Military Review

Aviation against tanks (part of 17)

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In 60, the construction of anti-tank helicopters in Europe was very limited, which was determined both by the imperfection of the helicopters themselves and by the low characteristics of the guided missile systems. The military were suspicious of chirping rotary-winged apparatus, which had a low speed, duration, and flight range. The relatively small capacity of the light-class helicopters did not allow to protect the cockpit and the most vulnerable units with armor, and to equip them with powerful weapons. In addition, the first guided anti-tank missiles, aimed at the target with the help of a hand joystick, were transmitted by thin-wire commands very strongly dependent on the skill of the guidance operator, and therefore were not particularly popular among the troops. Light helicopters were mainly used to deliver urgent correspondence, reconnaissance, adjust artillery fire and evacuate the wounded.

The first relatively effective anti-European helicopter can be considered the Aerospatiale SA.316В Alouette III, which in 1967 was equipped with the ARX-334 stabilized sight, the SACLOS semi-automatic targeting system and the improved Harpon anti-tank missiles AS.11.

Aviation against tanks (part of 17)

Aluet III with AS.11 Harpon ATGM


However, helicopters armed with rifle-caliber machine guns, 20-mm cannon and 68-70-mm NAR of French or American production were used much more often in combat. This was due to the fact that "Alueta", as a rule, were involved in various kinds of anti-partisan operations, against an adversary who does not have armored vehicles and with relatively weak air defense.

Aluet III III RAF combat helicopters in the 80s were used during the invasion of Angola. Faced with strong opposition in the form of MANPADS and anti-aircraft guns of the 12,7, 14,5, 23 and 57-mm caliber and Cuban MiG-23 fighters, the crews of South African helicopters were forced to act very carefully, but several Aluet crew were lost during the fighting. Although the operation of helicopters of this type in the South African Air Force continued until the 2006 year, already in the middle of the 80-x from their use as anti-tank refused.

Based on the SA.316 model, the SA.319 Alouette III was developed. With a maximum take-off weight of 2250 kg, this machine could take the payload of 750 kg. Turbomeca Art Turbos IIIB XB turbo engine could accelerate the helicopter to speed 570 km / h. Practical range of flight - up to 220 km.

Aluet III was popular with foreign buyers. On the basis of licensed copies in Yugoslavia and Romania, their own light anti-tank helicopters, armed with the Malyutka ATGM, 57-mm NAR C-5 and machine guns were created.

SA became a full-fledged light anti-tank helicopter. 342 Gazelle equipped with a gyro-stabilized sight ARX-334. This helicopter was created by the French company Aerospatiale together with the British Westland. The armament of the early anti-tank modifications SA 342 included: four AS.11-guided ATGM vehicles, two AS.12 air-to-ground missiles, two NAR containers of 68, 70 or 81 mm caliber, two rifle caliber machine guns or one GIAT caliber gun 20 mm. The 12 kg AS.76 rocket had a guidance system similar to AS.11. With a launch range of up to 7000 m, the rocket carried 28 kg semi-armor-piercing warhead. The main purpose of SD AS.12 was the destruction of stationary stationary ground targets and the fight against ships of small displacement. But if necessary, this missile could be used against armored vehicles or defeat of manpower. For this, replaceable cumulative and fragmentation warheads were delivered to the troops. This, however, does not mean that the range of the targeted launch on tank was larger than on AS.11 - a primitive guidance system at a distance of more than 3000 m gave too much error. On later models, the Gazelle’s armament was equipped with 4-6 HOT ATGMs with a gyro-stabilized sight ARX-379.

SA.342 Gazelle light anti-tank helicopter was developed based on the SA multi-purpose helicopter. 341 Gazelle. The helicopter differs from the predecessor of the Astazou XIV GTE with 640 kV capacity and two suspension nodes to accommodate weapons. Total built more 200 "Gazelle", equipped with an ATGM "Hot." The visiting card of the "Gazelle" of all modifications is the fenestron-type steering screw with a diameter of 0,695m, with rigid mounting of the blades. It is installed in the annular channel of the vertical tail unit.

Light combat "Gazelle" enjoyed success in the global arms market. At the end of the 70-x - the beginning of the 80-x in terms of price-quality ratio of competitors in this machine was not much. At the beginning of 80-x for a helicopter equipped with ATGM, they asked about $ 250 000. At the same time, the car possessed at that time sufficiently high flight data. Maximum flight speed was 310 km / h, cruising - 265 km / h. Combat radius of action - 280 km. By maneuverability, the Gazel exceeded the American Cobra and the Soviet Mi-24. However, in the French helicopter there was almost no armor, in connection with this, the pilots had to make combat missions in body armor and titanium helmets. But "Gazelle" with an anti-tank missile system from the very beginning was not considered as an attack aircraft. To combat the tanks has been developed appropriate tactics. After detecting enemy armored vehicles, the helicopter, taking advantage of the uneven terrain and natural shelters, had to secretly approach it, and after launching the ATGM as quickly as possible to retreat. The most optimal was a surprise attack due to the folds of the terrain with a short-term (on 20-30) lift for launching an ATGM and a hang-up at 20-25 m. The attack, as a rule, was to be carried out while being above the positions of its troops, and the elimination of such "wedges", or the attack of tanks moving on the march as part of the column, it was supposed to cause flank attacks.

The anti-tank missile system HOT (fr. Haut subsonique Optiquement teleguide tire d'un Tube - what can be translated as “A subsonic optical-guided missile launched from a pipe-container”), developed by the Franco-German consortium Euromissile, was put into service in 1975 year.


ATGM "HOT"


Storage and launch of anti-tank missiles, controlled by wire, made of fiberglass sealed container. Curb weight with ATGM - 29 kg. Missile launch mass - 23,5 kg. The maximum launch range is 4000 m. On an ATGM trajectory, it accelerates to 260 m / s. According to the manufacturer, a cumulative warhead with a mass of 5 kg is capable of penetrating 800 mm along normal lines into homogeneous armor, and at an encounter angle of 65 ° the thickness of the armor pierced is 300 mm. But in a number of sources, the claimed armor penetration characteristics are considered exaggerated.

In the process of pointing the missile, the operator must continuously keep the optical crosshair on the target, and the infrared tracking system displays the missile after launch to the aiming line. When the ATGM deviates from the line of sight, commands generated by the electronic equipment are transmitted by wire to the missile board. The received commands are decoded on board and transmitted to the device that controls the thrust vector. All operations aiming missiles at the target are made automatically.



The KHTK Hot was adopted in 19 countries. Since the start of mass production, about 85 000 missiles have been sold. According to the ATGM equipped with more than 700 combat helicopters. Since 1998, the construction of the variant designated HOT-3 has been underway. This modification, with a launch range of up to 4300 m, is equipped with a new noise-resistant bispectral tracking equipment and carries a tandem warhead with a laser fuse and a precharge to be fired, which provides an increase in the time delay between explosions of charges to overcome dynamic protection.


Anti-tank helicopter SA.342L Gazelle


SA.342F Gazelle with four HOT missiles adopted in France in 1979 year. SA.342L modifications were delivered for export. The ATGM stabilized guidance system is equipped with a scope mounted above the cab. A modernized version of the Gazelle HOT / Viviane received a new HOT-3 ATGM.



Anti-tank "Gazelles" were in service in more than 30 countries, mainly in "developing". The baptism of the Iraqi SA.342L took place during the Iran-Iraq war. "Gazelle" in conjunction with the Mi-25 (export version of the Mi-24D) attacked the Iranian troops. But the tactics of the use of combat helicopters of Soviet and French production was different. The well-defended and faster MI-25 mainly provided fire support, firing at the enemy 57-mm unguided missiles C-5. Although the Phalanga and Hot Tank Systems had approximately the same launch ranges and missile flight speeds, the Iraqis liked the French complex’s guidance equipment more. In addition, the French ATGM had a great armor penetration. However, in a number of sources it is said that the “Hot” missiles of the first series had problems with reliability. Since SA.342 Gazelle was not covered with armor and could easily be hit even with small arms, the Gazelle crews tried to launch missiles whenever possible, being above the location of their own troops or over neutral territory outside the zone of enemy anti-aircraft guns.

In 1977, Syria signed a contract for the purchase of an 30 SA-342K Gazelle with the old AS-11 ATGM. In the 1979, the 16 SA-342L, equipped with HOT guided missiles and a perfect guidance system, was also obtained. As a result, to the 1982 war, the Syrians had a SA-342К / L helicopter brigade consisting of three squadrons.


Syrian SA-342K


In the summer of 1982, the Israel Defense Forces launched Operation Peace of Galilee in Lebanon. The goal of the Israelis was to eliminate the PLO’s armed forces in southern Lebanon. At the same time, the Israeli command hoped that Syria would not intervene in hostilities. However, after parts of the regular Syrian army got involved in the conflict, the standoff between Israel and the Palestinians faded into the background.

