Military Review

Universal fire facility (MSD) "Gorchak"

47
The best firing fortifications include those that require less time and money for erection, are barely visible on the ground and are able to suddenly open effective fire on the attacking enemy.


In the system of long-term and field fortification, two directions have long been realized: small transportable fire installations, quickly installed on positions, and concealed structures.

Universal fire facility (MSD) "Gorchak"


"GORCHAK" IN DEVELOPMENT

In 1990, in the Central Research Institute of Precision Engineering (TsNIITOCHMASH, Klimovsk, Moscow Region), an experimental design work was opened on the “installation for firing fortifications with a mechanically driven control weapons". OCD received the cipher "Gorchak", led by leading design engineer V. I. Altunin. It was about creating a quickly erected fire structure with a ready-made "fighting compartment" in the form of a hiding armored shelter, carrying a range of weapons to combat various targets, including low-flying air. In 1996, the installation was put into service under the designation “universal firing structure of the hidden type”, retaining, according to tradition, the design code “Gorchak”. Serial production of the plant was organized by OJSC Motovilikhinskiye Zavody (Perm) - it had previously produced prototypes of Gorchak according to TsNIITOCHMASH documentation.

"GORCHAK" IN CUT

The Gorchak Universal Fire Erection Facility (ASD) is intended for the operational construction of defensive lanes, fortification equipment of fortified areas, roadblocks, border zones, and the organization of protection lines for important objects (for example, the Strategic Missile Forces points).

The basis of a double fire structure is a cylindrical base, equipped with sealed doors. In the upper part there is a block of armament, fixed under a reclining armored cover, and observation devices. The armament unit is equipped with various types of weapons - automatic “anti-personnel” weapons of decking (machine guns) and decking-mounted (automatic grenade launcher) fire, weapons for fighting lightly armored ground and low-flying air targets (large-caliber machine gun), guided anti-tank anti-tank weapons (ATGM). In the present embodiment, the Gorchak FOC carries in a swinging armored block:

- 12,7-mm heavy machine gun NSV-12,7 (combat rate of fire to 200 rds / min, ammunition 480 cartridges)
- 7,62-mm PKM machine gun (combat rate of fire 250 rds / min, ammunition 1700 cartridges),
- 30-mm automatic grenade launcher AGS-17 (rate of fire - up to 400 shots / min, ammunition 360 shots),
- launcher 9P135М for anti-tank guided missiles 9М111 (Fagot), 9М113 (Competition), 9К113М (Competition-M) - all with a semi-automatic control system by wire. Ammunition - four ATGM in TPK.

Each of these weapons is worthy of a separate review. It is enough to say here that such a set allows the FBW to fight:
- with the enemy’s open, buried and entrenched manpower at ranges to 2000 m,
- with lightly armored targets at ranges to 2000 m,
- with tanks and armored vehicles at ranges from 70 to 4000 m,
- with attacking aircraft and helicopters at ranges to 1500 m.

Under the block of weapons are jobs for the calculation. The complex of devices allows the calculation to conduct constant observation of the battlefield, timely detect and identify targets.

"GORCHAK" ON THE POSITION

ASC “Gorchak” is transportable, transported by automobiles of the type ZIL-130 (one UOS) or KAMA3-4310 (two UOS), by rail. To install the SLD at the selected position, a cylindrical recess with a depth of 2,0 m and a diameter of 2,5 m with an adjacent blocked trench is prepared by using an engineering digging machine in the ground to enter the SLD calculation. In the hidden position, the weapons unit is in the lowered position, the hatch in the roof of the building is covered with an armored cover. The height of the structure above the ground does not exceed 150 mm, which makes it unobtrusive, while using simple masking measures, it is almost imperceptible on the ground for ground and aerial surveillance. When translated into the firing position, the upper cover of the ASD opens, the armament unit rises up - the installation is ready for the opening of fire.

The height of the structure above the ground surface in a combat position is increased to 600 mm. FOC is characterized by a combination of enhanced protection and improved habitability conditions for combat crews. The armored lid withstands a direct hit by a field gun. However, the greatest protection gives a low visibility structures. Weapon control is remote, using periscopic viewing blocks, aiming and pointing devices, both calculation numbers are constantly below ground level. The combination of transportability and the scheme of the hiding installation gave the construction a new quality - the ability to quickly create a defense system without significant time costs, relocation by road or rail. The MS Gorchak can also be used as part of a more solid buried long-term firing structure.
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  1. Chichikov
    Chichikov 10 December 2017 06: 44 New
    +8
    I didn’t even think that after the collapse of the Union, there were pragmatists who believed that URs equipped with modern technologies would be in demand in future wars. Good machine.
    1. Chertt
      Chertt 10 December 2017 06: 56 New
      +4
      Quote: Chichikov
      that equipped with modern technology, URs will be in demand

