Military Review

The many threats of improvised explosive devices

25

26 May, Kenya: 11 police officers were killed in two days. Two police officers were killed after their car hit a mine. The next day, 9 policemen died on the pledged device in Mander County.

27 May, Afghanistan: 18 people, mostly civilians, were killed when a car with explosives crashed into a convoy of security forces in eastern Afghanistan.
31 May Somalia: according to local military, security forces seized a large amount of explosives transported on a truck with vegetables.
31 May, Afghanistan: a powerful car bomb explosive in a diplomatic area, killed 80 and injured 350 people.
3 June, Cameroon: Two men with shahid belts blew themselves up near a refugee camp in northern Cameroon who fled from Boko Haram militants, killed 9 and injured 30 people.
3 Jun, Afghanistan: at least 15 people in the funeral procession killed by three consecutive explosions.

A brief summary of eight days called "News improvised explosive devices ”, which definitely did not include many minor incidents that occurred where there is no control over such cases. The three-letter abbreviation of IEDs (an improvised explosive device) almost disappeared from the Western press, as the American and European contingents reduced their presence in Afghanistan and Iraq. However, the above summary shows how serious this threat is also in Africa, where the French army suffers numerous losses from weapons of this type. The widespread use of IEDs on this continent led many regular armies to purchase armored vehicles with enhanced protection. In Afghanistan alone, from January to May 2017, explosive devices killed and wounded 1229 civilians, which is 53% more compared to the same period last year; at the same time, losses from the laid-down VCA amounted to 1082 of a person (88%).


Statistics of the application of IEDs in Afghanistan and Iraq from 2003 to 2010 year. And today, these countries suffer the most from the threat of IEDs

However, the situation may well worsen. With non-state actors capable of buying ready-made commercial unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), the problem of the VCA has acquired a greater physical dimension, turning from 2D to 3D. According to numerous sources, drones equipped with IEDs are used in different parts of the world, for example, in Colombia, the Gaza Strip, Iraq and Syria, by various groups, including Hezbollah and the Islamic state (prohibited in the Russian Federation). So the fight against the BLA becomes the fight against the VCA? It may be so, at least in some areas of hostilities.


After the delivery of the second joint laboratory JDEAL (Joint Deployable Exploitation and Analysis Laboratory) in June 2017, the Dutch organization for the fight against IEDs reached its full operational readiness

The increase in the number of systems used to deploy IEDs (drones can deliver them to a given place with minimal visibility), as well as their mass production, for example, in Syria and Iraq, forces us to pay closer attention to this problem and focus our efforts on “attacking the system "Which consists in the detection and disruption of the network for the production of the VCA, because behind each case of application of the VCA there is an organization with its members who install, manufacture and store the relevant materials purchased etennye in the market, and, in the end, conduct some research to develop new systems. For the most part, this is intelligence work performed by specialists, which begins in the field from gathering evidence at the scene after the explosion of the IED, and better when the IED is neutralized before detonation. The sampling, known as the 1 Exploitation Level, is performed by specialists, the collected readings are then processed in the area of ​​operations as part of the 2 Exploitation Level Forensic Examination, which requires specialized equipment. To this end, the European Defense Agency (EDA) developed the multinational MNTEL (Multi National Theater Exploitation Laboratory) multinational research laboratory in 2010, which was delivered in June 2011 to France, which launched it in Afghanistan in August of the same year. The work of this lab is provided by Austria, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Sweden. The information collected in the laboratory, via intelligence channels, is sent to one of the forensic laboratories in Europe for 3 Level examination. The mobile lab was redeployed in the Netherlands in July 2014; A joint research and analysis laboratory (JDEAL (Joint Deployable Exploitation and Analysis Laboratory)) is also deployed in this country, where technical training of specialists is constantly taking place. In addition to the Netherlands, ten more members of the European Defense Agency participate in this program: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. In June, the second JDEAL laboratory was installed on 2017, after which the training center began operating at full capacity. In the new laboratory there is everything necessary for carrying out research work, the equipment installed under inflatable awnings, which have a smaller mass, occupy a smaller volume and is simpler when deployed compared to container-type modules.