The main task of the Syrian units, which in number were seriously inferior to the Israeli group, was the destruction of the advancing armored vehicles. The situation of the Israelis was complicated by the fact that the Israeli technology literally flooded most of the roads along which the offensive was carried out. Under these conditions, given the difficult terrain of the Gazel, armed with an ATGM, were almost perfect. Judging by the archival documents, the first attack of the link of anti-tank helicopters occurred on June 8 in the area of ​​the Jebel Sheikh mountain. In a few days of fierce battles, according to Syrian data, the Gazelle, which made more than 100 combat missions, managed to knock out 95 units of Israeli vehicles, including the 71 tank. Other sources are more realistic figures: about 30 tanks, including the "Merkava", "5 magicians" and "sorcerers 6" BTR M5 113, 3 trucks, artillery pieces 2, 9 151 jeeps M5 and tankers. It is not known whether helicopters armed with AS-11 anti-tank guided missiles were used in combat operations or the entire Israeli vehicle was hit by Hot rockets. Despite their own losses, the Gazelle anti-tank helicopters in the 1982 war of the year, even against such a serious enemy as Israel, proved to be quite good.

In turn, the Israelis claim to 12 destroyed "Gazelle". The loss of four SA-342 has been documented. In this case, two helicopters made a forced landing on the territory occupied by Israeli troops, and subsequently were removed, restored and used in the Israeli Air Force.



In this история combat use of "Gazelle" is not over. Syrian SA-342, despite their advanced age, were used during the civil war. Taking into account the addition of 1984 helicopters acquired in 15 year, as of 2012 year, approximately 30 machines remained in service.



In August 2014, a Syrian state television report reported that gazelles with anti-tank missiles participated in the defense of Tabka airbase. However, no details about their combat successes were not given. There is a high probability that the Syrian air force still has "Gazelles" in the flying state. In general, it can be stated that SA-342, purchased by Syria 40 years ago, was quite a good acquisition.

In the first half of 70, Yugoslavia purchased the first batch of SA.21Н helicopters from 341 in France. In the future, these helicopters were built under license at the company and the company SOKO on in Mostar (built 132 machines). In 1982, the serial assembly of the SA.342L modification (produced around 100 helicopters) began in Yugoslavia.


The launch of the infantry system “Baby” from an anti-tank helicopter “Gazelle” of Yugoslav production, the rocket control wire is clearly visible in the picture

Unlike the French Gazelles, the helicopters built in Yugoslavia were armed with four Soviet Malyutka anti-tank guided missiles. Compared with the AS.11 and LRT missiles, the Soviet ATGM was a simpler and more budgetary option. But "Baby" had a shorter launch range and worse armor penetration. In the 90-e years, "Gazelle" were used during the fighting in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, with several machines were shot down by MANPADS and anti-aircraft guns.

Along with the Soviet Mi-24 and the American “Cobra”, the anti-tank Gazelle helicopter became one of the most frequently used in combat operations. In 80, the Lebanese Air Force helicopters took an active part in the civil war. At about the same time, Moroccan SA-24L 342 fought with the armored vehicles of the Frente POLISARIO units. It is believed that the crews of the "Gazelle" in Western Sahara managed to destroy the 18 T-55 tanks and about three dozen vehicles. In 1990, France handed 9 SA.342 to the government of Rwanda. In 1992, during an inter-ethnic conflict, helicopters attacked the positions of the Rwanda Patriotic Front. On account of the Rwandan "Gazelle" there are lined tanks and armored vehicles. In October 1992, the crew of one helicopter during the attack of a convoy of armored vehicles of the PFR managed to destroy six armored vehicles.

Almost simultaneously with the French "Gazelle" in Germany, the Bo 105 helicopter was created by Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm. Outwardly, with the exception of Fenestron, it was in many ways reminiscent of a Gazel. The helicopter is made according to a single-rotor scheme, with a tail rotor and a ski chassis. But unlike SA.342, it was a twin-engine machine with turboshaft GTE Allison 250-C20B with a take-off power of 313 kW. If one engine fails, the other one is transferred to emergency operation, which allows you to return to your airfield. Thanks to a more powerful power plant, the 105 could take a bigger load compared to the Gazelle, and the maximum take-off weight of the German car was more on 250 kg and was 2500 kg. Flight data of the German helicopter were quite high. Maximum speed - 270 km / h, cruising - 240 km / h. Combat radius of action - more than 300 km. Combat load - 456 kg.

First flight During 105, the 16 took place on February 1967 of the year, and the production of serial machines began with the 1970. The helicopter had a very good maneuverability, which was not slow to take advantage of the manufacturing company, advertising during 105 on aerospace showrooms. During the demonstration flights extremely lightweight cars, driven by experienced pilots, performed aerobatic maneuvers. It was noted that the West German helicopter has a high rate of climb, and the operational overload is 3,5G.


Bo 105 PAH-1


In 1975, the command of the Bundeswehr decided to order 212 anti-tank helicopters Bo 105 PAH-1 with an ATGM HOT. The upgraded anti-tank modification Bo 105 PAH-1А1 with ATGM NOT-2 was equipped with a French aiming-sight SLIM aiming system, with television and IR channels and a laser range finder. The most noticeable external difference in the upgraded version was the different arrangement of the ATGM plastic containers.


Bo 105 PAH-1А1


Beginning in 2007, the German anti-tank 105s began to be gradually replaced with the latest Tiger attack helicopters. Machines suitable for further use, disarmed, dismantling sighting and search equipment. The use of W 105 as reconnaissance and liaison in the armed forces of Germany continued until the 2016 year.

In addition to anti-tank guided missiles at the request of customers, 105-7,62-mm machine guns, 12,7-mm guns and NAR blocks are available for suspension on the 20. Deliveries of anti-tank helicopters were carried out from 1978 to 1984 year. At the end of the 80-ies, the cost of the Bo 105 PAH-1А1 anti-helicopter helicopter in the overseas market was $ 2 million.


South Korean military helicopter Bo105CBS


The composition of weapons and avionics of export vehicles could be very different from the German version. Due to the fact that the ATGM NOT had problems with reliability, a number of foreign buyers preferred American TOW anti-tank missiles.


Swedish Bo 105CB-3 with ATGM TOW


Although the armed versions of the 105 were delivered in two dozen countries, reliable information about the combat use of the helicopter could not be found. However, given the fact that Bo 105 was operated by the armed forces of such countries as Iraq, Sudan, Colombia, Peru and South Africa, it can be assumed that German-made helicopters still managed to make war.



In February, an 1991 Iraqi combat helicopter was shot down by an American A-10A attack aircraft. It is reliably known about the use of the Bo 105 Mexican Navy in operations to intercept high-speed boats on which drug traffickers delivered cocaine to the United States. South Korean combat helicopters, in turn, had fire contact with North Korean small vessels. The latest incident involving W 105 occurred in the Venezuelan capital city of Caracas 27 June 2017. Then the pilot of the stolen police helicopter attacked the building of the Supreme Court.

In the first post-war decades in the UK, little attention was paid to the creation of rotary-wing machines. Perhaps the only company that was seriously involved in helicopters in the United Kingdom was Westland. This company, founded in 1915, prior to renaming 1961 in the year Westland Helicopters created more than 20 models for various aircraft. In 60, Westland focused its efforts on the development and production of helicopters. At first, the licensed assembly of the American S-51 and S-55 developed by Sikorsky was carried out at the production facilities of the company. Soviet analogues of these machines can be considered Mi-1 and Mi-4. However, by the beginning of 60's, it became clear that piston-powered helicopters no longer meet modern requirements. Therefore, the specialists of the Westland design bureau in the city of Yeovil engaged in the development of a multi-purpose rotary-winged vehicle designed for transportation, evacuation of the wounded, reconnaissance and fire support. A helicopter with a crew of two people was supposed to provide transportation for seven paratroopers, at a cruising speed of at least 250 km. The range depending on the size of the payload 65 - 280 km. The development of a promising vehicle was seriously slowed down due to the participation of Westland specialists in the creation of the French-British Gazelle and Puma helicopters. At first, the design of the helicopter Lynx (English Rys) was also conducted in conjunction with the French company Aérospatiale. From the very beginning, two options were developed: naval and for ground forces. But in 1969, the French, quite satisfied with the Gazel, canceled the order for the attack reconnaissance helicopter. This affected the pace of work, and the first flight of the prototype took place on 21 March 1971 of the year. Tests "Lynx" were quite hard. Of the first four prototypes, two were severely damaged in flight accidents. Although, soon after the start of the test, a speed above 300 km / h was developed in horizontal flight, for a long time one of the main problems was a high level of vibration in flight at a speed over 100 km / h.

Multi-purpose helicopter Lynx AH.Mk 1 for the British Army took off 12 in April 1972. The power plant, consisting of a pair of Rolls-Royce Gem 2 turboshaft engines with an 900 horsepower rating, provided the maximum flight speed of 306 km / h. Cruising speed - 259 km / h.