      It looks impressive. And performance characteristics are impressive. The scope is not quite clear.
      1. Chichikov
        Chichikov 10 December 2017 07: 01 New
        13
        Quote: Chertt
        The scope is not clear

        There are still enough bottlenecks on the borders of Russia, which, as in the Union, can be covered by fortified areas. But nuclear power plants, bridges, etc. - there is where to strengthen the defense.
        1. Chertt
          Chertt 10 December 2017 07: 25 New
          +5
          In such "bottlenecks" they put a checkpoint if there is a need for bunkers or other defensive structures. Cheaper, more practical and much more comfortable. As I understand it. (UOS) "Gorchak" is intended for, rapid deployment, unexpected for the enemy.
          1. san4es
            san4es 10 December 2017 09: 18 New
            +8
            Quote: Chertt
            In such "bottlenecks" they put a checkpoint if there is a need for bunkers or other defensive structures.

            OOS is the tool for pillboxes


            like a cover
          2. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 11 December 2017 01: 22 New
            0
            Quote: Chertt
            "Gorchak" is intended for quick deployment, unexpected for the enemy.

            ... and temporary ...
          3. Golovan Jack
            Golovan Jack 11 December 2017 01: 50 New
            +8
            Quote: Chertt
            (UOS) "Gorchak" is designed for, quick deployment, unexpected for the enemy

            My doubts:
            To set the SLD to the selected position with using an earth moving machine in the ground, a cylindrical depression is being prepared with a depth of 2,0 m and a diameter of 2,5 m with an adjacent covered trench for entering the SLD calculation

            Have you ever seen this “car" thread? Especially at work?
            "Secretly for the enemy" - well, nothing will come of it.
      2. Razvedka_Boem
        Razvedka_Boem 10 December 2017 07: 41 New
        +3
        The scope is not clear

        Because armor protection is unlikely to be more than 50 mm, then, most likely, a niche of application - firing points are hidden for the defense and security of airfields, military bases, etc.
      3. 210ox
        210ox 10 December 2017 12: 30 New
        +1
        I admit honestly I have not heard about this .. The area of ​​application is yes, I agree it is incomprehensible. The war will not be an assault on the URs. And a massive missile strike. And then, with luck, more precisely, how the air defense and the airborne forces work.
        Quote: Chertt
        Quote: Chichikov
        that equipped with modern technology, URs will be in demand

        It looks impressive. And performance characteristics are impressive. The scope is not quite clear.
      4. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 11 December 2017 01: 20 New
        +2
        Quote: Chertt
        The scope is not clear

        Why there! ... 1. In case of urgent (temporary) organization of block posts; 2. Quick installation of "firing points" for guarding "field" camps .... etc. ,etc. ... By the way, I once went to such a "field" camp during the "local" exercises of one military unit ... just there, the entrance to the camp was "blocked" by an armored firing point dug into the ground ...
      5. captain
        captain 15 December 2017 19: 59 New
        0
        Quote: Chertt
        Quote: Chichikov
        that equipped with modern technology, URs will be in demand

        It looks impressive. And performance characteristics are impressive. The scope is not quite clear.

        Application area; protection and defense of the positions of the Strategic Missile Forces mine-based.
    2. san4es
      san4es 10 December 2017 09: 27 New
      +4
      Quote: Chichikov
      equipped with modern technology URs will be in demand in future wars. Good machine.

      ... And in the current, simpler
      The Ministry of Defense delivered to the fighters of Ukraine in the Donbass special bunkers for the construction of "firing points", spending a decent amount of money on them


      ...but:
      but a simple experiment of the soldiers of the 128th brigade showed that they are easily shot by service weapons.
      One such bunker costs about 44 thousand hryvnias, but the test showed that it can be easily shot from a Kalashnikov machine gun 7.62 and an AK 74 machine gun. In addition, a tribunal threatens the fighters for such experiments, says social activist and volunteer Lyudmila Bandurchak on Facebook.

      1. Razvedka_Boem
        Razvedka_Boem 10 December 2017 12: 43 New
        +3
        One such bunker costs about 44 thousand hryvnias, but the test showed that it is easily shot from a Kalashnikov 7.62 machine gun and an AK 74 assault rifle

        Folding, reinforced bags in which the soil is poured - the simplest and most effective tool.