One of the EDA's VCA detection programs includes a confirmation system installed on a UAV; Helicopter-type camcopter S-100 drone from Schiebel was chosen for this role.

In the field, military personnel can only try to identify and avoid or neutralize IEDs of a different nature, including suicide bombers. And this requires special knowledge, training, sensors (at worst) and actuating elements, as a rule, jammers or powerful microwave devices, and recently also lasers. To present the scale of the problem: the market for remote detection systems for VCA and suicide bombers from VCA has grown from 250 million dollars in 2009 to 1,5 billions in 2014.


One of the newest route clearing complexes Medium Mine Protected Vehicle Type II, which entered service with the American army. The first set received in November 2016, 36-I engineering team

In order to prevent incidents in the main war zones, the Route Clearance Package demining complexes usually operate on the main roads used by transport convoys and patrols. However, the installation of a roadside bomb may take very little time and therefore the security provided by RCP is only a statistical indicator. In addition, stopping at vehicles that are critical for traffic, many of which may be mined, is one way of disrupting freedom of movement, even if the threat does not exist in reality. This not only slows down the movement of transport, but also "smears" the response capacity, since the existing groups to combat IEDs will not be enough for all real and hypothetical situations. Little is available about new systems in the field of countering IEDs. Since the terrorist threat has moved from the places of its origin to the territory of our countries (in fact, it has always been there, but now it has become a reality), more and more information from this sphere is being received “secretly”. Information in a metered form can be gathered only from joint initiatives, as well as from exhibitions where new systems and equipment are shown from time to time.


In order to strengthen the concept of “attack on the system”, the EDA decided to develop a deployable laboratory capable of processing the evidence collected in the theater in order to track the production chain of the VCA

The European Defense Agency is promoting an initiative among member countries to develop new systems and one example of this is the IEDDET detection program (IEDDET) (IED DETection). The IEDDET program aims to develop and demonstrate multi-sensor IEDs detection systems to support the development of improved route clearance systems.

The program is sponsored by Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Poland and includes three separate projects, each of which is focused on different stages of the route clearance operation: early warning, remote detection, confirmation and identification. The first of these, known under the designation VMEWI3 (Vehicle Mounted Early Warning Indicators of IEDs), is aimed at detecting indirect signs of VCA through the use of forward-looking systems installed on remotely controlled ground vehicles. The project is led by the Netherlands Research Organization, which actively cooperates on this issue with industry and research institutes.


The figure shows how the laser system can remotely detect a pair of burning explosives.

The detection system project is known by the abbreviation MUSICODE (MUIti-Sensor platform for Ied Component Detection - a multisensory platform for the detection of VCA components); The system will also be installed on remotely controlled machines. It will use a combination of forward and down cameras and intelligence information from the early warning system to further increase the likelihood of VCA detection. The project is coordinated by the Norwegian Institute for Defense Studies FFI. Last but not least, the Austrian Defense Technology Agency (ARWT) implements the CONFIDENT (Confirmation and Identification - Confirmation and Identification) program. The task of the system installed on ground and airborne unmanned systems is to confirm and identify electronic components, explosives and weapons of mass destruction. CONFIDENT will also provide additional early warning options. For this program, the Schiebel Camcopter S-100 helicopter type drone was selected. The final joint demonstration of the IEDDET program, launched in April 2017, is scheduled to take place in Austria at the end of 2019.

The many threats of improvised explosive devices

The beginning of 2009 of the year, the consequences of the explosion of a car packed with explosives near the German embassy and the American base. The explosion killed and injured soldiers of the international coalition, damaged cars and nearby buildings.