Lynx AH.Mk 1


Although the appearance of the "Lynx" was quite ordinary, the helicopter had very good data and high modernization potential. The British managed to create a really very good transport and combat vehicle. A helicopter with a maximum take-off weight of 4535 kg could take the load on the 900 kg or transport the 1360 kg on an external suspension. The combat radius exceeded 300 km. The passenger compartment housed 9 soldiers with guns or 3 lying wounded with accompanying. In the shock version, the helicopter could carry two 20-mm cannons with a total 570 round of ammunition, 12,7 and 7,62-mm machine guns, two 68-70-mm NAR, 8 TOW or HOT units. Four ATGM launchers were located on the side of the cargo compartment, and the M71 American gyro-stabilized sight, to the left on the roof of the pilot's cockpit.


Launch ATOW TOW from a helicopter Lynx AH.Mk 1


Operation of the anti-tank AH.Mk 1 in the British Army of the Rhine began in the summer of 1978. Soon the Lynx ousted all Scout AH.Mk 1, armed with AS.11 ATGM. A special feature of Lynx, armed with anti-tank missiles, was the transportation of spare ammunition inside the cargo compartment, which made it possible for the crew to quickly recharge.


Lynx AH.Mk 7


In 1988, deliveries began to the troops of the Lynx AH.Mk 7 helicopter. The helicopter was equipped with two GTD Rolls-Royce Gem Mk 42-1 power 1120 HP and a new transmission. In this case, only 5 machines were built from scratch, the rest were altered from the previously released modifications. In the course of creating a modernized helicopter, much attention was paid to reducing the level of vibration and noise in the cabin. To do this, the AH.Mk 7 model was equipped with a damper for damping oscillations generated by the main rotor and changed the direction of rotation of the steering screw to the opposite. To reduce visibility in the infrared range, special diffusers were installed on the exhaust nozzles of the engine at the junction of the tail boom with the fuselage. Now the jet of hot exhaust gases was released into a larger volume of air, and their temperature was significantly reduced. The avionics included a sight-sight system with an infrared and television low-level camera. This significantly increased the combat capabilities of the helicopter during operations in bad weather and at night.

In 1989, the 2 squadron of the 9 airborne brigade began to enter the 24 th squadron Lynx AH.Mk 9. The main purpose of the AH Mk 9 is to fight the enemy armored vehicles. The distinctive feature of the AH Mk 9 was the use of new, more robust blades of the carrier system and a non-retractable wheeled chassis. A total of 16 new helicopters were built, and another 8 redone from AH Mk 7. As in the previous models, the main anti-tank caliber AH Mk 9 is the ATOW TOW. There are also several helicopters equipped with HOT-2 and Hellfire missiles.

The next modification was Lynx AH.9A with boosted engines LHTEC CTS800-4N with a capacity of 1362 hp. and with avionics helicopter AW159 Lynx Wildcat. Thanks to the increased thrust-to-weight ratio, flight data improved significantly, and the gauges were replaced by multifunctional color displays. The shipment of 22 AH.9A helicopters was completed in December 2011. In addition to the army aviation several vehicles entered the Navy for fire support of the Royal Marines. Of the approximately 470 built Linkes, only about 150 helicopters were intended for army aviation, and not all of them were equipped with ATGMs and sighting and search equipment. The bulk of the helicopters released in the marine version.



In 1991, British anti-tank "Lynxes" were involved in operations against Saddam Hussein's troops. According to British data, the company participated 24 helicopter. They operated in Kuwait and in the south of Iraq. Having made a little more than 100 combat missions, the Lynxes unmasked four T-55 tanks and two MT-LB armored tracked tractor with anti-tank missiles. In 2003, the Lynx AH.7 helicopters provided fire support to the coalition forces in Iraq, but their combat successes were not reported. 6 May 2006, the Lynx AH.7 with the number XZ6140 was hit by a MANPADS missile over Basra, according to other sources, the helicopter fell as a result of a rocket grenade fired from the RPG-7. In the same year, 2006 British Lynxes were deployed in Afghanistan. 26 April 2014, Lynx AH.9A under the number ZF540 crashed near Kandahar. All five people on board died, there is no reliable information about the reasons for the loss of the helicopter. During the fighting, the vulnerability of the Lynxes was revealed, even when fired from light weapons, which, however, was completely predictable for a helicopter that was not protected by armor.

On the whole, Lynx turned out to be a very good machine, and at the end of the 70-s, after eliminating the "children's sores", it looked very worthy in comparison with other universal transport-impact helicopters. The British car stood out for its high flight speed, good maneuverability, carrying capacity and flight range. But compared to the American UH-1, the German Woo 105, the French Aluet and the Gazelle, the British helicopter cost significantly more. For this reason, cramped customers chose lighter and less expensive cars as an anti-helicopter helicopter. Besides, it would be wrong to consider the unarmored Lynx as a full-fledged combat helicopter.

Until the second half of the 80s, there were actually two real combat helicopters in the world, with more or less balanced characteristics of firepower, security, speed and maneuverability: the Soviet Mi-24 and the American AN-1 Cobra. However, many countries felt the need for low-cost anti-helicopter helicopters, and therefore relatively light, weakly protected or unarmored vehicles were used in this role. In addition to the aforementioned “Aluet,” “Gazelle,” Woo 105 and Lynxes, Hughes Model 500 Defender was popular in pro-American countries. This light combat helicopter was designed on the basis of the civilian model Hughes 500, the prototype of which, in turn, was a light multi-purpose HE-6A Cayuse. “Keyus” was originally intended for reconnaissance, observation and artillery adjustment. The design of the helicopter draws attention to a large, drop-shaped double glass cabin, providing excellent visibility to the crew. To ensure the actions of special operations forces, some of the vehicles were converted into an armed version of the AH-6C. These helicopters carried six-barrel 7,62-mm machine guns and blocks 70-mm NAR.

Relatively inexpensive and very successful helicopters of the company "Hughes" enjoyed success in the market. For civilian buyers, the Hughes Model 500 was created, differing from OH-6 in the more powerful Allison 250-C18A engine with 317 l. with., increased fuel capacity and updated on-board equipment. On the basis of Hughes Model 500 built a light military helicopter Model 500D Defender (OH-6D Super Scout). His armament included four seven-shooter blocks 70-mm NAR caliber 70 mm or two eleven-charge blocks and two containers with six barreled M-134 machine guns of the caliber 7,62-mm or 40-mm grenade launchers. Maximum payload - 430 kg. In another variant of the combat load, missile launchers were placed on one side, and on the other was a container with an 12,7-mm machine gun or 20-mm cannon. The placement of significant armament on the external sling caused a noticeable drop in flight data — the speed and range of the flight. Therefore, in the standard version, the armament was placed on only two external nodes.

The internal volume of the Defender cab was very limited, which prevented the installation of ATGM guidance equipment, and the capacity of the helicopter itself did not allow the simultaneous use of NAR, machine-gun artillery weapons and guided anti-tank missiles. In 1976, a modification of the Model 500 TOW Defender appeared, an American gyro-stabilized M65 sight was mounted on the outer nose of the cabin, and four ATGM TOW on the outer nodes.


Model 500 TOW Defender


A helicopter with a maximum take-off weight of 1360 kg could develop in horizontal flight - 257 km / h. Cruising speed - 236 km / h. The combat radius for a car of this class was very significant - more than 300 km. The helicopter was very easy to drive and had excellent maneuverability and high rate of climb (8,5 m / s). The lack of armor was partly compensated by the small geometrical dimensions and maneuverability characteristics. When used in the antitank variant, the effectiveness of the Defender was close to the Cobra armed with the Tou ATGM. At the same time, the Model 500 TOW Defender was worth two times less and predictably interested foreign customers. A total of about 500 helicopters were built, but how many of them in the anti-tank variant are not known.



Armed modifications of Model 500 helicopters were used in a number of local wars. The most ambitious conflict where Defender was used with an ATGM was the Israeli 1982 summer campaign of the year. Three dozen Model 500 TOW Defender were received by the Israeli Air Force in 1979 year. By 1982, Israeli crews mastered their combat vehicles well. Israeli anti-defenders were used against Syrian armored vehicles along with the AH-1S, which were better protected from anti-aircraft fire. By the outbreak of hostilities in the Israeli Air Force "Defender", equipped with anti-tank systems, it was almost two times more than the "Cobra".



Crews of Israeli military helicopters declared the defeat of 50 tanks, infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers. In this case, more than 130 sorties were made. Unfortunately, there is no data on the effectiveness of attacks of each specific type of combat helicopter. In addition, it is not clear whether Israeli statistics take into account only hits or whether we are talking about irretrievably destroyed armored vehicles. It is known that during the battles in Lebanon there were cases of ATU “Tou” getting into the frontal projection of the Syrian T-72 tanks, but the frontal armor was not pierced.


