Military Review

“Rifle for Simo Hähähä” (continuation of the theme “Rifles by countries and continents” - 1)

70
It has always been and always will be that some person by nature does something better than others. Someone spits the farthest - well, so his lips are arranged. Someone dives deeper than others - the volume of the lungs is large and the muscles are strong. Someone runs, jumps, writes ... more than others. That is, there are reasons for both purely physical - “given by nature”, mental - the presence of intelligence, and the element of “sweating”, that is, given by nature, it develops by exercises. And much depends on what “tool” you have in your hands. It is clear that with the old AVM scuba diving you do not dive as deep as with the new French “Aquadiv”, and the same can be said about weapons.


To those whose hands initially grow out of the seat, whatever you give, it is unlikely to hit the target even from the best rifle. But if a man is an “arrow from God”, then with a good rifle he will show a better result than a bad one. And what is interesting with regard to this topic: it is known that the mass sniper practice, although it was known since the time of the American Civil War, became truly mass during the Second World War, but in the hands of the overwhelming majority of its snipers was a Mosin 1891 of the year!

VO had a great article on Soviet snipers on the site, so it’s hardly worth rewriting it in this case. However, "every cuckoo praises its swamp". Therefore, we mention that the foreign "Sniper Center" calls the first on the performance of a sniper in the world ... the Finnish shooter Simo Häyhä. According to the center, on his account 542 struck "goals", the second they have is our Ivan Sidorenko - he has 500. Turning to Wikipedia, we can find out that according to various data, Imo shot from 542 (the source is the aforementioned “Sniper Center”) to 742 Red Army (documented by 219 killed), and the difference was due to the fact that he also acted automatically weapons.

More, however, the Finnish arrows didn’t notice, so all this can be attributed to propaganda, because nowhere do they lie so much as in war and in hunting. On the other hand, the fact that he was an accurate marksman is undoubted. But what is important in this case is exactly which rifle he fired. And it was our “three-lane” that faithfully and faithfully served him, but only from the “other side”, that is, he used the “Finnish three-lane”.


Finnish trilinek M39 (Army Museum in Stockholm)

Well, the story about it should start with the fact that Finland as a state did not exist until the October Revolution destroyed the former Russian empire and it did not gain independence by the will of Leninist Bolshevik government. However, the Finns and the king lived probably better than all the other subjects of the Russian Empire, so it was a sin to complain to them anyway.

“Rifle for Simo Hähähä” (continuation of the theme “Rifles by countries and continents” - 1)

Photos of the army of the army of Finland 30 of the last century. Rifles from left to right: 7,62 mm M91-24 infantry rifle with M91-24 bayonet: M28 rifle with M28 Sk bayonet; M28-30 with M28-30 bayonet. (Military Museum of Finland)

When the Civil War broke out in Russia, the majority of the Finns joined the “white” movement. Well, let's say, supported him. It began the creation of its own armed forces, and it was here that the country was very useful huge stocks of rifles from the Russian arsenals in Finland, which the Finns captured during the same civil war. Thus, having obtained all this mass of rifles, Finland very slowly and consistently took up their gradual modernization and eventually created a whole line of “trilineas”, which in a number of indicators began to exceed the Russian original.


Mxnumx rifle (Army Museum in Stockholm)

First of all, we note that the Finnish model of the Mosin rifle is a slightly modernized basic model, but in a well thought-out way it has been modernized! What should be noted.

However, at first rifles were used without any alterations, or were limited to alterations to a minimum, replacing mostly barrels. Many were no different from Russian rifles, so Finnish markings appeared on the chamber holders - SA - “Army of Suomi”. The most perfect was the sample of M / 28 or “pyuskyukorva" (or "spitz" - slang name because of the "ears" protecting the front sight. Pystykorva, by the way, literally means the same thing - "ears up," became the main weapon of the Finnish security forces We also assembled it from the details of the 1891 rifle of the year, but some of the components were bought abroad.

Usually, the Finns changed Russian trunks and Russian sights. Before 1928, the old sight was used, but the Finns crossed out (scored with a slanting touch) Russian arshins on it and filled their meter scale. A standard 5 magazine for cartridges was retained in the rifle. The cartridge was used 7,62 × 53 mm R, that is, the diameter of the bullet 7,62 mm, and the sleeve length 53 mm had a flange (edge). This cartridge was different from the original Russian 7,62 × 54 mm R cartridge slightly, but the difference was still felt. The Moscow militiamen, who received Finnish captured ammunition and noted that “it’s possible to shoot Finnish ammunition with rifles, but not with machine guns, joked it to the fullest extent.” The Finns took the original dagger bayonet, replacing the old needle, and the rifle itself was shot without him. The bayonet was now fastened on the bed, and not on the trunk. The trigger mechanism, which now received a descent with a so-called “warning”, was seriously modernized. The neck of the box became “pistol”, as in the case of the German Mauser. True, this neck of the box was placed not on the 28 model, but on the M39 and then it was already put on all subsequent samples. The Finns also increased the wall thickness at the barrel, which had a very positive effect on the improvement of shooting accuracy. Since the rifle barrels Finland ordered abroad, the variation in the calibers was quite significant. They had to be marked in Latin letters - A, B, C (caliber of captured rifles 1891 / 30 of the year had the designation in the form of a letter - D).


