concrete parts become unusable

            Where were the concrete parts in 1941? If even now there are only sleepers on the main turn, they are reinforced, and on driveways, if you have not obtained an old-year trellis, often a tree. Turnouts on the R-43 rails still, wherever I worked. And there are P-50s on the tracks. Changing the grill is a matter of hours, not even days. For 2-axle wagons, what are the special requirements for tracks, especially station ones, is not the main move. I went to your link. So what? Does she allow the training manual to publish combat leaflets? Moreover, the topic is not very simple, interesting, requires research with a lack of information. Were the Germans in Orsha at the time of the shelling of the station Katyusha? Were not? Why volley without shooting? Ah, direct fire? You write, they say myths ... So the whole war is a myth? Everything is classified, the rest is destroyed. Are there only randomly preserved battle sheets of 1977 in the artillery training regiment?
            1. anderson
              anderson 15 December 2017 19: 14
              The Germans at the time of the shelling of Orsha station were Katyushas at the station. The station was not naturally destroyed because it was impossible to destroy the nodal station with a hundred and 152 mm shells and even fired by a fan. The Germans had losses in several echelons unloading at the station, but this did not affect their capture on July 15 of Smolensk (the central part to the Dnieper), and on July 16 the entire city, including the Dnieper. In general, the Germans considered the Katyusha too wasteful and inaccurate weapons, and did not copy it, preferring to cover targets at the same range with barrel artillery with lower projectile consumption and greater effect .. Katyusha performed well with massive use before the attack. However, after the warriors, they quickly abandoned the scheme with rail guides and went exactly along the German route of launching a rocket from a pipe.
              1. 97110
                97110 16 December 2017 10: 24
                Quote: anderson
                The Germans at the time of the shelling of Orsha station were Katyushas at the station. The station was not naturally destroyed

                Thanks for the normal answer.
                1. anderson
                  anderson 16 December 2017 15: 47
                  Yes tired of the extremes on the forum. Some write straight-handed headings for articles, while others spoil soldiers who saved the country in World War II. Well, how could the Germans lose faith in the victory after applying Katyusha? He didn’t throw a nuclear bomb at Berlin, but 100 shells flew in one gulp of which 50 by. Everyone knows about the fate of Flerov’s first battery, which, by the way, launched a volley near Orsha and then was destroyed by the artillery-rocket launchers themselves in the Vyazma environment. the equipment did not go to the enemy. But about the fact that at least 4 Katyusha batteries got into the Vyazma boiler and nothing is written about their future fate. The fact that the use of Katyushas in the 16th Army against the Germans breaking through to the village of Volochek on October 4, 1941 was unsuccessful and they could not stop the attack either. "Katyusha" took its rightful place in the weapons system of the Red Army when they learned how to correctly use them. And in 1941, and in most of 1942, they were not able to massage the use of multiple launch rocket systems and choose targets worthy of these systems. There are recollections of a democrat rocket launcher’s boiler in which he writes that upon arrival at the place the battery didn’t shoot for a long time because they couldn’t find targets for decent shelling, and you know how this botarea shot on the football field where the Germans played football. A couple were killed and injured dozens of Germans. A volley of howitzer batteries of three guns would have brought the same casualties. By the way, in December 1941 the Germans had at their disposal both the installation and the shells for it.
        2. Moon reflection
          Moon reflection 13 December 2017 01: 39
          What do you say comes down to one thing, namely, that the Germans by the 45th year without loss of personnel and equipment had retreated to Berlin simply because it was painful for them to see the Russian soldiers die under the tracks of indestructible tanks)
    2. The comment was deleted.
  4. Leonid Har
    Leonid Har 12 December 2017 13: 43
    After such articles the mood improves
  5. Dok133
    Dok133 12 December 2017 16: 27
    I watched the attached video from the YouTube "NEFACT". Many of the designers of our aircraft and rocket technology were sitters at Comrade Stalin.
    He drew attention to the fact that S.P. Korolev repeatedly subsequently openly spoke out that in 1937. G. Langemak and I. Kleimenov were arrested and convicted on a denunciation of their subordinate A. Kostikov, who wanted to move up the career ladder.
    This is to the question that during the councils there were some other, kinder, more honest and not selfish people, not that now. What are you lying to? People are already 2000 years old, like the same ones, only the cut of the upper dress changes.