The Italian army chose the LMV from Iveco DV as the standard vehicle for the route clearance system

In addition to high-power microwave systems used to indicate high current in the electronic circuits of devices for controlling the detonation of VCA and “burning out” some of their elements, laser systems also appeared. At IDEX 2017, Rheinmetall unveiled a Leopard 2 tank with a 3 kW laser installation installed in the DUMW on the turret roof, the task of which is to destroy unexploded ordnance and improvised explosive devices. Of course, to increase the efficiency of the process, identification of the VCA is necessary first of all, however, the laser can be directed to suspicious objects and even in this case it will cause minimal damage.


Р ›Р ° Р · ернР° СЏ РїСѓС € РєР ° РјРѕС ‰ ностью 3 РєР'С‚ РґР »СЏ нейтрР° Р» РёР · Р ° С † РёРё РЎР'РЈ. SѓSЃS,R ° RЅRѕRІR "RμRЅRЅR ° SЏ RЅR ° F" RЈRњR 'RїSЂRμRґR "P ° RіR ° RμS,SЃSЏ RєRѕRјRїR ° RЅRoRμR№ Rheinmetall RґR" SЏ RјRѕRґRμSЂRЅRoR · ° F † C RoRo tank Leopard 2

A few months later, at the IDEF 2017 exhibition, the Turkish company Aselsan presented a demo of its Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy - Raman laser facility LIBS-R. This system of remote detection of explosives is developed in order to be able to more quickly and thoroughly exercise control at road checkpoints. But the ultimate goal of this program is the organization of the RCP (Rolling Check Point) system. These are bridges over roads that check all moving vehicles, generating an alarm when a suspicious car or truck passes under them.


IEDs are one of the deadliest threats to transport convoys; rebels use them to violate freedom of movement


Husky armored vehicle from the engineering battalion of the American army, equipped with ViSOR georadar


One of the numerous weapons caches discovered and destroyed by Afghan security forces during operations in Ghazni

According to the research department of the Turkish company, any vehicle carrying explosives will give out a small cloud of vapor indicating the presence of such substances. The LIBS installation allows identification of individual chemical elements due to reflection of laser radiation. There is no need for a prepared sample, the system works extremely fast, one analysis takes several seconds and allows you to detect a wide range of chemical elements, including light elements such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, magnesium and calcium. If LIBS allows you to define chemical elements, then Raman spectroscopy allows you to identify molecules. The use of both methods reduces the frequency of false positives and makes it more likely to identify suspicious vehicles. The frequency of false positives is reduced even more by filters, special algorithms and a constantly updated library of data, allowing you to get rid of "interference" (a term from the world of radar). The LIBS-R system is still undergoing laboratory testing, although field tests have shown that it can detect such explosives as TNT, ANFO (an explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate and diesel) and C4 (plastic explosive) at a distance of about 2,5 meters. The goal of the researchers is to increase this distance to 30 meters. The developer does not provide information when the system is ready for mass production.


The Turkish company Aseksan is developing a remote system for the detection of explosives, which can determine their presence at a distance of 30 meters in almost real time.


Thales Eclipse multi-range active-reactive silencer control panel


For the Griffon and Jaguar armored vehicles that are part of the Scorpion French Army program, Thales developed the Eclipse jammer; in the picture the system in one of its first configurations

Silencers remain one of the main decisions to neutralize remote-controlled IEDs. Among the latest developments, the Eclipse jamming system of the French company Thales is worth noting. A scalable modular system is being developed to equip armored vehicles that are part of the upgrade program of the French army Scorpion. It implements the functions of active, reactive and mixed jamming; It consists of up to eight broadband transmitters and up to four broadband receivers. Four independent power amplifiers allow you to close the frequency range 20-2500 MHz. However, the modular concept makes it easy to upgrade the system by upgrading communication protocols or integrating new technologies, for example, to extend the range to 6 GHz and sector radio direction finding to 2,5 GHz. The basic configuration uses one transmitting and one receiving antenna covering the 20-2500 MHz and 20-6000 MHz bands; An optional antenna allows transmission in the 2500-6000 MHz band.