Russian "trilinek" in the Museum of the Army in Stockholm.

The scale of purchases is indicated by the following figures: in 1924, 26 000 trunks were purchased: 8 000 from SIG in Switzerland and 18 000 in three German companies.

The Finnish 30 Armed Forces of the 20th Century were divided into regular army and civil guard. The civil guard was a national militia, and they often had their own designs of rifles and a unique marking system.

The 1927 model of the year was the first truly new Finnish rifle model. Despite the fact that M1927 still consisted of many Russian parts, it received a new box of arctic birch, a heavier, but shorter stem. The manufacturer was a supplier of weapons for the security corps workshop "SAKO". The rifle went into service with the regular army, not the civil guard. A total of about 30 000 pieces were made in 1928 – 1933 years. The next rifle introduced by the Finns was the 1928 model of the year - essentially a version for the civilian army rifle of the 1927 model. The 1928 / 30 civil guard rifle also had a heavier barrel than the original, a thinner metal magazine and a new scope. The result was the 1939 model of the year. This model was accepted both in the army and in the civil guard. True, the weight of the rifle became larger: the weight of the 4.3 kilogram, the length of the barrel 68.58 cm, the length of 118.11 cm. The weight of the bayonet together with the sheath - 449.3 gram, without the sheath 333.66 gram.

The main differences rifle M28:
• Four swivels, instead of the previous slots for attaching the belt, which made it possible to quickly redo its mount in both cavalry and infantry versions.
• Trigger with warning.
• Semi-piston stock neck.
• The barrel compared to the 1891 model rifle of the year is thickened and shortened.

Apply the same thickened trunks, the Finns had already begun on the rifle M24, to the modernization of which they attracted German and Swiss companies. Modernization took place in 1923-1928, and about 10 thousands of rifles underwent such alteration.


Swivels and half-pistol grip of the M28 rifle.

Then, Tikkakoski and the state-owned enterprise VKT upgraded the old M91 and M24 rifles in 1929-1934 twice. and 1939-1940 Of the 120, thousands of old rifles were able to upgrade the 55 thousands. For arming snipers on some installed optical sights of various types.

M28 rifle upgraded "SAKO", for which the trunks ordered the company "SIG". But then the trunks were made by the SAKO company itself. In all, thousands of rifles were assembled at this plant.

Since 1939, a sample M28 / 30 has been released on the basis of a rifle. It did not differ from the previous sample, except that it was produced at once in three enterprises. In total, 98,6 thousands of rifles of this type participated in the war. Despite the shorter barrel, the rifle's weight was 4,5 kg; the initial speed of the bullet decreased slightly and was 789 m / s; and aiming shot - 1800 m.

A distinctive feature of the carbine for the cavalry M27rv (converted from the 1915 carbine g.), Made in 1934-1935. firm «Tikkakoski», was a curved shutter handle. Also on the sighting bar arshin replaced by meters. But they were made a little, only about 2,2 thousands of units. The weight of the carbine was 3,7 kg.

Well, now we can say a few words about Simo Hyaha. He was from peasants, the seventh child among eight children. He lived on a farm, hunted, fished, learned a little, helped his elder brothers to peasantry. In 17 for years, he joined the local guard unit, engaged in sniper shooting and performed well at sniper competitions in the Vyborg branch of this organization.

He began his military service in the 1925 year, in the bicycle battalion, where he received the rank of non-commissioned officer. But Hayha was returned to sniping only nine years later in the fortress of Utti in the town of Kouvola.

For the three months of the "Winter War" 1939 — 1940. he showed a record result of sniper shooting, although the counting was done according to his words, but when they were confirmed by his comrades, only those enemy soldiers who had been killed for sure were counted for him. If several snipers fired at the same target at once, then the struck target was not counted in any of them. Finnish propaganda claimed that from 16.12.1939 and 06.03.1940, Xyuhi had 10 Red Army men every day, and, of course, about him, as a national hero, he didn’t write anything lazy.

However, 6 March 1940 g. Hyyuhya was injured by a bursting bullet in the face on the left side, with the result that he was disfigured and his jaw split. He was seriously injured, he was taken to the rear hospital, and then to Helsinki, where he had to do some very difficult operations. For example, his jaw was restored with bone taken from his thigh. Therefore, in the 1941 — 1944 war. he did not participate, although he asked to go to the front. There is a photo where he was captured after recovery. Of course, the achievement of the then medicine is obvious. After this, only in horror movies to shoot!

Hyahya used the M28-30 “spitz” rifle (60974 number) for sniping, and what is most surprising is that it did not have an optical sniper scope. He explained this by the fact that the glass in winter is covered with frost, and the shine of the lenses gives its location. Yes, and you have to keep your head higher, which is also dangerous. Many of his tactics were simple, although original. For example, he poured water over the snow under the barrel of his rifle, and he did not take off from the shots, and could not unmask his position. And he kept the snow in his mouth, so as not to give his place steam from the breath and it also helped. And a gift of fate for Simo was the growth in 152, see that. It was easy to hide. It is also interesting that he did not like to shoot for a long distance, it is reliably known that he did not shoot further than 450 meters.


