The second "multi-purpose" promising destroyer DDG-1001 USS "Michael Monsoor" class "Zumwalt" worth more than 3,5 billion came off the stocks of the shipyard "Bath Iron Warks", located on the river. Kennebeck (Maine) 6 December 2017 of the year. On the central American TV channels and other media, this event was covered with the already familiar pathos and stateliness characteristic of Western Internet publications. In the same turn, almost no one bothered to inform the latter, the most significant news regarding a radical change in the concept of using new stealth crabs, which was announced by the US Navy Rear Admiral Ron Boxale and representatives of the US Naval Institute on his website a few days before the launch of the 2 Zamvolta.
According to Ron Boxale, the US Navy command is increasingly leaning toward building exclusively anti-ship capabilities at the Zamvolts, allowing them to carry out massive missile attacks against ship and aircraft carrier strike groups of the enemy. At the same time, the multipurpose designation of destroyers of this class is mentioned less and less. Initially, the DD21 and then DD (X) projects provided for the development of a rather heavy multi-purpose surface combat ship with a displacement of more than 10 thousand tons, which should approximately correspond to the dimensions of the destroyers “Arleigh Burke” and missile cruisers “Ticonderoga”, but significantly ahead of the latter in the range of weapons used, the flexibility to use against coastal and remote continental targets of the enemy, as well as against surface and air targets. For this, specialists from Raytheon, a company involved in the design of an arms control system and radar architecture of a stealth destroyer (MR / AN / SPY-3), developed a promising 711-mm quadruple universal launcher Mk 57 PVLS, which, using transport and launch glasses of various calibers, you can unify all existing tactical, strategic, anti-submarine and anti-aircraft guided missiles, armed with the American fleet. Along the sides of the destroyer 20 similar quadruple UVPUs were installed, therefore, the number of TPK with units weapons reaches 80 units
One of the main intentions of the developers was the empowerment of a missile destroyer with a displacement of 14564 tons (1,5 times more than the Ricc of the Ticonderoga class) with the possibility of high-precision artillery support for landing operations of the USMC coastal zones of the enemy states. For this, the ships were equipped with two 155-mm AGS (Advanced Gun System) artillery mounts with 12 firing rate / min and a range of not more than 35 km using standard high-explosive fragmentation shells (considering that 127-mm AU Mk 45 s barrel length 54 caliber has a range of 23,2 km). The total 2-x ammunition of guns, including a container with an automated supply of shots, is 920 shells, 600 of which (300 for each gun AGS) are located directly in the loader. Meanwhile, the use of standard artillery ammunition does not correspond at all to the modern operational and tactical conditions for conducting artillery support for landing operations in the littoral zone. The ship and its crew will be in great danger. The fact is that in this case, for confident destruction of the coastal infrastructure of the enemy, destroyers of the Zamvol class must approach the enemy’s territory at a distance of 30 km. This means only one thing: the destroyer will be in the zone of destruction not only of anti-ship and multi-purpose missile systems of the enemy, but also of conventional self-propelled and towed artillery installations firing with large-caliber long-range active missiles with a range of 40 and more than km. For this reason, even in 2006, it was decided to abandon the use of standard artillery shells with a short range.
The way out was found in the development by BAE Systems and Lockheed Martin 155-mm of the advanced LRLAP (Long Range Land Projectile) advanced active-projectile designed to destroy ground targets at distances up to 137 km (74 nautical miles ) with a circular deviation of about 25 m. A shell with a length of 2240 mm and a mass of 102 kg is equipped with: a powerful solid-fuel charge with a long period of operation, which allows you to accelerate to a speed of more than 1000 m / s (the initial speed after leaving the bore of an AGS gun is only XN UMX m / s), small-sized nose aerodynamic rudders, 825 drop-down tail stabilizers, GPS / radio command guidance module, as well as an 8-kilogram PBXN-25 explosive mass of about 9 kg. Starting in the middle of 11,2, the first 2005 products (manufactured in 15-2004) passed a series of fire tests that demonstrated the unique flight reliability of the INS and aerodynamic plane control actuators. It also became known that LRLAP moving along a “quasi-ballistic” trajectory overcomes the 2005-kilometer stretch in 110 s. This is due to significant ballistic braking on the descending branch of the trajectory.
Initially it was assumed that each prospective guided missile would cost American taxpayers approximately 35 thousand dollars, but later the products were self-inflating due to the repeated reduction of a series of unobtrusive destroyers to 3 units. As a result, the cost of one LRAP has reached almost 0,8 million dollars, which is just 1,5 times cheaper than the AIM-120D super-long-range missile (1,2 million dollars). Such costs were unacceptable even for the largest printing press country, which was reflected in the short publication of the Defense News publication, which, with reference to the command of the US Navy, reported that the LRLAP program was abandoned. Considering that the AGS gun caliber is 155 mm, information has emerged about the possible adaptation of guided active-reactive guided projectiles of the related M982 “Excalibur” family, but to date the fate of the M982 integration program in the Mk 45 artillery unit 4 has not been determined. As a result, the US Navy receives 2 advanced fully "digital" and automated destroyers that are not able to solve one of the most important tasks - artillery support units of the USCM. In this case, the issue of two unused 155-mm artillery installations will have to be resolved immediately (either by adapting Excalibur or by returning to the idea of "supporting" conventional ballistic shells).