A technician from the 380 engineering squad neutralizes the training IED. Such activities are a key element in dealing with such a threat.

From temporary organization to permanent agency

The American JIEDDO (Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization - a joint organization to combat IEDs), established in February 2006, was formed as a temporary organization to combat the threat of IEDs that originated in Iraq and then spread to Afghanistan. In the past ten years, the threats faced by soldiers of Western countries in many theaters of hostilities have constantly evolved. Among them are widely used home-made devices, which became more and more effective over time. Therefore, the United States decided to move from a temporary to a more stable organization and in this connection JIEDDO was renamed JIDA (Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency - a joint department to combat IEDs); its powers have been expanded from just fighting IEDs to more global “handicraft” threats. At the same time, the existing budget began to decline: in 2008, JIEDDO could count on 4 billion dollars, while JIDA, becoming a combat support organization, received only half a billion dollars. However, it was then decided to transform JIDA into an independent agency and, therefore, in January 2016, it became part of the External Threat Reduction Agency (Department of the United States Department of Defense) and received the abbreviation JIDO (Joint Improvisation-threat Defense Organization - joint organization for protection against IEDs). After that, the organization has expanded its scope of activity and is no longer limited to the fight against IEDs and the networks that create, produce and install them. In addition, since the military is often involved in operations in their own country, a new provision on cooperation with local authorities and other government agencies was adopted. Well, as far as the American organization, originally formed to combat IEDs, will be effective in its new form, and how it will be further developed to cope with new threats, we'll see.

Materials used:
www.shephardmedia.com
www.csis.org
www.eda.europa.eu
www.aselsan.com.tr
www.jieddo.mil
guide.supereva.it
www.alamy.com
www.wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org
25 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Same lech
    Same lech 11 December 2017 06: 35 New
    0
    The components for the IEDs are around us in sufficient quantities to make something explosive ... the threat is not in this, but in the knowledge and ability to assemble the IEDs ... it means that the sources of this knowledge must be cut off for crazy minds.

    Here is just a double-edged sword ... you will not forbid the textbook of chemistry and physics ... who really wants to always find something to blow up and undermine themselves in various home experiments.

    IN RUSSIA Thank God the bombers immediately take note ... but all the same, the protection system of the metro, train stations, public stops is a vulnerability for IEDs, even an expert does not need to be there in plain sight.
    1. andrewkor
      andrewkor 11 December 2017 09: 15 New
      +2
      For a long time, even under the Union, I heard that chemists of different years of education were taught explosives formulas with slightly different chemical compounds in chemists so that, if anything, they could narrow the circle of suspects in the manufacture of IEDs. They say that they calculated the Armenians who blew up IEDs in the Moscow metro.
      1. kytx
        kytx 26 December 2017 18: 39 New
        0
        As a former student chemist, I declare this by and large rubbish. It is possible to trace a lab by specific traces of substances, it’s approximately like a man’s handwriting, but this has nothing to do with chemical prescription. Here open the book "pyrotechnics in the cinema" for the present times a ready-made guide. And since all kitchen chemists hit either in surfactants or in explosives, nothing more can be done in the “kitchen”.
    2. your1970
      your1970 11 December 2017 10: 52 New
      0
      in one of the cities of the USA you can officially buy a license to shoot drones (any !!!) - for $ 5 per year.
      It is possible - that someday we will have to sell ...
  2. Cat Marquis
    Cat Marquis 11 December 2017 08: 06 New
    +6
    All these "electronic noses" work only in laboratory or in close conditions. There was already information as "jokers" at one of the US airports disabled such a system by spraying powder from firecrackers in public vehicles next to the airport. Passengers dragged this powder into the airport with their shoes and luggage, causing "crazy" triggering of an electronic security system based on an "artificial dog nose." It’s the same here — what prevents the partisans from scattering explosives on the road — which the electronic system will determine as mines — let the column stand waiting for it to be “cleared", wasting precious time ....
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 11 December 2017 14: 32 New
      +2
      Quote: Cat Marquis
      All these "electronic noses" work only in laboratory or in close conditions.