Simo Hyahya in his gear for the winter sniping and with his "Finnish three-line".

For services in the sniper case Simo Hayuhi 28 August 1940, received from Marshal Mannerheim rank of junior lieutenant, was awarded the Order of the Cross of Freedom 1-th and 2-th class, also received a Silver Cross Coll and nominal sniper rifle. In the Finnish army he was nicknamed "White Death"!

After the war, Simo Hähähya bred dogs and hunted; President Urho Kekkonen himself went to him to hunt elk. When asked by journalists how he managed to become such a good sniper, he succinctly answered: "Training." Equally indicative was his reply regarding remorse: "I did what I ordered, and as good as I could."


Rifles with such stamps are constantly met in Finland. They were not even grinded, but simply “SA” were stuffed side by side.

Interestingly, the most effective Wehrmacht sniper Matthias Hetzenauer and the second after him, according to the results of Joseph Allerberg, were also shot with a Mosin rifle ...

And at the very end there is such a curious fact: it is not necessary to think that the Finnish army was armed with only one “three-line”. Not at all, very few people know that in the year of 1941, by way of military assistance, she received from Fascist Italy 94 500 rifles "Manlicher-Carcano" and 50 millions of cartridges to them. But they were used exclusively in the rear parts and transport. In the course of the Winter War, the Swedes also transferred the Swedish Mauser rifles to their eastern neighbor 84 900 rifles, which, like the Manliherovka, the Finns filled the letters "SA". But when the war ended ... the Swedes wanted to buy them back and bought out those that did not become worthless!


P.S. A very informative and richly illustrated guide to rifles of all countries and peoples is this book, published in the USA in 2012 by Andrew Mobrai Inc. publishing house. Its authors are Stuart S. Mobray and Joe W. Pouleau.

To be continued ...
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  1. igordok
    igordok 16 December 2017 08: 21
    +7
    It seems to be a good technical article. But they could not do without politics.
    Well, the story about it should start with the fact that Finland as a state did not exist until the October Revolution destroyed the former Russian empire and it gained independence by the will of the Leninist Bolshevik government.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 16 December 2017 09: 06
      +2
      Yesterday there was a rather detailed article on the history of Finland as part of the Republic of Ingushetia.
    2. kalibr
      16 December 2017 11: 43
      +3
      And what is wrong?
      "until the October Revolution destroyed the former Russian empire" - the empire was not destroyed? And not destroyed in October?
      "she did not gain independence by the will of the Leninist Bolshevik government" - were Martians given her independence?
      Is mentioning trivial facts a policy? What is there to be silent about for reasons of tolerance?
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 16 December 2017 12: 19
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        And what is wrong?
        "until the October Revolution destroyed the former Russian empire" - the empire was not destroyed? And not destroyed in October?
        "she did not gain independence by the will of the Leninist Bolshevik government" - were Martians given her independence?

        Liberals began to destroy the empire, especially immediately after Nikolai left the country. A recognition of Finland’s independence by the Bolshevik government is a simple statement of fact. We wouldn’t admit that the Finns themselves would have announced this. From February to October 1917, the “democrats” of Russia managed to “democratize” "a country that got cooler only after 74 years ...
        1. kalibr
          16 December 2017 12: 25
          +3
          And again - what is wrong? Why is this a bad start? Here is about a rifle, not about liberals ... Write your version of this paragraph that meets all your requirements. It will be interesting to compare and learn.
          1. Fitter65
            Fitter65 16 December 2017 13: 15
            +1
            So you can do without this paragraph in the article. Well, or write the truth then, that after the head of the Russian Empire threw it in a difficult year, various liberal democrats came to power who led the policy of the collapse of the country and the army, one of the first decrees was canceled , and introduced the election of the command staff ... TRUTH write, and not a statement on the theme of the works of Solzhenitsyn and the hedgehog with him ...
            1. kalibr
              16 December 2017 13: 50
              +3
              That is, is there a lie in this paragraph? And it was necessary to write about the abolition of ranks first?
              1. Fitter65
                Fitter65 16 December 2017 16: 28
                +1
                Quote: kalibr
                That is, is there a lie in this paragraph? And it was necessary to write about the abolition of ranks first?