Israeli anti-tank helicopters Model 500 TOW Defender


During the fighting, both the strengths and weaknesses of the Defenders were revealed. Thanks to better maneuverability, light helicopters were faster than armored "Cobras" occupied the line of attack. Compared with the Cobra, flights at extremely low altitudes with rounding irregularities in the terrain on the Defender were made much easier. Also, a lighter helicopter was easier controlled in a hover mode or when maneuvering at low speed. Defender was free to move sideways and back. It was noted that the time and cost of preparing the Model 500 for re-departure is much less. At the same time, a high vulnerability to combat damage was revealed. The lack of armor and special measures to increase combat survivability affected the level of combat losses. Although there is no reliable information about the number of "Defenders" lost during the hostilities, after 1982, 6 machines were additionally purchased. Apparently, the reasons for the losses of the Model 500 TOW Defender in the Israeli Air Force were not only the actions of the Syrian defense. Due to some external similarity between the “Defender” and the “Gazelle”, tankers and calculations of anti-aircraft installations of the units that had previously been attacked by Syrian anti-tank helicopters launched “friendly fire” against Israeli helicopters. So, the Israeli defender was badly damaged by a fragmentation shell fired from a Merkava tank gun. The shell exploded, hitting the rock, near which the pinwheel hung. At the same time, the ATGM operator was wounded, and the helicopter made an emergency landing next to the tank that had shot it down. Nevertheless, Defender confirmed its ability to successfully operate as an anti-tank helicopter. As is known, the Israelis are very scrupulous in the selection of military equipment and weapons, and immediately get rid of samples that have proven negative in combat. To "Defender", apparently, this does not apply, helicopters of this type were removed from service in Israel only in 1997 year.

In August, 1985, in connection with the purchase of McDonnell Douglas Corporation by Hughes Helicopters, the designation of the helicopter Model 500 was changed to MD 500. McDonnell Douglas conducted a fairly aggressive marketing policy, selling helicopters through intermediaries to countries where there were internal armed conflicts or unresolved territorial disputes with neighbors. Often, MD 500 without weapons was supplied as purely civilian vehicles and was armed on the spot. Re-export MD 500 spread around the world and participated in a variety of "low intensity" conflicts. This is especially true in Africa, Asia, South and Central America. So, in El Salvador, 6 MD 500D and 9 MD 500E acted against the rebels. Several helicopters were shot down by small arms and Strela-2M. By the time of the conclusion of a truce between the government and the rebels, 7 helicopters remained in the ranks.

In 1986, the DPRK, through several intermediaries, it was possible to purchase 87 unarmed MD 500. Initially, helicopters were used as liaison, reconnaissance and surveillance. Since the MD 500 is used by the South Korean armed forces, South Korean insignia and camouflage were put on several helicopters, after which they were used to throw saboteurs.

According to South Korean data, around 60 North Korean MD 500E are equipped with the “Malyutka” ATGM. Although outdated Soviet missiles are inferior in terms of launch range and thickness of armor pierced by the latest versions of the Tou ATGM, there are no other specialized combat helicopters in North Korea.


North Korean MD 500E armed with an ATGM during a parade in Pyongyang


MD 500, armed with anti-tank missiles, were demonstrated at a military parade in the 2013 year. Apparently, much of the North Korean MD 500 is still in flight. This is facilitated by the relatively simple design of the helicopter and the availability of spare parts on the world market.

Despite the fact that the first flight of the Hughes Model 500 took place in February of the 1963 year, the improvement and creation of new military models continues to this day. Based on the modifications of the MD 520 and MD 530, several impact versions have been created, differing in the power plant, avionics and armament composition.

The MD 530 Defender helicopter with a maximum take-off weight of 1610 kg is equipped with a new Allison 250-C30B engine with an 650 hp power. Maximum flight speed - 282 km / h, cruising - 230 km / h. Payload weight increased to 900 kg. At the request of the customer on the helicopter can be installed equipment that allows you to make combat missions at night. This modification is known as MD 530 NightFox.


Combat helicopters MD 530F Cayuse Warrior


Currently being mass production modifications MD 530F Cayuse Warrior. In August, the 2016 of the first four helicopters of this type, designed for the Afghan Air Force, were delivered by C-17 Globemaster III military transport aircraft. The initial order provides for the delivery of 24 helicopters, just over the next 5 years, the Afghan Air Force should receive 48 lightweight strike vehicles. Since the Taliban do not have armored vehicles, in the basic configuration for the Afghan Air Force MD 530F Cayuse Warrior is armed with NAR units and HMP400 suspended machine gun containers produced by the Belgian company FN with 12,7-mm machine guns (1100 fired fire / amyour combat unit / minute, in the case of the 400 firing unit / min. If necessary, the helicopter can be quickly armed with ATGM TOW.


MD 530F Cayuse Warrior Afghan Air Force


The pilots have satellite navigation equipment, modern communications and night vision goggles. To reduce the vulnerability during shelling from the ground, the cabin and part of the units have a local reservation. Fuel tanks with a total capacity of 500 l are secured and withstand a chamber with 12,7-mm bullets.


AH-6 Little Bird


To support the US Special Operations Forces, an AH-6 Little Bird combat helicopter was created. This miniature highly maneuverable machine took part in many secret operations around the world, and in some cases was a “lifeline” for special forces operating in enemy territory. Despite its modest size, the effectiveness of the "Little Bird" under the control of a well-trained crew can be very high.

The helicopter was put into service in the 1980 year, as a modification of the OH-6 Cayuse and has been actively used since its inception. The choice of this particular model is due to the fact that the size and weight of the machine makes it easy to transport it to its destination by US Air Force transport aircraft. In the aviation division of special operations forces, a light combat helicopter was tested, with a nadvtulochnaya search and survey night optoelectronic system. With it, the helicopter could conduct a review and search for targets in hover mode, hiding behind treetops, buildings or natural elevations.



AH-6 Little Bird helicopters are in service with the 160 Aviation Regiment of the United States Land Forces (also known as Night Stalkers - Russian. Nighttime Persecutors), and in the FBI's elite anti-terrorist special forces. AH-6С received a baptism of fire in 1983, during the invasion of the US armed forces in Grenada. In operation "Outbreak of Fury" was involved a half dozen small, nimble machines, based on Barbados. Several "Little Birds" supported the actions of the "contras" in Nicaragua. In 1989, helicopters of the 160 regiment took part in the Right Cause operation in Panama. In 1993, the AH-6 F / G provided fire support to the soldiers of the 1 Special Operations Regiment of the United States Army Delta Force in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia. In 2009, several “Little Birds” were deployed in Somalia during the operation to eliminate the terrorist Saleh Ali Nabhani. Little Bird participated in special operations in Iraq, beginning with the US and British coalition forces invading 2003 there. It is reported that when providing fire support to ground forces, “laser-guided light missiles” were used. Perhaps we are talking about modified missiles Hydra 70.



The most advanced version used by the US Special Operations Forces AH-6M is based on the helicopters of the commercial series MD 530. AH-6M introduced numerous innovations: the Allison 250-C30B engine with 650 power HP, six-blade main rotor with increased efficiency, withstand a chamber 14,5-mm bullets, composite armor, an improved navigation system based on GPS, infrared equipment FLIR.



The helicopter is equipped with an advanced weapon control system, which makes it possible to use AGM-114 Hellfire anti-tank guided missile systems with a laser seeker. In 2009, it was reported that Boeing, within the framework of the ARH program (Armed Aerial Scout - Russian Light Armed Scout), was operating a combat helicopter AH-6S Phoenix. Through the use of the engine Rolls-Royce 250-CE30 680 horsepower. the helicopter's payload is 1100 kg.


Light combat helicopter AH-6I


On the basis of AH-6S by order of Saudi Arabia, Boeing Corporation has created a light combat helicopter AH-6I (International). The cost of the first batch of 24 machines, intended for the Saudis, is $ 235 million, excluding weapons.

In addition to anti-tank and fire support helicopters, an unmanned version of the AN-500X was developed by Boeing based on the Hughes Model 6. Initially, the main task of a light unmanned helicopter should have been the evacuation of the wounded. But later, given the available number of Keyuys, Defenders and Little Birds with a resource close to the limit, it was considered rational to convert these vehicles into unmanned combat helicopters. The program received the designation ULB (Unmanned Little Bird - Russian. Unmanned Little Bird). It is reported that technical solutions and control equipment tested on the AN-6X can be used on other combat helicopters, including the AN-1 Cobra and AH-64 Apache.

To be continued ...

Based on:
http://www.military-today.com/missiles/hot.htm
http://dimitrijeostojic.com/blog/pasuljanske-livade-live-firing/
http://www.indiandefensenews.in/2016/06/idn-take-hal-lch-vs-changhe-z-10.html
https://bmpd.livejournal.com/1542431.html
https://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/row/bo105.htm
https://www.dstorm.eu/pages/loadout/lynx.html
http://www.arms.ru/stati/avia/zarubezhnye/westland-lynx-ah-mk-9.htm
http://www.aeroflight.co.uk/waf/aa-mideast/israel/af/israel-af-all-time.htm
https://www.mdhelicopters.com/md-530f-armed.html
Author:
Articles from this series:
Aviation against tanks (part of 1)
Aviation against tanks (part of 2)
Aviation against tanks (part of 3)
Aviation against tanks (part of 4)
Aviation against tanks (part of 5)
Aviation against tanks (part of 6)
Aviation against tanks (part of 7)
Aviation against tanks (part of 8)
Aviation against tanks (part of 9)
Aviation against tanks (part of 10)
Aviation against tanks (part of 11)
Aviation against tanks (part of 12)
Aviation against tanks (part of 13)
Aviation against tanks (part of 14)
Aviation against tanks (part of 15)
Aviation against tanks (part of 16)
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  1. Vard
    Vard 12 December 2017 15: 44
    0
    In any means of transport ... the main detail ... is the gasket between the steering wheel and the seat ... and the higher the quality, the more effective the application ... It is reasonable that helicopter pilots are by default much more qualified than armored vehicles .. This explains the relative success of anti-tank helicopters ...
    1. Bongo
      12 December 2017 15: 50
      10
      Quote: Vard
      this explains the relative success of anti-tank helicopters ...