      And here it’s the same as in optical reconnaissance: the more detection channels, the greater the probability
      If the "sniffer" found traces of explosives, optics or other means - the presence of something disguised on the side of the road, and the nonlinear radar - the presence of electronics, then with high probability it is an IED.
      1. brn521
        brn521 11 December 2017 15: 25 New
        +3
        Quote: Spade
        If the "sniffer" found traces of explosives

        For police actions, it can and will do. But during active hostilities, traces of explosives will be everywhere. It will also be full of all broken rubbish, including on the sidelines. And the beaten electronics among this rubbish will be in bulk. So IEDs are still relevant as the main civil defense tool.
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 11 December 2017 15: 28 New
          0
          Quote: brn521
          For police actions, it can and will do. But during active hostilities, traces of explosives will be everywhere. It will also be full of all broken rubbish, including on the sidelines. And the beaten electronics among this rubbish will be in bulk.

          I’m about this. There are electronics and there are traces of explosives. The place needs additional verification. Well, or in preventive exposure to a microwave installation.
          1. brn521
            brn521 11 December 2017 15: 58 New
            +2
            Quote: Spade
            There is electronics and there are traces of explosives - the place needs additional verification.

            But not in the case when the entire track becomes suspicious. The first thing that begs itself is to rub the TNT checker on a fine grater and thus provide a breakthrough of suspicious places that will not disappear for a long time. Check / irradiate these places have to regularly.
            1. Lopatov
              Lopatov 11 December 2017 16: 03 New
              +1
              Quote: brn521
              The first thing that begs itself is to rub the TNT checker on a fine grater and thus provide a breakthrough of suspicious places that will not disappear for a long time.

              And fill up the electronics, put a bunch of barrels under the roadbed and put it on the side of the wire ....
              In short, you will be noticed for sure during this gigantic work. Well, and preventively ...
              1. brn521
                brn521 11 December 2017 17: 29 New
                +1
                Quote: Spade
                And fill up the electronics, put a bunch of barrels under the roadbed and put it on the side of the wire ....

                Will cost. Let the garbage that is be collected. Especially in the city.
                1. Lopatov
                  Lopatov 11 December 2017 18: 44 New
                  0
                  Quote: brn521
                  Let the garbage that is be collected.

                  What for? One check is enough. Then you need to bury new ones.
              2. psiho117
                psiho117 12 December 2017 07: 03 New
                +1
                Quote: Spade
                And fill up the electronics, put a bunch of barrels under the roadbed and put it on the side of the wire ....
                In short, you will be noticed for sure during this gigantic work. Well and preventively

                civilians (well - "conditionally" civilians) - teenagers, women, old people will bury and scatter. What preventive is there ...
                Quote: Spade
                What for? One check is enough. Then you need to bury new ones.

                Well, you are an intelligent person - this is the basics of sabotage, to put a fresh byak in an allegedly verified place.
                1. Lopatov
                  Lopatov 12 December 2017 09: 42 New
                  +1
                  Quote: psiho117
                  Well, you are an intelligent person - this is the basics of sabotage, to put a fresh byak in an allegedly verified place.

                  At the current level of development of electronics, the same GPR is able not only to find heterogeneity in the roadbed, but also to compare its characteristics with those obtained in previous passages. The same with the rest of the detection tools.
                  The Israelis have developed a system that uses only the analysis of images obtained from drones. Stupid comparison. As a result, any new funnel, any new object at the roadbed becomes an object of study

                  Quote: psiho117
                  civilians (well - "conditionally" civilians) - teenagers, women, old people will bury and scatter.