                Well, actually, yes. And then it’s interesting to us that the Democrats screwed up their pants around the Bolshoi — the Bolsheviks were guilty ... You wouldn’t have driven the geese around the piano, the Bolsheviks would have come to power and the whole country the next day how did a single organism start working according to their standards? How many days in Moscow were fighting fights? When did the Soviets take power in Vladivostok too? I’m silent about places like Imperial Harbor laughing you don’t have to pull the crumbs out of the rusks of history — I understand that it’s fashionable to kick Soviet power even when it’s not related to the topic, but when they pay extra for it why not? Yes, and even bring Newton’s third law into an ideologically correct interpretation. ..
                1. kalibr
                  16 December 2017 18: 12
                  +2
                  I asked you to give my option. You don’t need to write a lot of text. I know about the Imperial Harbor. You show how it was NECESSARY to write "correctly."
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 16 December 2017 13: 27
            +1
            "... No matter where they say
            All one will bring to women "
            (L. Filatov) request
          3. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 16 December 2017 13: 46
            +3
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, and write something about dinosaurs. It doesn’t matter what, in the comments it turns out that in the front they were Bolsheviks, behind they crunched rolls, and in the middle - rotten liberals, which is why everyone died.
            1. kalibr
              16 December 2017 13: 58
              +5
              You will be very surprised, but when I was in graduate school on the history of the CPSU in Kuibyshev, we seriously discussed with the graduate students from our hostel block the topic: "Party leadership of Baba Yaga." I wish I could write ?! Chapters: "Baba Yaga and the Stupa in the Light of Decisions ... of the Congress of the CPSU", "Baba Yaga at the Head of the Process of Selection and Placement of Forest Dishonest Personnel", etc. They didn’t write ... It's a pity ... But, alas, there are always people who are looking for devils in the censer. And to them, at least that way, at least that way, but everything is inappropriate. Give them the "Truth" ... Forgot the Soviet joke: Is there a "Truth"? "Truth" - no! "Soviet Russia"? Long sold! What is there? One “Labor” for three copecks was left! ”And he wrote ... and I think right now there is a denouncer -“ Ahh, he admitted ... atah! ”Morons people, by God, God forgive me, Lord.
          4. Grid
            Grid 16 December 2017 17: 05
            +1
            Here about the rifle, not about the liberals ..

            Mr. Shpakovsky, you don’t understand rifles ...
            1. kalibr
              16 December 2017 18: 10
              +4
              As good as I would like, maybe I don’t understand, but I understand more than enough to write about them. And someone probably understands better, but cannot write. So you have to be content with that. However, the above is the opinion. And opinion is not an argument. Where are the errors in the material confirming this opinion?
      2. Grid
        Grid 16 December 2017 17: 03
        0
        "until the October Revolution destroyed the former Russian empire" - the empire was not destroyed? And not destroyed in October?

        Shpakovsky, did you like once taught the history of the CPSU? Or am I wrong?
        So explain what place the FEBRUARY revolution, which really ruined the empire, has to do with the Great Socialist Revolution on October 25?
        1. kalibr
          16 December 2017 18: 07
          +3
          Are we really so familiar that you are turning to me on you?
    3. VladGashek
      VladGashek 19 December 2017 23: 45
      +1
      Here is the author’s obvious mistake. The Grand Duchy of Finland existed from the beginning of the 19th century and was in a personal union with the Russian Empire. There were all the attributes of a sovereign state, except that the head was the Russian emperor. This is similar to the current situation of relations between Great Britain and Australia, New Zealand. The Great October Revolution only constituted the fact of the separation of Finland from Russia, for the emperor was overthrown in February. So there is no union. The interim government dragged on negotiations, the Bolsheviks cut this “proud node”. The imperial house must be blamed for the Finnish problem. But Nicholas 1 was able to first liquidate the Kingdom of Poland, then abolish the Kingdom of Poland and create the Warsaw Governor General. So, do not hang all the dogs on the Bolsheviks. They saved Russia from the Finns and, thank God, "the mare is easier."
    4. whinny
      whinny 19 December 2017 23: 51
      0
      So it happened that you were hooked in this phrase, the wording of the author of the article? Leave it to his conscience. Not that is written. :)
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 16 December 2017 09: 07
    +7
    Very interesting and informative article. I did not know that there were so many trunks for the Mosin rifle, from so many different manufacturers. And yet: after the revolution, part of the workers at the Sestroretsk arms factory that produced rifles were evacuated to Kovrov, a Danes for the construction of Madsen light machine guns were built at the concession machine gun factory. A set of workers in the Carpets was led by V.G. Fedorov and V.A. Degtyarev. After the civil war, the Sestroretsk arms factory became an instrument and machine tool factory named after Voskov.
    1. avt
      avt 16 December 2017 11: 05
      +2
      Quote: Amurets
      Very interesting and informative article.
      good Straightened me down
      she got a new box of arctic birch, heavier
      Well, it’s direct antique furniture made of Karelian birch, not rusto! wassat bully E mine, the veneer is coming to furniture, but here the whole array bully And of course I liked the bayonet
      M28 rifle with bayonet M28 Sk; M28-30 with bayonet M28-30.
      It may be more expensive, but much more practical, in my opinion, in working with weapons.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 December 2017 11: 19
        +3
        In the photo, M28 and M39 are really Karelian birch. Well, what to do with these brake Finns. It was they who by the 70s sharply wiser and would not breathe in their ecology and natural resources (very scarce, I must say).
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 16 December 2017 14: 22
          +2
          From whom, what was growing in abundant quantities, from which they did - Americans out of black walnut
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 16 December 2017 17: 46
            +1
            In-in, and now from it a parquet board is molded at $ 1500 / sq.m. (he laid, rare kaka)
    2. Monster_Fat
      Monster_Fat 16 December 2017 11: 51
      +5
      For example, in the Finnish military museum, in the red building in Helsinki, there are a lot of sketches from mannequins on the theme of the “winter war”. There is also such a "miniature"-made DZOT (part of it), with a Russian-made Maxim machine gun mounted on a stationary carriage and equipped with an optical sight. You can go up and look into the sight, when you look into it, you see, through the reticle, as if in the palm of your hand, the advancing Soviet skiers ....
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 December 2017 12: 18
        +2
        An interesting "interactive", it makes sense to go. The next "Schengen" will still have to do Finnish, but there was no incentive to ride there.
        1. Monster_Fat
          Monster_Fat 16 December 2017 15: 05
          +5
          Take a trip. There may be the only catch — they have a museum combined with some military institutions and it may not work in the winter — they transfer part of the exposition to Savonlinna fortress island — a boat goes there directly from the center with a 4,5 euro round-trip ticket. All armament was preserved in the fortress, there is their “Vyasiko” underwater salt war museum, and many different expositions in caponiers, etc. And a very good tank museum in Parola — just wonderful — there tanks damaged during the “winter war” are good you can see what damage different types of anti-tank weapons inflicted from armor-piercing bullets, anti-tank rifles to anti-tank guns and mines. There are very rare instances of the T-28 and T-50 tanks, and in very good condition, there is also an armored train. Dial their site look. Also near Parola in the city of Hämenlinna there is also a magnificent artillery museum with a very rich exposition where all the tools of the Russian and Soviet armies are presented, etc., go to their sites (museums) and see how they work
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 16 December 2017 21: 29
            +2
            No, only summer! In winter it’s very sad, even before Vyborg! But you intrigued me insanely, thanks !!!
            1. Monster_Fat
              Monster_Fat 17 December 2017 00: 43
              +3
              It is in the summer that all of these museums are completely open to the public. And in the Hämeenlinna fortress (yes, there is also a big fortress there), visiting sessions of West European military museums are also held. This year there were Swedes with their collections of armor and armor. I was struck by a 16th century Swedish phalanx bristled with spears, fully restored in authentic armor and weapons.
              1. Monster_Fat
                Monster_Fat 17 December 2017 19: 22
                +1
                By the way, this miniature with a machine gun.