Now consider the situation with the anti-aircraft and anti-missile potentials of the Zumwalt class destroyers. Here the situation is much better than with an indefinite "artillery asset." In particular, the universal vertical launchers (UVPU) Mk 57 PVLS ("Peripheral Vertical Launching System") have a number of significant advantages over the standard UVPU Mk 41. First of all, it is the considerably larger capacity of 28-inch (711-mm) square transport cross-launch containers in comparison with 22-inch (558-mm) TPK types Mk 13, 14 (mod 0 / 1), 15 launcher Mk 41. Due to this, each cell of the Mk 57 can accept both standard “equipment” in the form of 4-s defensive interceptors RIM-162 ESSM, as well as more interesting configurations (with appropriate adaptation): one ultra-long-range RIM-174 ERAM, anti-missile RIM- 161A / B with a kinetic interceptor Mk 142, or up to 9 advanced short-range anti-aircraft missiles RIM-116B, by analogy with the ESSM complex, but in larger quantities. The standard transport and launching cup Mk 57 has a high modernization potential due to the length of 8 meters: thanks to this, it is possible to unify promising missiles and anti-ballistic missiles that are only in the development stage
Despite the fact that the current concept for the use of Zamvolt class destroyers does not provide for the implementation of regional missile defense tasks and official sources do not report the use of Standards-2/3/6 from Mk 57 launchers, the latter can easily be unified with a flexible programmable TSCEI-type CIU interface based on the high-performance PPC-7A, PPC7-D and PMCD3 terminals, which synchronize all control systems for various weapons and radar in a single combat mpleks. For network-centric interaction with other ships of the class, the tactical information exchange bus CEC (“Consumer Electronics Control”) is used, which is represented by an encrypted decimeter radio channel for exchanging tactical information with a pseudo-random tuning of the frequency hopping frequency according to the type of “Link -16” radio channel. The terminal of the latter is also present on destroyers of the Zamvolt class for integration into the advanced network-centric concept of the US Navy Kill Web, which over the past few years has been carefully developed on all Aegis ships, submarines, anti-submarine aviation, as well as carrier-based aviation during separate exercises of the American Navy, as well as joint exercises with the Japanese Navy and / or the Royal Australian Navy, which are armed with Aegis destroyers of classes such as Congo, Atago and Hobart (type "AWD").
It is for Link-16 and / or other auxiliary radio channels of the CEC Zamvolta bus that will be able to receive target designation from numerous third-party sources of radar detection and tracking and optical-electronic reconnaissance equipment. These include destroyers URO of class “Arleigh Burke” and RKR URO of class “Ticonderoga”, equipped with multifunctional radar with PFAR type AN / SPY-1A / D. Operating in the decimeter S-band and having an average power of 58 kW, these radars are capable of detecting high-speed ballistic and aerodynamic high-altitude targets at much greater distances than the AN / SPY-3 radar system installed on the Zumwalt. The RLC data is represented by an 3-extraneous active phased array antenna with a Y-shaped spatial orientation of AFAR sheets. The advantage of AN / SPY-3 is the possibility of aiming at aerial targets of many anti-aircraft missiles with semi-active RGSN type RIM-162 ESSM, which is achieved due to the centimeter X-band work (in the frequency range 8 - 12 GHz). The second advantage of the X-range can be considered the absence of unwanted reflections from the water surface when working on low-altitude anti-ship missiles and other means of air attack (S-band radars of the AN / SPY-1 family are familiar with this problem). The main disadvantage of the centimeter range AN / SPY-3 is a high attenuation coefficient in the atmosphere, which together with a smaller area of antenna arrays leads to a decrease in the detection range of remote aerospace objects.
The prototype of the radar / radio architecture of the rear face of the Zumwalt class EM superstructure. At this (early) demonstrator, you can see the presence of a constructive “window” for the S-band VSR SPS, which would allow the Zamvolts to work independently for long-range ballistic targets, by analogy with the promising AMDR radar, but the project did not move on. , on serial ships on the site of the "long-range" MRLS are rectangular segments laid down by a radio-absorbing envelope
Consequently, in terms of air defense and missile defense, destroyers of the Zamvolt class can boast only a high self-defense potential against the massed anti-ship attacks of the enemy. As for the possibilities of implementing regional missile defense, prospective destroyers can only act as floating arsenals with 80 UVKU Mk 57 cells for SM-3 / 6 interceptor missiles, which will be directed by Arley Burke, Ticonderoga, AWACS aircraft as well as ground-based radar detectors. From this conclusion: to participate in the construction of powerful sea or ocean aerospace boundaries A2 / AD destroyers of the type "Zamvolt" must either be kept in the composition of the order KUG / AUG, or move away from it at a distance of no more than 150 km, because alone from Destroyers destroyers will be negligible.