    1. Family Babkov
      Family Babkov 16 December 2017 09: 26
      and you think for yourself. Now an honest traffic cop is a nonsense that has been booming in the news throughout the country. Did you proclaim that people were kinder, more honest? EXACTLY. In the past, honesty was valued, and now, SO MUCH scam that even Moscow has changed. They just got used to total deceit, Muscovites actually know this. Do you know what they say about kind and ordinary people? Suckers! This is not a personal invention. Do you know why the Russian military is now on top? Many cadres from the Soviet Union brought up in conscience and renewed old projects (Warsaw, white swan, etc.). And now the conscience is an outdated concept for many, which makes it difficult to get more money, as in the West. I would not want to defend the councils and of course there were scum, but you at least realize that now all the police and prosecutors are often rotten (I was in the courthouse and I remember the requests of the prosecutor not to give them out when I was suing). The difference is huge! And do not say that nothing has changed. Previously, every second car drove people, and in the summer was shocked - even the old woman, the OLD WOMAN no one wants to bring, although the cars are sea. Someone is afraid of the same set-ups and total lies. So don’t bend the bar. In the USSR there was one and a very huge minus the other, which ruined the USSR, but people in general were still better and kinder, and here I do not discover America with this fact. And on the whole, “freedom for gays” is being yelled all over the planet, and sometimes even what gays have heard better than others. All nonsense is going on. To go nuts.
  6. Dazdranagon
    Dazdranagon 15 December 2017 10: 50
    It is also encouraging that we still have weapons that the "partners" can only guess about! soldier
  7. Romka47
    Romka47 15 December 2017 12: 32
    "In addition, according to incoming data, the Russians use shells with white phosphorus, which can."
    As far as I know, phosphorus has a very high combustion temperature, only then they abandoned it, if I remember everything correctly.
  8. Oleg 53
    Oleg 53 17 December 2017 10: 06
    In order to understand how the Katyusha volley works and why it is so effective, you need to remember the catch phrase that the projectile doesn’t fall into the same funnel twice. And then to understand that when one gun fires, then the shells explode at intervals, when the battery shoots, the explosions are simultaneous. A volley of one Katyush machine is equal to a volley of more than ten guns. Now compare how long it will take to deploy a battery of guns, coordinate its actions, shelter, and simply place to place. And now one machine per volley takes no more than 5 minutes, the effect of 10 guns firing simultaneously. There are few chances to hide from an instant explosion of a dozen large-caliber shells, the blast wave is summed up from it, they delegate their own ammunition to the enemy, the soldiers who were in the affected area if not killed and injured are at least shocked. Modern multiple launch rocket systems are even more effective at first they spray aerosol which then instantly explodes to produce one giant explosion ... Compare the effectiveness of a Katyush battery with an art regiment. This weapon hits an enemy over a large area instantly. Even long-term firing points may not help if thermal charges are used, everything just burns out ...
    1. anderson
      anderson 21 December 2017 16: 51
      All this is certainly good, but if we talk specifically about Katyusha, the spread of shells over the area is such that if several installations are not used to shoot over the area, then the number of shells arriving at the target is much less than when shooting the same number of shells fired at the same target with artillery. At the same time, the receiver battery can also shoot in one gulp and the shells will arrive just like the BM-13, but much more accurately. Taking into account all the secrecy measures that accompanied the use of BM-13 in the first years of the Second World War, the commanders in the troops noted that their withdrawal to the line of fire and use is much less convenient than the use of barreled artillery plus barreled artillery can shoot an enemy’s position with a single gun and continue to fire with the whole battery at goals. It’s very difficult to shoot the BM-13 ...
  9. Molot1979
    Molot1979 7 January 2018 08: 28
    And so, having lost all faith, and fought until 1945. Talking about the feat, about the successful operation is the right thing. But bringing it to an open cranberry is bad. Because of such nonsense, which was carried by Soviet historians, then the clouding of the minds turned out. Already such Germans were stupid, cowardly and ugly, and they lost their faith in victory on June 21, the day before the attack, they fought swiftly, everywhere ours both in the tail and under the tail. One can only marvel at how Adik managed to get them to fight for so long. Four years without faith in victory.