                And here’s the museum’s site-museum-chic! http://travelodessa.livejournal.com/113336.html
                1. beeper
                  beeper 18 December 2017 03: 39
                  +2
                  Dear Monster_Fat! Thank you Das ist fiction! good
                  hi
  3. John22
    John22 16 December 2017 10: 25
    +6
    Modernization Finami rifle arr. 1891 proves that shortcomings can be eliminated if you want and not be greedy. And in the USSR (and now) only praises about it.
    1. avt
      avt 16 December 2017 11: 23
      +4
      Quote: John22
      And in the USSR (and now) only praises about it.

      Actually, in the USSR they planned to replace the three-line weapon sleep ... do not tell me what? wassat And most importantly - what bayonet? wassat But already in 1941 there was no time for fat, for quite well-known reasons.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 16 December 2017 13: 26
      +4
      Quote: John22
      Modernization Finami rifle arr. 1891 proves that shortcomings can be eliminated if you want and not be greedy.

      Novikov.V.N. On the eve and on test days. “When in 1941 and subsequent years it was required to produce 12 Mosin rifles per day, this is not a typo, but a reality of 000 thousand. And suddenly the chief designer of the plant Vasily Ivanovich Lavrenov didn’t very confidently notice that during the pre-war years there were many proposals to improve the technology of the rifle, the simplification of its individual components and parts, which, in his opinion, could greatly accelerate the manufacture of weapons without loss of quality.All this was realized at one time in separate copies and tested, but was not put into production just because there was no special need because no one raised the issue of a sharp increase in the production of conventional rifles before the war, they even wanted to be removed from production, as the reader knows.
      I immediately remembered a lot that was offered even when I was the chief technologist and the chief engineer of the plant. Is this really the end of the thread, pulling which we unwind the whole ball? They brought the documents. All offers are carefully recorded. Even the manufacture of brackets for the protection of the front sight was proposed to be conducted in a new way - not to mill, but to stamp from the waste of the metal sheet ..... Having arrived at the plant, Major General Dubovitsky was convinced that there was no other way out to fulfill the decision of the State Defense Committee to issue such a quantity rifles, no.
      - I completely agree with you, - said the general, - but, unfortunately, I also have no right to approve so many changes simultaneously.
      - How then to be? I asked him.
      - As deputy commissar of armaments, you can do it with your power.
      Yes, I had such a right. In case of disagreement between the plant’s management and military acceptance, the final decision could be made by the People’s Commissar of Armaments or his deputies under their responsibility. This right, set forth in a special document and signed by Stalin, is almost never mentioned. But such a document existed, and it allowed the drug addict or deputy commissar to authorize production, despite objections from military representatives. The last, of course, way out. In the event of an error, the consequences were not difficult to predict. Therefore, they rarely used this right.
      Reminding me of my rights, Dubovitsky thus found a Solomon solution. Immediately, I approved everything mentioned above. I called the drug addict. He was not there. I contacted Vasily Mikhailovich Ryabikov. He replied:
      - Decide on the spot, you know better!
      Shaking goodbye, General Dubovitsky said to me:
      - Vladimir Nikolaevich, history will never forget this decision.
      And added:
      “But the rifle won't be the same.
      Even General Dubovitsky could not have imagined that, despite the introduction of a large number of innovations, the rifle would not lose its qualities. Anyone who saw these wartime rifles, especially those who fought with them, remembers that they really weren’t sanded or lacquered like pre-war rifles, they no longer had carefully burned barrels, but they perfectly performed their main role - accurately and flawlessly smashed the enemy. In this rifle, we did not spoil one iota. "During the Second World War, V.N.Novikov was the deputy commissar of Ustinov for small arms.
    3. figwam
      figwam 16 December 2017 15: 48
      +1
      Quote: John22
      Modernization Finami rifle arr. 1891 proves that shortcomings can be eliminated if you want and not be greedy. And in the USSR (and now) only praises about it.