      Come on... No. According to your logic, the perfection of the MANPADS, ATGMs, helicopter flight data and its security do not play any role, and most importantly only the qualifications of the pilots? Among the crews of armored vehicles there are also real aces, capable of, for example, dodging ATGMs at the last moment.
      1. avt
        avt 12 December 2017 16: 02
        +2
        Quote: Bongo
        According to your logic, the perfection of the MANPADS, ATGMs, helicopter flight data and its security do not play any role, and most importantly only the qualifications of the pilots?

        Well, a qualified pilot can fly without a device at all. bully
        Almost simultaneously with the French Gazelle in Germany, the company Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm created the Bo 105 helicopter. Outwardly, with the exception of the Fenestron, it was much like a Gazelle. The helicopter is made according to a single-rotor scheme, with a tail rotor and a ski landing gear. But unlike the SA.342, it was an Allison 250-C20B twin-engine turboshaft engine with take-off power of 313 kW each.
        wassat The manlion captain! Yes, it never reminds, even outwardly, but structurally the very differences themselves are described.
        1. Bongo
          12 December 2017 16: 20
          +4
          Quote: avt
          The manlion captain! Yes, it never reminds, even outwardly, but structurally the very differences themselves are described.

          Nevertheless, at an average distance, these cars are similar due to similar cabin glazing.
          1. not main
            not main 13 December 2017 22: 52
            +1
            Quote: Bongo

            3
            Bongo Yesterday, 16:20 ↑
            Quote: avt
            The manlion captain! Yes, it never reminds, even outwardly, but structurally the very differences themselves are described.

            Nevertheless, at an average distance, these cars are similar due to similar cabin glazing.

            What about the sound? One engine or two! A BIG DIFFERENCE!
      2. xetai9977
        xetai9977 13 December 2017 11: 59
        +2
        Thanks to the author! Great selection of material!
      3. Lopatov
        Lopatov 13 December 2017 12: 05
        0
        There is a known case of “confrontation” between two British Linkes and an Iraqi tank. I don’t remember how it all ended, but he chased them for a long time, trying to hit the main gun, while remaining unnoticed.

        By the way, you will write the following parts, do not forget about the concept of "armed intelligence." Those same Americans reconnaissance "Kayov" equipped with PT complexes. This is in addition to the lightweight shock "Kiowa Vorior",
        1. Bongo
          13 December 2017 12: 48
          +3
          Quote: Spade
          By the way, you will write the following parts, do not forget about the concept of "armed intelligence." Those same Americans reconnaissance "Kayov" equipped with PT complexes. This is in addition to the lightweight shock "Kiowa Vorior",

          Damn, Lopatov, what would I do without you? what

          The OH-58D Kiowa Warrior part is ready. wink
          1. Lopatov
            Lopatov 13 December 2017 14: 11
            +1
            Not...
            You did not understand.
            I'm not talking about the D modification of Vorior, I'm talking about earlier ones. This is originally a pure scout. And the composition of the equipment, and the place in the state. Up to "C" - just with a machine gun. And just starting with this modification, the concept of "armed intelligence" was applied to it, which failed with army aircraft due to the opposition of the Air Force
            That is, reconnaissance, but a helicopter can realize the data obtained. Well, “Vorior” together with “Kiova F” is just a further development of this concept. A multiple increase in strike capabilities while maintaining and even increasing capabilities for reconnaissance and control of combat helicopter units.
            1. Bongo
              13 December 2017 14: 23
              +2
              Quote: Spade
              I'm not talking about the modification "D" "Vorior", I'm talking about earlier ones.

              All serial modifications and even some non-serial ones will be described. hi
    2. opus
      opus 12 December 2017 16: 56
      +3
      Quote: Vard
      In any means of transport ... the main part ... is the gasket between the steering wheel and the seat.

      everything is changing



      Quote: Vard
      It’s reasonable that helicopter pilots have a much higher qualification than armored drivers by default ..

      not reasonable.

      just a helicopter (airplane) moves with greater speed (by a factor of 10) and in 3D (in three coordinates), and the tank is coordinated in 2 (plane)

      +
      Of course, the radio horizon (which is for the radar, that for the ECO or the EC)

      Helicopters suppress .. proper video about it
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 12 December 2017 15: 57
    +2
    To support the US Special Operations Forces, an AH-6 Little Bird combat helicopter was created. This miniature highly maneuverable machine took part in many secret operations around the world, and in some cases was a “lifeline” for special forces operating in enemy territory. Despite its modest size, the effectiveness of the "Little Bird" under the control of a well-trained crew can be very high.

    Thank. Sergei. This “bird” reminded me of Kamov’s early work on ship helicopters. Externally, the “Little Bird” and the Ka-15 are even similar. Only ours is older, 20 years old.
  3. opus
    opus 12 December 2017 16: 02
    +5
    Here is my question:
    why they have helicopters on the skids ("ski" chassis / skid chassis), and we have wheeled.
    Ours is both heavier and more expensive, and significantly.
    Service is not necessary.
    And the frontal resistance (midsection) will be more
    ?

    convenience for ls, again

    Medical equipment has been installed on new helicopters of sanaviation in Vladivostok


    One of the main advantages of these helicopters is the “ski” chassis, allowing to sit on almost any site.


    Maybe our overweight?

    but no again

    shock (vibration) when landing?
    "taxiing"? (and she need?)
    landing / taking off on the "aircraft"? (weak power of remote control)?
    xs
    1. igordok
      igordok 12 December 2017 16: 20
      +7
      Quote: opus
      why they have helicopters on the skids ("ski" chassis / skid chassis), and we have wheeled.

      At VO, somehow long ago, this was explained by the weak thrust of domestic helicopter engines. It is difficult to take off “helicopter” vertically upward, but it is easier to take off “aircraft” with some forward movement. And on the "ski", the "airplane" is difficult to take off.
      1. opus
        opus 12 December 2017 16: 29
        +3
        Quote: igordok
        Take off on the "helicopter" vertically up hard,

        well it's only

        and then not everywhere


        Quote: igordok
        And on the "skis", on the "aircraft" is difficult to take off.

        over the snow?
        wink
      2. Nikolay R-PM
        Nikolay R-PM 12 December 2017 17: 31
        +9
        Take-off with acceleration in the zone of influence of the earth is also possible with a skid gear. This take-off is complicated by the need to maintain the balance of the helicopter. Takeoff with acceleration on a three-wheeled chassis is easier in terms of balancing the helicopter, because until the moment of separation, communication with the runway surface is maintained.
        I do not think that this is due to the weakness of the engines, but rather to the rational rationalization of the engine and fuel resource
        1. not main
          not main 13 December 2017 23: 06
          0
          Quote: Nikolai R-PM
          Take-off with acceleration in the zone of influence of the earth is also possible with a skid gear. This take-off is complicated by the need to maintain the balance of the helicopter. Takeoff with acceleration on a three-wheeled chassis is easier in terms of balancing the helicopter, because until the moment of separation, communication with the runway surface is maintained.
          I do not think that this is due to the weakness of the engines, but rather to the rational rationalization of the engine and fuel resource

          Twice did not understand! Firstly, about balancing (when did the crew sleep?); Secondly, about rationality and here, carrying a nuclear bomb, I think about fuel consumption, exhaust toxicity, and so on? Of course exaggerated, but the meaning remains!
    2. Bongo
      12 December 2017 16: 23
      +7
      Quote: opus
      Here is my question:

      With runners usually light cars. The British on the sea "Lynx" put the wheel chassis, and on the ground - runners. Runners are probably easier, but imagine how many firefighters when the helicopter needs to be transported along the airfield. On wheels, you can simply gather people and push them, but with a runner you need a special cart.
      1. opus
        opus 12 December 2017 16: 35
        +4
        Quote: Bongo
        With runners usually light cars.

        I wrote
        Quote: opus
        Maybe our overweight?

        Duc MI-1

        or

        light?
        or



        there is something connected with the landing (avionics, blade pitch, etc.).

        Quote: Bongo
        On wheels, you can simply gather people and push them, but with a runner you need a special cart.

        Well, if people "collect", then you can simply substitute the rollers.


        So in warehouses done.
        And why actually the helicopter on the "roll airfield"?