A similar picture can be observed when familiarizing oneself with Japanese multi-purpose destroyers of Akizuki class URO and helicopters of the class "Hyuuga". The ships are equipped with centimeter dual-band MRLS type FCS-3A with four-sided antenna posts. Each side has a C-band radar detector (larger canvas) and X-band radar illumination and guidance (smaller sheet). The latter provides a steady multi-channel illumination of air targets for missiles of the RIM-162B type, software and hardware not adapted for use in versions of the Aegis system. These ships are also not designed to act in upper-line missile defense systems, but they can be used as floating ammunition due to the presence of UVKUs of the Mk 41 type (but only after installing the Mk 21 transport and launch containers for use of the RIM-174 ERM and RIM-161A / B).
Notable is the fact that when performing anti-ship operations on the ocean / sea theater, which rear admiral Ron Boksale recently focused on, Zamvolt class destroyers have the opportunity to approach the enemy's AUG / KUG in 3 times closer than the usual destroyer Air Defense-PRO "Arleigh Burke." All this is possible due to 40 times smaller effective scattering surface (EPR), which is achieved by angular shapes of the sides and superstructure, reverse blockage of the sides and stem, as well as the use of radio absorbing coatings with a physical dimension of about 1 inch. For example, if the Novella-P-38 search and sighting system detects an Arly Burk target at a distance of 270 - 300 km, then Zumwalt will be detected from a distance of 90 - 120 km. And this is already enough to leave a minimum of time for our or Chinese naval strike groups to repel a massive anti-ship attack. So, for example, promising low-profile AGM-158C LRASM anti-ship missiles, as well as Tomahawks in the RGM-109B TASM modification are able to cover this distance in just 9 - 10 minutes, and such missiles can be around 50, considering that some of the cells are MN 57 is busy with the RIM-162 “Evolved Sea Sparrow Missiles” SAM. Even more troubles can be delivered to our fleet by the high-speed anti-ship versions of the “Standards”, which can also be used from the UHFU Mk 57.
At the beginning of 2016, the then head of the US defense department, Ashton Carter, made an important statement about the ongoing program to develop a promising 4-fly-by anti-ship missile based on ultra-long-range anti-aircraft missiles RIM-174 ERAM (SM-6). As you know, even 7 April 1973, the US Navy conducted successful field tests of the anti-ship modification of the RIM-66F SAM missile system with an active first-generation radar homing head. Unlike the previous modification of RIM-66D SSM-ARM ("Surface-to-Surface Missile / Anti-Radiation Missile"), designed to destroy radio-emitting targets and equipped with a passive RGSN, the new product could hit all types of radio-contrast surface objects. Possessing a full-fledged quasi-ballistic trajectory with a top point in the 22 km region, the RIM-66F rocket could overcome 50 - 60 km with flying speed near 1 - 1,2М, while the ESR in 0,15 m2 did not allow its existing entities to effectively exist. But incarnated "in the serial gland" of this rocket, unlike PRLR RIM-66D, was not destined: the command of the US Navy preferred the developed subsonic anti-ship missile RGM-84A, which was adopted in 1977 year. The RIM-66F project was closed in 1975.
After 41 a year, based on the experience of converting the first Standard to a short-range ballistic missile, the project was restored, but on the basis of SM-6. The increase in the operational and tactical capabilities of this rocket is simply enormous. In particular, due to the use of the Mk 72 solid propellant starting and accelerating stage (mass of solid fuel charge 468 kg) with 6 operating time with 265 s specific impulse, the SM-6 pro-hawk will rise to the upper stratosphere (up to 45 km altitude), after which , gaining speed 4M, will move with a slight ballistic deceleration and decrease. In this case, the descending branch of the trajectory may stretch for a couple of hundred kilometers. As a result, together with the launch site, the range of such a high-speed anti-ship missile can reach 250 - 300 km. The target dive speed at the target can range from 1,5 to - 2,5M (depending on a preselected dive angle). The above angle can reach 85 - 90 degrees, which is why not all existing shipborne radars can detect ballistic anti-ship missiles, since the elevation zones of the scanning beam of most of them do not exceed 75 - 80 degrees.
Approximately such a list of disadvantages and advantages has a class of low-profile destroyers "Zumwalt" in the existing version. Despite the narrow specialization of the AN / SPY-3 shipborne radar complex, as well as the lack of readiness of the AGS artillery guns to carry out the tasks, at first glance the defective modern staff monitor is an extremely dangerous enemy for the ships of the Russian Navy, as well as the Chinese Navy, which achieved through the use of stealth elements of the hull and superstructure, reducing the EOP to the performance of the "aluminum boat" with the simultaneous use of the latest types of anti-ship weapons including supersonic. Successful detection, support, and destruction of this class of low-profile destroyers can be accomplished only by combining the actions of all fleet components, where radio patrol aircraft and sonar systems of multi-purpose atomic submarines will play a decisive role.