        Withstand massive fire weapons 7.62 mm, short-term exposure 12.7 mm, a single hit RPG.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. boriz
        boriz 10 December 2017 14: 23 New
        0
        Rational tilt angles of armor are not for Ukrainians invented.
      4. Alf
        Alf 10 December 2017 22: 23 New
        +2
        Quote: san4es
        ..but:
        but a simple experiment of the soldiers of the 128th brigade showed that they are easily shot by service weapons.
        One such bunker costs about 44 thousand hryvnias, but the test showed that it can be easily shot from a Kalashnikov machine gun 7.62 and an AK 74 machine gun. In addition, a tribunal threatens the fighters for such experiments, says social activist and volunteer Lyudmila Bandurchak on Facebook.

        I will ask a provocative question. And what steel are these bunkers made of? From boiler iron? There were already bunkers in concrete that crumbled with hands.
  2. tchoni
    tchoni 10 December 2017 07: 04 New
    0
    Interestingly, but in Ichkeria they were used?
  3. Vitas
    Vitas 10 December 2017 07: 08 New
    +3
    Not bad of course, but will it find application in modern warfare? In the Kuril Islands, Perekop, tanks were dug ... towers separately
    1. igordok
      igordok 10 December 2017 10: 31 New
      +6
      Quote: Vitas
      In the Kuril Islands, Perekop, tanks were dug ... towers separately

      On the borders with China and Finland (and maybe even) they put curvilinear machine guns, the BUK-turret-mounted machine gun.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. 210ox
      210ox 10 December 2017 15: 03 New
      +1
      That's interesting. In the photo tower from which tank? Is it captured?
      Quote: Vitas
      Not bad of course, but will it find application in modern warfare? In the Kuril Islands, Perekop, tanks were dug ... towers separately
      1. Vitas
        Vitas 10 December 2017 15: 15 New
        +4
        Towers from the medium Soviet tank T-54/55 with a long-barrel 100-mm cannon mounted on concrete casemates deeply buried in rocky ground

        According to the authors of the article.
        http://gosu-wot.com/tanki-sh/
      2. Oden280
        Oden280 10 December 2017 16: 54 New
        +2
        From T-54 first releases
      3. Alf
        Alf 10 December 2017 22: 25 New
        +1
        Quote: 210ox
        That's interesting. In the photo tower from which tank? Is it captured?

        Teach materiel. wink The tower to the pain of the familiar T-54 of the first series with the zaman.
  4. andrewkor
    andrewkor 10 December 2017 07: 14 New
    +2
    Gorchak development at a new level of ideas and developments of the 19th century: Schumann armored carriages, hiding installations of Fabricius (Russia, Russia, 1910)
    1. Alf
      Alf 10 December 2017 22: 31 New
      +1
      Quote: andrewkor
      Gorchak development at a new level of ideas and developments of the 19th century: Schumann armored carriages, hiding installations of Fabricius (Russia, Russia, 1910)

      The old truth - all new - well forgotten old.
  5. Nikolay R-PM
    Nikolay R-PM 10 December 2017 07: 49 New
    +2
    I wonder how the power of electric drives is provided? Each product is autonomous or from the central generator via cables. Given the small dimensions of the living space, I am more for the second option
  6. Strashila
    Strashila 10 December 2017 08: 16 New
    +4
    A wonderful foundation for building an armed platform ... the main thing is a ready-made combat module. It does not have to be buried into the ground ... if possible, then add a stabilization system ... put on river and sea vessels, in armored capsules on railway platforms. With making an armored containerized version with the possibility of hanging screens and other protection systems ... you want, took off ... a stationary post ... you want to carry. And make a double cover ... to cover on both sides on the sides.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 11 December 2017 01: 34 New
      0
      Quote: Strashila
      A wonderful foundation for building an armed platform ...

      I agree ! I visited a very similar thought: in the Donbass we could “hoist” such a “Gorchak” into the back of a suitable truck and ... “let's go, beauty, ride ....”! After all, there were examples when militiamen installed BTR (BMD) corps in the bodies of "armored" trucks ...
      1. Strashila
        Strashila 11 December 2017 06: 54 New
        +1
        Quite right ... perhaps a revision is needed to optimize for the dimensions of a standard container ... maybe, somewhere, the lifting mechanism will not be in demand ... but the foundation is normal for healthy creativity.
    2. garri-lin
      garri-lin 11 December 2017 12: 47 New
      0
      Why bother h .... n from the finger?
  7. ROM1077
    ROM1077 10 December 2017 09: 19 New
    +3
    on the border with Tajikistan they put drug trafficking there goes with an armored cap they will not agree ....
  8. avdkrd
    avdkrd 10 December 2017 12: 39 New
    +4
    A very useful device for organizing defense in "narrow" areas. The weak point is situational awareness. Prisms are not able to give a complete picture, and location at ground level does not give advantages. It is clear that such a bunker is hardly noticeable, but he himself does not see anything. Given the development of technology, it would not be out of place to supplement the composition of the monitoring devices with external video cameras with reference to the sight.
    1. Dead duck
      Dead duck 10 December 2017 13: 17 New
      +6
      Quote: avdkrd
      Weak point is situational awareness