        He will sit where necessary.
        Yes, and again, how the vorog do without this "skating"
        1. Nikolay R-PM
          Nikolay R-PM 12 December 2017 19: 09
          +9
          Often, the technical staff needs to roll the helicopter from the parking lot, say, in the fuel and energy sector during PCBs. That's where the fun begins: there are no flight personnel at the airport. These are the little ones that are being rolled due to the small retractable wheels in the back of the runners. The tail boom length provides a good shoulder to lift the front of the helicopter even to one person. And each time you start the engine in order to move the turntable by 500 meters, it’s not a permissible luxury, taking into account the fact that the working time on the ground is usually limited by a percentage of the resource
          1. opus
            opus 12 December 2017 20: 43
            +2
            Quote: Nikolay R-PM
            And each time to start the engine to move the meter to 500 is not a permissible luxury given the fact that the percentage of the resource is usually imposed on the operating time on the ground

            Yes I know.
            Wrote the same
            Quote: opus
            Well, if people "collect", then you can simply substitute the rollers.

            helicopter Chassis



            The name "Chassis" says that the landing gear designed for taking off and landing of helicopters. In addition, the chassis of helicopters used for parking and movement of the helicopter on the ground (on the water) during taxiing or towing.



            The chassis must provide a helicopter in the expected operating conditions:

            - helicopter handling during run-up, run, taxiing, turning and towing;

            - depreciation of the dynamic loads that occur during landing, taxiing, run;

            - towing, eliminating the possibility of cleaning the chassis on the ground.


            helicopter Chassis



            The name "Chassis" says that the landing gear designed for taking off and landing of helicopters. In addition, the chassis of helicopters used for parking and movement of the helicopter on the ground (on the water) during taxiing or towing.



            The chassis must provide a helicopter in the expected operating conditions:

            - helicopter handling during run-up, run, taxiing, turning and towing;

            - depreciation of the dynamic loads that occur during landing, taxiing, run;

            - towing, eliminating the possibility of cleaning the chassis on the ground.

            =========================================
            All this is difficult (wheel) and expensive
    3. dzvero
      dzvero 12 December 2017 17: 46
      10
      Interest Ask. I was also curious. By the way, the answer is not obvious. At air forums, it’s like specialists, and spears are broken by one or two. For myself, I understood this - the lower thrust-weight ratio of Russian helicopters, from there the advantages of the wheels when taking off in an airplane (at maximum takeoff weight, high temperatures, in high altitude conditions). Easier movement on unequipped points. Some kind of "illegal" take-off trick, inaccessible to "skiing" (to be honest, I did not figure it out to the end). Something related to stability during landing. In the USSR / RF, helicopters were ordered by the military and the price receded into the background. In the USA, light helicopters were built for civilians, skiing is noticeably cheaper and easier to operate. From there they skied and migrated into light military vehicles. Initially, the new military they also have wheels.
      And yet (UTB is already my invention) - traditions. At the origins of US helicopter industry is Sikorsky. And almost all of his cars at that time were skiing. Most likely, his authority left its mark on many years.
      So the matter is clear, that the matter is muddy. Here it is necessary for the professional to speak, and I just ... out of interest, having gathered the tops smile

      PS Superb series! Like everything before.
    4. shuravi
      shuravi 13 December 2017 00: 55
      +8
      Firstly, the wheeled chassis is more practical. You can significantly overload the helicopter and take off in an airplane.
      Secondly, two-bladed propellers are not used in the domestic helicopter industry. And until recently, this required an articulated suspension of the blades. Therefore, simplified racks cannot be used because of the danger of “earth resonance”.
      Thirdly, the aerodrome operation of helicopters with a wheeled landing gear is simpler.
      Fourth, security. the wheeled chassis allows for the failure of one or two engines to perform a mileage landing.
      Fifth, there are no special advantages in weight or aerodynamics of the skid gear over the wheeled one.
  4. Nikolay R-PM
    Nikolay R-PM 12 December 2017 17: 00
    +6
    I have some sympathy for gazelle and bo105. They are still one of the first mass-produced machines with a rigid rotor to this day to demonstrate good controllability and less inertness in response to a control action. No wonder bo105 often performs with aerobatic programs.

    It is a pity that the historical bias in favor of medium and heavy helicopters did not give the development of domestic one and a half-two-ton helicopters. Although the first variants of the ka-60 was just 2500 kg, it eventually transformed into a six-ton ​​helicopter. The customer himself has no idea about the use of light vehicles with a take-off weight of up to three tons.
    1. shuravi
      shuravi 13 December 2017 01: 27
      +4
      The customer has long exploited Mi-1 (2300 kg) and Mi-2 (3550 kg).
      No other niche okromya:
      - initial training
      - intelligence service
      - communication
      Currently, communications and intelligence have disappeared. So there is no particular need for light cars.
      1. Nikolay R-PM
        Nikolay R-PM 13 December 2017 07: 20
        +2
        An interesting direction for turntables of this dimension is tactical reconnaissance and target designation. Placing PAN assets in a helicopter increases gunner’s mobility. The existing PAN equipment, which is in service on the basis of armored personnel carriers or infantry fighting vehicles, i.e. relatively weakly armored. Modern detection tools allow target designation at a considerable distance from the target (3 km or more), plus the small size and noise of a light helicopter make it difficult to detect.
        Recently, opinions about the prospectivity of target designation from UAVs are increasingly being heard. I can’t disagree that the direction is promising and mandatory for development, but a series of erroneous target recognition by American “rippers” operators objectively demonstrates that in a tense military situation remote control of equipment at the moment still has a number of fundamental technical and ethical problems.
        1. Usher
          Usher 13 December 2017 07: 50
          +1
          It’s easier than a drone, who cares if the pilot or operator makes the same conditions, the conditions are almost the same, even the drone has an advantage. No need to nervous baud shelling, it is easier to analyze the picture.
          1. Nikolay R-PM
            Nikolay R-PM 13 December 2017 07: 54
            +2
            Well, I’m saying a moot point))) in 10 years we’ll look at changes in the field of aerial reconnaissance and target designation.
        2. shuravi
          shuravi 13 December 2017 09: 40
          +2
          The functions specified by you for some time were performed earlier by Mi-1, then Mi-2.
          But in the eighties, Mi-2 was replaced by Mi-24K.
          And now, UAVs are also crowding him.
          1. Lopatov
            Lopatov 13 December 2017 10: 18
            +4
            Quote: shuravi
            The functions specified by you for some time were performed earlier by Mi-1, then Mi-2.
            But in the eighties, Mi-2 was replaced by Mi-24K.

            Mi-1?
            Mi-2kr, later Mi-8k, and, finally, Mi-24k, aka “Virage” ... But all this is artillery. I don’t think that a target-design helicopter for aviation needs artillery fire support facilities, including providing a sighting, on a scale or on measured deviations 8))))))))))))))))))
            1. shuravi
              shuravi 13 December 2017 14: 25
              +1
              Quote: Spade

              Mi-1?


              Used for these purposes and Mi-1 at the time, did not know?

              Mi-2kr, later Mi-8k, and, finally, Mi-24k, aka “Virage” ... But all this is artillery. I don’t think that a target-design helicopter for aviation needs artillery fire support facilities, including providing a sighting, on a scale or on measured deviations 8))))))))))))))))))


              You are late with an idea. At least thirty years.
              Yes, in Afghanistan they used helicopters for target designation of ShA and IBA, I myself did it. But it was already the decline of the era of the "index finger" as the main means of navigation.
              It is certainly good to have an observer in the target area, only a helicopter cannot survive there. Moreover, do not fly. So light and cheap UAVs rule. hi
              1. Lopatov
                Lopatov 13 December 2017 14: 30
                +1
                Quote: shuravi
                Yes, in Afghanistan they used helicopters for target designation of ShA and IBA, I myself did it. But it was already the decline of the era of the "index finger" as the main means of navigation.

                Mi-24k "worked" for its intended purpose at the beginning of the second company. And very successfully. First-hand information.
                So what about the "sunset" .... At that I was not late, it was someone very hasty to announce it.
                And by the way, where does the "navigation" ???
                1. shuravi
                  shuravi 13 December 2017 16: 33
                  0
                  Quote: Spade

                  Mi-24k "worked" for its intended purpose at the beginning of the second company. And very successfully. First-hand information.


                  Concealer art. fire. But not aviation guidance. What and how, you can’t educate me, we had these machines in the squadron (490 OVP B and U).


                  So what about the "sunset" .... At that I was not late, it was someone very hasty to announce it.


                  Yes late, calm down.

                  And by the way, where does the "navigation" ???


                  Yes, while all target designation is based on the fact that you go to a given area at the place and time, find the goal and designate it.
                  As you can see, most of the components of the task are purely navigation.
                  1. Lopatov
                    Lopatov 13 December 2017 17: 35
                    +2
                    Quote: shuravi
                    Concealer art. fire. But not aviation guidance.

                    Is it safer to "helicopter survive there"?