      What did they upgrade there? The same Mosin rifle, the weight only increased and that's it.
      1. kalibr
        16 December 2017 18: 05
        +1
        The article says that ...
        1. figwam
          figwam 16 December 2017 19: 54
          +1
          Quote: kalibr
          The article says that ...

          This is not a modernization, but the introduction of changes that entailed an increase in weight and an increase in the cost of the rifle.
  4. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 16 December 2017 12: 03
    +2
    One of the photos shows the PP (I don’t know the markings, I know how “Suomi”) and the box store for it. I also saw a photo of this software with a disk store. Tell me, who knows, these are different modifications or initially the model is imprisoned for a different type of store.
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 16 December 2017 12: 33
      +3
      This is not Suomi - Schmeiser MP28
      In general, there were box-shaped stores for suomi, for example (as much as four-row for 50 rounds)
      1. beeper
        beeper 16 December 2017 17: 14
        +2
        Thank you, dear Kibb! I completely forgot about the wonderful "four-row"! yes
      2. Huumi
        Huumi 15 May 2018 16: 00
        0
        SchA found such a yv forest-thick so-well preserved and by the way-heavy
    2. beeper
      beeper 16 December 2017 13: 03
      +3
      Is that Suomi? And not Bergman MP-18 winked ? Yes, “Suomi” was “imprisoned” for a disk store.
      hi
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 December 2017 13: 22
        +4
        Thank you so much for the info! It’s not a shame to not know, a shame not to want to know, right?
        1. beeper
          beeper 16 December 2017 17: 22
          +4
          That's right, dear 3x3zsave! It’s impossible to embrace everything, but in our power to strive for knowledge, and by common efforts it’s somehow more fun to learn and remember more. Thanks to you and Kibb, I also rustled in my memory and learned something new for myself on the Internet. yes
          hi
          1. Kibb
            Kibb 19 December 2017 09: 28
            +2
            Well, I, too, thanks to you, also raised a lot and remembered, and Vyacheslav does not let you get bored - so it’s mutual hi
      2. Kibb
        Kibb 16 December 2017 13: 33
        +2
        This is MP-28, just look at the store receiver
        1. beeper
          beeper 16 December 2017 17: 09
          +2
          What to look at the receiver? I know and don’t forget about the initial MP-18 receiver for the "Luger" drum store ... smile .
          Not fundamentally. After all, dad and son Schmeissers "slumped" them and constructively "accompanied"yes I even think that specifically in the photo is the Tallinn Arsenal with a magazine for 40 rounds?
          “Around the mid-1920s, MP18.I was used, using box magazines for 20 and 32 rounds. Visually, the versions differed in the neck of the magazine - in MP 18.I of military release, the neck moves left and back at an angle of 45 °, and in the post-war, at an angle 90 °. The sight is open, adjustable. The aiming range is adjusted completely to the 100 or 200 meters. The bed and butt of the MP 18.I submachine gun are wooden, rifle type. "
          hi
          1. Kibb
            Kibb 19 December 2017 09: 30
            +2
            Here I agree, but "nonetheless ..."
            1. beeper
              beeper 20 December 2017 01: 28
              +1
              So I do not insist, "nonetheless ..." it does not matter smile !
              I fully admit that this is MP-28, just the first thing that came to mind was the Bergman machine gun (at the Bergman factory, papa Luis Schmeisser applied his talents to the creation of the MP-18, and then his son Hugo took part and patented the box store , like it was like that?), because the question was initially raised by our colleague - is it “Suomi”?
              When I studied numerous (from non-repeating) photos of MP-18 and MP-24 from various angles, I noticed that the cooling holes slightly differ in location on the barrel cover, there are options for holes that reach almost right next to the muzzle edge, but there are indentation ... apparently a lot depended on the manufacturers or on the batch of weapons ???
              hi
              1. beeper
                beeper 20 December 2017 01: 30
                +1
                MP-24 is a typo, read-MP-28
        2. Grid
          Grid 16 December 2017 17: 17
          +1
          This is MP-28, just look at the store receiver

          Well, you yourself better look.
          A four-row store will join the software, and most importantly, the Suomi has a detachable trunk. And just very clearly visible flag locking the trunk.
          1. Kibb
            Kibb 20 December 2017 11: 21
            0
            We talked about another photo.
  5. DesToeR
    DesToeR 16 December 2017 12: 55
    +1
    Quote: John22
    Modernization Finami rifle arr. 1891 proves that shortcomings can be eliminated if you want and not be greedy.