                  And this will be a huge gift for the special services. I’m afraid that when applying such methods, they will not just prevent “direct sucking” of direct performers, but will open the entire network.
  3. Waltasar
    Waltasar 11 December 2017 08: 21 New
    +3
    I understand that there are specialists here who are very easy to create IEDs and who have hundreds of ideas for their application, but please do not share this knowledge here. Yes, and nowhere else.
  4. igordok
    igordok 11 December 2017 08: 30 New
    +1
    According to the last photo. Wrong. According to Hollywood, you need to cut the red wire. smile
  5. Old26
    Old26 11 December 2017 09: 44 New
    +4
    Quote: andrewkor
    For a long time, even under the Union, I heard that chemists of different years of education were taught explosives formulas with slightly different chemical compounds in chemists so that, if anything, they could narrow the circle of suspects in the manufacture of IEDs. They say that they calculated the Armenians who blew up IEDs in the Moscow metro.

    Not certainly in that way. There, the fragments of a bag in which there was a ducklifter with explosives formed the basis. We found out where these bags were delivered, etc. At least it was so voiced. And they didn’t do explosives themselves, as far as I remember, but used stolen explosives
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 11 December 2017 10: 11 New
      +2
      Quote: Old26
      But they did not do the explosives themselves, as far as I remember, but used stolen explosives.

      Not so long ago, I read about this story. Used black powder, bought in the store "Hunter". By the way, not the most effective BB.
  6. Old26
    Old26 11 December 2017 10: 20 New
    +2
    Quote: zyablik.olga
    Quote: Old26
    But they did not do the explosives themselves, as far as I remember, but used stolen explosives.

    Not so long ago, I read about this story. Used black powder, bought in the store "Hunter". By the way, not the most effective BB.

    I will not argue. I don’t remember specifically about explosives, but I heard repeatedly that they had a puncture with a bag
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Cat Marquis
      Cat Marquis 11 December 2017 11: 38 New
      +2
      In the 90s, books such as The Anarchist's Cookbook, Bible of the People’s Volunteer, Encyclopedia of Young Marmots, etc., were freely lying on the shelves of bookstores, etc. where all this was described in detail ... wink
      1. your1970
        your1970 11 December 2017 14: 56 New
        +3
        then it moved to the internet where it lies freely and now
        1. garri-lin
          garri-lin 11 December 2017 19: 46 New
          0
          Recipe igdanita half of Soviet teenagers knew the class from the fifth. And now everything has been painted in detail in the hoarfrost. After the explosion in Boston specifically checked. A few days in the requests for "recipe explosives" and "how to make a bomb." And please every tenth site with instructions with messages. Up to the point that "where you can take what."
          1. Grandfather Eugene
            Grandfather Eugene 13 December 2017 21: 36 New
            0
            Fortunately, your igdanit is useless as a small WU, and without a serious detonator it won’t work, with the wrong proportions, sizes and manufacturing techniques, too. It is good that the manufacture requires knowledge, experience, that statistics would not expand, and some Soviet no longer boys would not go at all, since the minimum working volume of explosives is guaranteed to tear to pieces any poor fellow a few meters from the site of the explosion. In theory and TNT, it is easy to do in practice at the plants using technically sophisticated equipment and an accurate process that is impossible in artisan conditions.
            1. garri-lin
              garri-lin 23 December 2017 21: 21 New
              0
              Please forgive. Why your comment didn’t notice. I'm getting old.
              And igdanitom suppressed fish personally. Nothing complicated. More / less durable body (cast iron pipe with flanges, gas cylinder of small volume) and the attack is ready.
              There is a lot of information on the Internet.
  7. Cat Marquis
    Cat Marquis 11 December 2017 11: 52 New
    +1
    By the way, Walecki has some interesting works on mines and IEDs, well, for example: https://rutracker-zerkalo.appspot.com/forum/viewt
    opic.php? sid = s3KFfYJ2kv3 & t = 5027479