                    Quote: shuravi
                    Yes, while all target designation is based on the fact that you go to a given area at the place and time, find the goal and designate it.

                    That is, hold the pen? Yes, helicopter pilots need this. Damn, to fire at the "bigwigs" of our mortars, actually at the exit from the base center, it was necessary to try. They started to see, and took the militants for cars. Then, however, they quickly sorted it out. By moss in the trees. And they managed to screw up before the battalion commander reached the anti-aircraft gunners, it was painfully angry.
                    1. shuravi
                      shuravi 13 December 2017 18: 57
                      +1
                      Quote: Spade

                      Is it safer to "helicopter survive there"?


                      Of course. Indeed, at the same time, the leading edge does not intersect.


                      That is, hold the pen? Yes, helicopter pilots need this. Damn, to fire at the "bigwigs" of our mortars, actually at the exit from the base center, it was necessary to try. They started to see, and took the militants for cars. Then, however, they quickly sorted it out. By moss in the trees. And they managed to screw up before the battalion commander reached the anti-aircraft gunners, it was painfully angry.


                      Somehow you think hard. However, how do you know the subtleties.
                      Lead is when working with a guidance navigator. When on an independent vzhzh, then withdraw.
                      And linings are everywhere and always. There are many reasons for this. These are both navigational errors of crews and, to put it mildly, incorrect target designation. Very often, ground commanders have topographical cretinism, that is, not the ability to compare the terrain and the map. Well and accordingly give out the coordinates.
                      In addition, excessive initiative. When they begin to make changes to the existing plan in the course of action, without notifying the interacting forces.
                      And also, during the period of the second Chechen army were saturated with officers who entered schools after the 1991 year. When the quality of the preparation was below the baseboard.
                      1. Lopatov
                        Lopatov 13 December 2017 19: 18
                        +1
                        Quote: shuravi
                        Of course. Indeed, at the same time, the leading edge does not intersect.

                        Why cross it? For guidance of aviation is it imperative to visit?
                        Strange, but the artillery arranges the notch of coordinates at a distance of up to 8 km with optics and to 10 using a rangefinder. Requirements for complete training. It is possible and more, but then only with sighting.

                        Quote: shuravi
                        Very often, ground commanders have topographical cretinism, that is, not the ability to compare the terrain and the map. Well and accordingly give out the coordinates.

                        And then what should PAN do? Jamming Votka? Also, damn it, the real situation. There is a wounded man, there is a helicopter in the air, there are precise coordinates (they were tied to the GSS Soviet point) But the problem is drunk PAN and helicopter pilots who at first they can’t find, then they don’t see orange smoke point blank.
        3. Lopatov
          Lopatov 13 December 2017 10: 03
          +2
          Quote: Nikolay R-PM
          Placing PAN assets in a helicopter increases gunner’s mobility. The existing PAN equipment, which is in service on the basis of armored personnel carriers or infantry fighting vehicles, i.e. relatively weakly armored.

          Controversial.
          The main function of PAN is interaction, not guidance. Although I agree about their ground vehicles. And it's not even about security. Even much more "advanced" in this regard artillery control vehicles are extremely inconvenient for controlling fire. So much so that even special simulators had to be created, but despite their availability, the gunners prefer to work with remote KNI, using the machine exclusively for communication.

          By target designation helicopters ... In fact, there is a need. The point here is in the field of view, accessible to the operator. An UAV with a "wide-angle" optical system and a laser rangefinder-target designator (backlight) will be a fairly large machine, most likely of airfield base.
          So, spotter helicopters for aviation and artillery make sense. But the development of air defense and electronic warfare systems will force them to give additional opportunities - to serve as a control point / repeater for UAVs, which will be used for additional reconnaissance. And perhaps they will become “launchers” for drones.
          1. Nikolay R-PM
            Nikolay R-PM 13 December 2017 11: 18
            +2
            A curious remark about the complex based on a helicopter and its UAVs. I do not have data on the dimensions and weight of equipment for laser illumination of targets for aviation and artillery, so the legitimate question arises: what will be the dimension of the UAV, which will carry out target designation.
            Offhand, such a carrier helicopter should have a take-off mass of 3500-4000, which is more than that of the vehicles presented in part 17 of the “aviation against tanks” cycle.
            On the other hand, the history of aviation is full of curiosities, and in order to accurately guess tomorrow's direction of development, one must possess divine insight.
            1. Lopatov
              Lopatov 13 December 2017 11: 46
              +2
              Quote: Nikolay R-PM
              A curious remark about the complex based on a helicopter and its UAVs.

              Everything goes to this. The Americans are now testing "flocking" drones for their "ganshipy", which will be fired directly from the aircraft.
              In principle, we can already create such systems using UAVs "missile delivery" for MLRS "Smerch". There, however, only optics, but for further exploration, I think, is enough. Well, then the target helicopter will be able to choose the “angle” from which the target will be visible, and precisely detect the target, with its subsequent defeat either by aircraft or artillery. Perhaps backlit.


              Quote: Nikolay R-PM
              I do not have data on the dimensions and weight of equipment for laser illumination of targets for aviation and artillery, so the legitimate question arises: what will be the dimension of the UAV, which will carry out target designation.

              Compromises, compromises, compromises ...
              On the one hand, the closer, the smaller the backlight and the lower its power consumption.
              On the other hand, the "probable partners" are seriously concerned about creating a "drone free zone" over their units. So the short-range lungs with a high probability will either be shot down or lose the control / information channel.

              Quote: Nikolay R-PM
              Offhand, such a carrier helicopter should have a take-off mass of 3500-4000, which is more than that of the vehicles presented in part 17 of the “aviation against tanks” cycle.


              Helicopter Z-11WB with UAV SW-6
              1. Nikolay R-PM
                Nikolay R-PM 13 December 2017 13: 19
                +2
                Hmmm, curiously the UAV sw-6 and a means of additional reconnaissance, and at the same time, defeat. Curious approach
              2. Nikolaevich I
                Nikolaevich I 13 December 2017 14: 23
                +1
                Quote: Spade
                We can already create systems using UAVs "missile delivery" for MLRS "Smerch".

                We can create ... and produce? A penenza for this e? An aircraft-type drone (jet; PuVRD) for the "Tornado" was tested ... maybe they even adopted it ... but something didn’t come across infa: did they get them into the army? PS But wasn’t it better to make a helicopter for the “Tornado” or even an aircraft-type drone, but on electric power?
                1. Lopatov
                  Lopatov 13 December 2017 14: 35
                  0
                  Quote: Nikolaevich I
                  PS But wasn’t it better to make a helicopter for the “Tornado” or even an aircraft-type drone, but on electric power?

                  This UAV is also in the version with a carburetor motor. Why not apply it? Apparently, the problem with starting after release from the container.
                  Well, electricity ... I'm afraid the batteries will be too heavy. Well, or the speed is insufficient for a quick overview of a large area.
                  1. Nikolaevich I
                    Nikolaevich I 13 December 2017 15: 15
                    +1
                    Quote: Spade
                    with carburetor motor

                    Well ... then I have to "dig into the mat.chasti"! Because in my memory only a jet drone for the "Tornado" was imprinted (with PuVRD)
                    Quote: Spade
                    and electricity

                    And what if the “prospected” area is not so big? And is there enough “electric drone”? All this UAV is "easier" to shove into the "warhead" of the Nursing "Tornado", and with a greater guarantee of "integrity" "release ...
                    1. Lopatov
                      Lopatov 13 December 2017 17: 42
                      +1
                      Quote: Nikolaevich I
                      Well ... then I have to "dig into the mat.chasti"! Because in my memory only a jet drone for the "Tornado" was imprinted (with PuVRD)



                      Quote: Nikolaevich I
                      But what if the “reconnaissance” area is not so big?

                      The problem is that it is great.
                      1. Nikolaevich I
                        Nikolaevich I 14 December 2017 15: 48
                        0
                        Quote: Spade
                        The problem is that it is great.

                        I think that a misunderstanding crept into our discussion ... MLRS "Smerch" covers the area with nurses ... somewhere, 60 ha, this area is not so great. If the goal is supposed to be in the territory many times greater than the notorious "60 ha", yes ... the UAV is needed "distant" and "long-term" ... But it makes no sense to launch the NURSOM from the "Tornado"! For this, it is advisable to use the "combined arms" reconnaissance UAV of the corresponding "link"! It is possible that in this case it will be necessary to “overtake” the MLRS installations to another position.
                        The drone in the "tornado" is necessary only for the correction of previously obtained intelligence data! A reactive UAV from Smerch’s capable of “viewing” the territory in 25 sq. Km ... And now there is a “trifle”: digging into the prices of well-known manufacturers and “taking away” UAVs (of course, “rechargeable”) of suitable dimensions , "durability", loyalty ... I think
                        such are and, it is possible, that in considerable quantity!
                        Regarding the "photos" ..... The top picture shows just the T-90- "tornado drone"! But he, as I said, "reactor" (with PuVRD)!
                        In the bottom picture is the T-92 (indeed, with a piston engine), but it is not included in the "Smerch" MLRS "ammunition!" T-92. In general, "does not belong" to any MLRS. It is "on its own" ...
                    2. Lopatov
                      Lopatov 14 December 2017 16: 40
                      0
                      Quote: Nikolaevich I
                      MLRS "Smerch" covers the area with nurses ... somewhere, 60 hectares, this area is not so great.