    And were there any "flaws" in this reliable and accurate weapon?
    Quote: John22
    And in the USSR (and now) only praises about it.

    And what, having passed with honor two world wars, the rifle did not deserve praise? Everyone who scolds the “three-ruler” does not understand that in Russia weapons were created (and I hope they are now being created) precisely for the war, and not for the so-called "operators". The soldier doesn’t care what kind of bayonet he stabs in melee, and what type of fuse on your rifle.
  6. Blue fox
    Blue fox 16 December 2017 13: 14
    +9
    About Simo Hyayuhya-Hayyuha I can not write. :) Tired of replicating myths. I think colleagues at VO will be able to draw the appropriate conclusions from the analysis of the situation.
    So, we discussed with colleagues at waralbum.ru the “achievements” of this character, here are the squeezes from them:
    He fought in the same unit in the 6th company of the 34th infantry regiment, and in one area - Koll. From his own words, the position was neutral and he did not change it.
    In the photo: Hyayuha shows his position.
    He took part in the hostilities - the Kollasjoki River. Impassable defile between lakes and swamps. A very limited opportunity to use tanks and artillery, again this strike was not the main one, unlike the Karelian Isthmus, therefore there was not enough of both, and artillery was a maximum of the divisional level and without means of amplification. Therefore, the infantry divisions of the Red Army fought with the infantry units of the Finns, the forces of the Syutskor and other formations (which, incidentally, the Finns did not include in the alignment of forces, although they had weapons up to the heavy infantry). And the Finnish fortifications there were quite high-quality, although the bunkers were not there, as on the Karelian Isthmus, but there were enough bunkers and trenches of the full profile.
    He simply physically would not have time to shoot so much. The numbers of his victories are nothing more than Finnish propaganda - a simple Finnish farmer destroyed an entire battalion in less than three months. I looked at one foreign site, there, too, they distrust the declared victories of CX. And in confirmation there was this picture -
    Caption - Colonel Svenson presents a CX letter to the murder of 219 Red Army soldiers. 20.
    At Kollasjoki, the CX was on a specific sector of the front all the time, he conditionally acted against a specific infantry division. And even against a specific regiment, but none of the historians has stumbled upon a description of the huge losses from sniper fire (after all, consider the battalion) in the summaries of 164, 128, 75 and 56 divisions are not (although the 75th and 56th can be safely do not take into account, since they acted north of the road to Loimola). Yes, even if we compare the date of the photo 20.02.1940 and the number 219, then this is at least a reinforced company that died from sniper fire, at that time the March attack on the defeat of the Loymol group of Finns had not yet begun, i.e. By that time, the CX was all the more working against one, at most two battalions of a particular division, but nowhere is the confirmation of high losses from sniper fire.
    PS Thanks to colleagues at waralbum.ru sukhov and KAREL.
    1. kalibr
      16 December 2017 14: 05
      +5
      That is why the material indicates the source from where these figures were taken. It is very good that you have found information that allows you to look at all this differently. That's just the phrase "a simple Finnish farmer" could not ... it does not sound very correct. Could not because "simple" or there were some objective circumstances? Just very often, “ordinary people” do things that are not always difficult. And so ... yes, the information is very interesting, although all the facts are indirect. Now, if the data of military archives. Then it would be possible to disavow "their" statements in the press.
    2. Kibb
      Kibb 16 December 2017 14: 51
      0
      Well then let's discuss the results of Pavlichenko until the heap
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 17 December 2017 00: 35
        0
        Quote: Kibb
        Well then let's discuss the results of Pavlichenko until the heap

        Well, the results of Semyon Nomokonov: "Soviet sniper. During the Great Patriotic War, destroyed 360 German soldiers and officers, including one major general. During the Soviet-Japanese war, destroyed 8 soldiers and officers of the Kwantung Army. The total confirmed account of 368 enemy soldiers and officers. The weapons of S. D. Nomokonov during the war - Mosin’s three-line rifle. "
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 19 December 2017 09: 24
          +1
          Pavlichenko is interesting in that for a very short time
  7. beeper
    beeper 16 December 2017 17: 33
    +4
    Dear Vyacheslav Shpakovsky! I enjoyed reading your Article and Comments on it!
    Loved the illustrations! "Mosinka" with a bed of Karelian birch is, in fact, a song good !
    I wish you creative success!
    hi
    1. kalibr
      16 December 2017 18: 03
      +1
      Thank! Come to us on VO and further. This is only the first article in a series of materials about rifles from different countries and peoples. She appeared a little late. Before that, there was a whole series of articles on the 3 line. But then there was no material specifically for this article. Now he is, and the series itself will continue ...
  8. kalibr
    16 December 2017 18: 00
    +2
    Quote: Fitter65
    but when they pay extra for this, why not?