      Plus one control channel for two and there is no possibility of firing (simultaneously) in different directions. request
      1. AUL
        AUL 10 December 2017 20: 15 New
        0
        Plus it is detected "at the expense of time" by any locator. And once discovered - consider destroyed!
    2. komvap
      komvap 10 December 2017 13: 19 New
      0
      in terms of the combination of advantages and disadvantages, such a module should be a remote control - otherwise there is no special meaning.
      1. Captain Pushkin
        Captain Pushkin 10 December 2017 15: 35 New
        0
        Quote: komvap

        0
        komvap Today, 13:19 PM ↑ New
        in terms of the combination of advantages and disadvantages, such a module should be a remote control - otherwise there is no special meaning.

        Well, he is the DU.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Captain Pushkin
      Captain Pushkin 10 December 2017 15: 34 New
      0
      Quote: avdkrd
      Given the development of technology, it would not be out of place to supplement the composition of the monitoring devices with external video cameras with reference to the sight.

      Something like a survey periscope and a periscope sight in one bottle. In options: with a low-light camera, night sight, thermal imager, radar.
      But the maximally simplified and cheap option should be preserved.
  9. boriz
    boriz 10 December 2017 14: 29 New
    0
    Decent continuity.
    During the Leningrad blockade, the militia divisions were formed from workers. Well, communication with the factories was maintained. For their fighters welded "bunkers on wheels", mobile armored firing points.
  10. Lena Petrova
    Lena Petrova 10 December 2017 15: 59 New
    +1
    Something similar is needed for the near-field defense of the Navy bases. Retractable modules Shell-1s. In the case of a massive missile attack.
    1. alexmach
      alexmach 10 December 2017 22: 03 New
      +1
      Why are they tidy up, and what makes the carapace that ride a wheeled platform worse?
  11. missuris
    missuris 10 December 2017 17: 03 New
    0
    cool, but 2018, and then it’s better to remake it in dub or generally an autonomous battle point, on a large lithium-polymer battery or a hydrogen battery.
    1. garri-lin
      garri-lin 11 December 2017 13: 49 New
      +1
      I completely agree. Especially for an Autonomous point with a thermal imager and primitive intelligence.
      Several types of equipment: with the calculation (in its present form) for for roadblocks and long-term camps.
      In the form of a DBM with cable control and powered by an external source. With this option, you can refuse to separate the calculation. Thus minimizing excavation work during installation.
      The third option is an autonomous firing point. It can be made unapproachable. Cheap and dangerous.
  12. alexmach
    alexmach 10 December 2017 22: 03 New
    +1
    They developed it, but how much did it do and place?
  13. Radikal
    Radikal 10 December 2017 22: 27 New
    0
    Quote: Chichikov
    I didn’t even think that after the collapse of the Union, there were pragmatists who believed that URs equipped with modern technologies would be in demand in future wars. Good machine.

    Kuril Islands, about. Sakhalin, other sections of the coast of the Russian Federation.
  14. lazy
    lazy 11 December 2017 08: 09 New
    0
    on Sakhalin in area Ctarodubsky remains
  15. CTABEP
    CTABEP 12 December 2017 18: 50 New
    0
    Kmk, the thing is highly specialized, but not bad. Although, 20 years old, and things are still there, it is unlikely that anything will change. And so - to have such staffing in engineering brigades and battalions is a great thing to strengthen the same roadblocks, protect field airfields and military bases. It would be quite useful IMHO. To know only their price, if of course ok how the tank is - then well, what the hell.
  16. Phoenix Golden
    Phoenix Golden 13 December 2017 03: 15 New
    0
    As a fast-mounted defensive structure .. it is possible ... only instead of the ATGM 2/4 RPG. 7,62 + 12,7 or only 12,7 .. and only with the remote control ... wire 20-50m + other ..
  17. serge siberian
    serge siberian 14 December 2017 19: 26 New
    0
    Well, let something be brought to the SAR to try. The idea is not bad. The ammunition load is small, maybe I’m wrong. There are only, I think, in the vastness of our Motherland there are not a few bottlenecks where you can install them. Thanks to the author for the photo. Thanks for the link, very interesting and informative.