                      You don't dance from that.
                      This UAV is designed for operational additional reconnaissance of data received from a third-party source.
                      At the range of its operation, the accuracy of third-party tools gives a very big mistake. And just the area of ​​this or an ellipse, or a triangle of errors, the “fired” apparatus must quickly survey
  5. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 12 December 2017 18: 56
    +3
    Gazelle is pretty ..
    According to MD-500 .. I remember the film was - Fire birds, there the negative character drove on it.
    And Little birds came across to me after the reference books for the first time in Larry Bond's books - Cauldron and Whirlpool.
    Well, the "Fall of the Black Hawk" in general made them very recognizable.
  6. KKND
    KKND 12 December 2017 19: 35
    +3
    You look at their small, "wretched" Machines and take pride in the domestic helicopter industry.
    They were lucky that they did not fight the USSR. It was necessary for Gorby not to be “friends” with the West but to capture Europe, there would be more sense.
  7. Raphael_83
    Raphael_83 12 December 2017 20: 15
    +4
    An exhaustive - in the framework and format of this cycle - review, there is nothing to add (well, if you don’t go into a detailed analysis at all - you can write such a description for each sample)!
    Special thanks for Bölkoff-Blom, in the philistine-cinema-movie-gaming environment, an almost unknown unit.
    From SW. hi
    PS
    “Gazelles” and “Defenders” I clearly associate with the wonderful old Kinsman “Blue Thunder” with R. Scheider and M. MacDowell in Ch. cast (positive and negative characters and cars, respectively).
  8. sivuch
    sivuch 12 December 2017 21: 18
    +8
    Just a little touch. The VO-105 helicopter had the military designation RAS-1 (Helicopter pancerabver, i.e. an anti-tank helicopter), but the pilots took on the name of Plastik Aus Himmel, i.e. plastic in the air, bearing in mind the complete lack of armor.
  9. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 13 December 2017 03: 22
    +1
    FRAUDY BROWSING: 1. Combat use of Aluette III helicopters in Africa: before the “Yuarovites” (in the article: South Africa, 80-e ... Angola) “Aluetta” was used by the Portuguese in Mozambique in 70-e; 2. Regarding AS-12: directories often indicate data: up to 8 km (there is even more ... but this, I think, is not realistic). AS-12 was "conceived" to be used mainly as a light anti-ship and assault vehicle (" anti-bunker "). I have not seen specific examples of the combat use of AS-12 (in particular," anti-tank ") except for the" knockout "of the Argentine submarine in the Falkland conflict in 1982, although this complex was delivered to several countries. There are references to Syria SA-342K were delivered equipped not with AS-11, but AS-12 (maybe a mistake ... I won’t argue): 3.on photo with " the signature “HOT” is actually depicted “HOT-2 ''
    1. Bongo
      13 December 2017 11: 35
      +5
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      SLIP WATCHING

      Thanks for the comment! good
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      The combat use of Aluett III helicopters in Africa: formerly “YuAvtsev” (in the article: South Africa, 80 ... Angola) the Portuguese used “Aluette” in Mozambique in 70
      With anti-tank missiles?
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      Regarding AS-12: in reference books the data is more often indicated: up to 8 km (there is, even more ... but this, I think, is not realistic)
      In other reference books 7 km is indicated. But this is too high.
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      There are mentions that SA-342K was supplied to Syria, equipped not with AS-11, but AS-12 (maybe an error ... I won’t argue)
      Why do Syrians have heavy rockets on light helicopters? No.
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      3. On the photo with the "signature" "HOT" actually shows "HOT-2 ''

      But it may well be. yes
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 13 December 2017 13: 16
        +3
        Quote: Bongo
        Thanks for the comment!

        Well, what are you .... repeat
        Quote: Bongo
        With anti-tank missiles?

        Without.... No. But machine guns and nurses were ... fellow
        Quote: Bongo
        In other reference books 7 km is indicated. But this is too high.

        Maybe not ... The "land" version (SS-12) "had" a range of up to 6 km. To "turn" into AS-12, the SS-12 ATGM was modified .. could it then "lengthen the coil"? Although, when I first found out the AS-12 data, I doubted: by that time I had been "enlightened" that it was not practical to use wired control "longer" over 6 km! But the characteristic “8 km” is indicated in different directories, although, sometimes, 6 km and even more than 8 km were also found .... the latter is especially difficult to believe.
        Quote: Bongo
        Why do Syrians have heavy rockets on light helicopters?

        I can not say ! Dumb, I have Syrian friends! Maybe for a longer range ... maybe the custodians proposed a "freebie", or maybe ... because there are no data on the use by the Syrians of at least AS-12, at least AS-11, because it turned out that " what for" wink Let me remind you that I didn’t exclude the error of the author of the data to which I referred. (Referred to because this data can be found on the Internet).
        I have images of all the 3's “HOT '' s ... but how do I put them in? In the computer“ poke ”I have, alas,“ spaces ”!
        1. Bongo
          13 December 2017 13: 52
          +3
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          Maybe for a longer range ... maybe the keepers were offered a "freebie", or maybe ...

          On the Syrian "Gazelles" 4 suspension node is clearly visible. Even if a pair of rockets is suspended there. AS-12 are too heavy. They were not installed more than twice per helicopter.
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          I have pictures of all the 3's' HOT ''

          What media?
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 13 December 2017 14: 48
            +1
            Quote: Bongo
            AS-12 too heavy they are more than two in a helicopter did not install.

            Reasonable argument! Indeed, they were installed a couple ... So, the error is obtained ... I will no longer refer to the "disu" ...
            Quote: Bongo
            What media?

            Yes, just images ... rocket nude drawings lol to distinguish one option from another. Of course, at different times "recorded" and pictures of helicopters armed with ATGM "HOT", and during missile launch; but now I don’t remember: what pictures, what kind of helicopters ... I didn’t "focus" especially on this one ... well, I’ll need it, I'll find it.
  10. sivuch
    sivuch 13 December 2017 09: 39
    +3
    The most optimal was recognized as a surprise attack due to terrain with a short-term (at 20-30 s) rise for launching ATGMs and hovering at a height of 20-25 m
    -------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------
    20 seconds - das ist fiction, unless you let it go from a distance of 1 km. But here there is almost a 100% chance of getting it yourself.
    1. shuravi
      shuravi 13 December 2017 14: 34
      0
      Quote: sivuch
      The most optimal was recognized as a surprise attack due to terrain with a short-term (at 20-30 s) rise for launching ATGMs and hovering at a height of 20-25 m


      When using the "cord" (controlled by wire) ATGM. It should be noted that in the USSR such misery was put only on the Mi-1 and then for experimental purposes. And already with Mi-4AB, already radio-controlled "Phalanges".
      And with all the advantages of shelters, they do not always find themselves in the right place. Yes, and no one canceled the mining.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 13 December 2017 15: 48
        +1
        Quote: shuravi
        When using the "cord" (controlled by wire) ATGM. It should be noted that in the USSR such misery was put only on the Mi-1 and then for experimental purposes. And already with Mi-4AB, already radio-controlled "Phalanges".

        In 1974, an export version of the Mi-8TV was developed in the USSR, armed with 6 914 missiles ... Czechoslovakia was armed with an "attack" Mi-4V with the Baby ... Poland produced the Mi-2 armed with the Baby
        1. shuravi
          shuravi 13 December 2017 16: 23
          +2
          It was called Mi-8TB. Delivered to the GDR and some other states. But the USSR didn’t receive such weapons. Arming Mi-2, this is a Polish initiative.
  11. shuravi
    shuravi 14 December 2017 01: 08
    0
    Quote: Spade

    Why cross it? For guidance of aviation is it imperative to visit?


    But nothing that front-line aviation not only works along the front line, but also in tactical depth?

    Strange, but the artillery arranges the notch of coordinates at a distance of up to 8 km with optics and to 10 using a rangefinder. Requirements for complete training. It is possible and more, but then only with sighting.


    Aircraft / helicopter cabin, this is not a static position. There simply is not such a reserve of time that is on earth.


    And then what should PAN do? Jamming Votka? Also, damn it, the real situation. There is a wounded man, there is a helicopter in the air, there are precise coordinates (they were tied to the GSS Soviet point) But the problem is drunk PAN and helicopter pilots who at first they can’t find, then they don’t see orange smoke point blank.


    That's exactly what the PAN is not doing, so it is helicopter guidance. His destiny is front-line aviation.
    Helicopters are engaged in freelance aircraft gunners. That is, ordinary ground commanders.
    Just during the preparation do not forget to establish interaction. At least their frequencies, call signs to helicopter pilots.
    I hope you are aware that there are not one but three radio stations in helicopters. one of which is just for communication with ground forces.