    And who, interestingly, pays extra for this? Give the address and, most importantly, indicate the amount. It all depends on the amount, right?
  9. Curious
    Curious 17 December 2017 01: 25
    +2
    “Until 1928, the old sight was used, but the Finns crossed out (scored oblique) Russian arshins on it and filled their meter scale”
    On a rifle arr. 1891, as with all previous rifled rifles that were in service with the Russian army, the sights had no divisions in arshins, elbows, oblique fathoms, versts, etc. Only in STEPS. And the shooting tables, too. After modernization in 1931, the sights had divisions in meters.
    1. Curious
      Curious 17 December 2017 01: 44
      +1
      The cartridge was used 7,62 × 53 mm R, that is, the diameter of the bullet 7,62 mm, and the sleeve length 53 mm had a flange (edge).
      The 7.62x53R cartridge, also known as the Finnish 7.62x53R, was developed in Finland on the basis of the 7.62x54R cartridge. The 7.62x53R cartridge appeared as a result of replacing the old Mosin rifle barrels and their minor modernization, which are in service with the Finnish army, which led to the creation of the 7.62x53R cartridge.
      the main difference between them is the diameter of the bullet and the diameter of the barrel, respectively. If a bullet with a diameter of 7,62 mm is used for the cartridge 54x7,92, then in the Finnish 7,62x53R a bullet with a diameter of 7,85 mm is used, as in the .308 Winchester and .30-06 Springfield cartridges.
      The use of a Finnish cartridge instead of a Russian one in a rifle should lead to a deterioration in ballistics and loss of accuracy.
      1. Curious
        Curious 17 December 2017 01: 58
        0
        The three-line service in the Finnish army continues today.

        The 85x7.62R caliber Tkiv 53 sniper rifle was assembled by the Finnish Defense Forces (FDF - Finnish Defense Forces) in 1984-1985.

        Like most Finnish small arms, the Tkiv 85 sniper rifle is a clone. This time the Tkiv 85 is nothing more than a modernized Mosin rifle, designed in a more or less modern version of the 80s of the twentieth century.

        The Tkiv 85 rifle system is completely analogous to the Mosin-Nagant system and early samples were assembled from parts of Mosin rifles (some rifles even came across parts dating from the late XNUMXth century).
    2. kalibr
      17 December 2017 07: 59
      +1
      It will be necessary to blame the authors of the above book that mislead people. And to me, science is thoughtless not to translate everything.
    3. hohol95
      hohol95 17 December 2017 20: 04
      +1
      1 arshin (step) = 4 quarters = 28 inches = 16 tips ≈ 71,12 cm.
      That's why they often write like this -
      The M / 28 rifle had an old Russian sight with a range of up to 3200 arshins (steps), but
      Finns redid the marking on the basis of the sight to metric.
      1. Curious
        Curious 17 December 2017 20: 18
        0
        I agree. But then it must be pointed out that the step had another name - arshin, since in all the literature of that time the term arshin was not used in relation to the shooting distance of small arms.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 17 December 2017 20: 42
          +1
          Your truth!
    4. The comment was deleted.
  10. hohol95
    hohol95 17 December 2017 19: 30
    +1
    Unrecognized rarities
    kalashnikov.ru

    Illustrated brochure about the Finnish "socks"!
  11. hohol95
    hohol95 17 December 2017 19: 51
    +1
    The volume of production of sniper rifles in Finland is
    Sniper rifle M / 28 11
    Sniper rifle M / 37 350
    M / 39 sniper rifle
    (Soviet) 300
    Sniper rifle M / 39-44 20
    Sniper rifle M / 33 25
    Sniper rifle M / 39RN 100
    Sniper rifle M / 39-43 500
    Kalashnikov. WEAPONS, AMMUNITION, EQUIPMENT 7/2003
  12. hohol95
    hohol95 17 December 2017 20: 01
    +1
    Rifle M / 28-30
    This rifle was manufactured by SAKO for the Finnish Self-Defense Forces. Installed on it
    new sight. However, like all other weapons of the self-defense forces, these rifles during the battles of the Second World War, ended up in the Finnish army, where they earned a reputation as a very accurate weapon. In total, 40 rifles were produced.
    Marks on Finnish rifles -
    SA - Stigma of the owner - Finnish army
    (Suomen Armeija)
    SY - Stigma of the owner - civil guard
    (Suojeluskuntain Ylieskunta).
  13. panzerfaust
    panzerfaust 19 December 2017 15: 33
    0
    Simo Hyayuha - Voroshilovsky shooter! It’s good that I didn’t participate in the Second World War, otherwise I would shoot more Red Army men, with a norm of 10 people a day.