Military Review

Knights in rich armor ... Continuation of the “tournament theme” (part six)

48
When you look at ceremonial armor, you involuntarily think about how much it all cost? After all, they are based on the same steel, not tin and not cardboard. That is, they performed their protective function. But then ... chasing here, bluing here, carving and etching, and, of course, gilding, where without it ... He just doesn’t want to leave some armor, they are so beautiful and pleasing to the eye. Today we continue the story of the ceremonial armor of Dresden armory chambers, and we will show the most interesting and impressive ...


The chemical method of decorating the armor, one might say, “untied the hands of the masters. After all, before they had to cut patterns on the metal with shtiheli, whereas now almost the same effect was achieved by drawing on the metal with a sharp bone stick, and some waiting time until the work of the shtiheli is performed by acid. Decorative even relatively cheap armor immediately increased dramatically, and their appearance approached the costly armor of the nobility.


Well, let’s start with these ceremonial armor of the work of the master Jerome Ringler, Augsburg, 1622. A couple of pistols signed by the master of IR also relied on them. As you can see, this is nothing but a set - armor for the rider and armor for the horse. They are decorated as follows - this is the chemical color of the metal in brown color, followed by gilding and drawing on a gold coating. Both the rider’s armor and the horse’s armor cover the so-called images of “trophies” made up of various types of weapons and armor, while the coat of arms is depicted in the medallion itself.


So these armors look, being put on on the rider and on a horse!

Knights in rich armor ... Continuation of the “tournament theme” (part six)

The name of the parts of the horse plate armor.


The peraille and shanfron are very clearly visible.


Well, these are guns for this armor. Without them, a headset would be incomplete!

At the beginning of the 16th century, very original methods began to be used to decorate German armor. For example, surface engraving on blue blued metal. At the same time, the blued surface was covered with wax and on it, like when engraving on copper, a pattern or drawing was scratched with the help of a sharp wooden stick. After this, the product was dipped into strong vinegar, and all the burnished things went away from the cleaned places. It was necessary to remove the wax primer, and on the armor a clearly visible light pattern on a blue background was obtained. It was possible to simply scrape it, without resorting to the acetic bath. They also worked on gold, that is, gilding applied to blued metal, which made it possible to obtain “gold drawings” on steel. This technique was used by masters of the 17th century.


Three pairs of pistols with wheel locks. Above and in the center: masters of WH, NZ, NK, Suhl., 1610 - 1615. Below, Germany - 1635. Master unknown. Actually, all the other masters are unknown. About armor, we know who was hiding behind some “nickname”, but pistol-guns - no!


Three more pairs. As you can see, something, and the rifle pistols of the German cavalry during the Thirty Years' War were enough ... Including the most luxurious ones!

The technology of working with gold mercury has been known for a long time. Therefore, another method of gilding was used, in essence representing the “tightness” of armor (plating) with gold foil. This technology consisted in the fact that the details of the armor were heated to a high temperature, and then gold foil was applied to their surface and ironed with a special steel polisher, which made the foil very firmly attached to the metal. In this way, armor from Augsburg and also in other places was decorated. It is clear that skill was required here, as in any other business, but the technology itself was, as you see, very simple.


Tournament armor of Elector Christian I of Saxony. The work of the master Anton Peffenhauser, Augsburg, 1582.


It is clear that such a noble gentleman, as Christians I of Saxony, simply does not have to have only one armored set. Well, to think about it, his high-ranking acquaintances and friends? Therefore, he had several armored sets! This is, for example, ceremonial armor, both for a man and for a horse (that is, a complete knightly set, which often weighed 50-60 kg, which the knight’s own armor itself took for weight!) all the same famous master Anton Paffenhauser from Augsburg, before 1591


Parade armor with chanfron and armored saddle from Augsburg 1594 - 1599

Blackening or niello was one of the ancient ways of finishing weapons, and this method was known to the ancient Egyptians. Benvenutto Cellini described it in detail in his treatises, so that the masters of the Middle Ages just had to use it. The essence of this method was to fill the patterns on the metal with black, consisting of a mixture of metals such as silver, copper and lead in the proportion 1: 2: 3. This alloy has a dark gray color and on a bright background of shiny metal looks very noble. This technique was widely used by the gunsmiths of the East, and from the East, it fell into Europe. It was used to finish the handles and scabbard of swords, but in the decoration of armor, as Vendalen Beheim writes, it was used relatively rarely. But again, only in Europe, while in the East they decorated with blacks both helmets, bracers, and plates of Yushmans and Bakters. In the Middle Ages, among the Europeans, it was mainly Italians who used this technique and gradually it came to naught, remaining a characteristic feature of Eastern, for example, Caucasian weapons.


Parade armor ordered by the King of Sweden Eric XIV, around 1563 - 1565. In his hand the figure holds a marshal's baton.

Inlay technology is no less ancient. The essence of inlaying is that the metal wire of gold or silver is hammered into recesses on the surface of the metal. In Italy, this technology began to be used in the 16th century, although it was known in the West for a long time, since ancient times, and was widely used to decorate rings, buckles and brooches. Then it was forgotten and spread again through the Spaniards and Italians who were dealing with Arabs. From the beginning of the 16th century, the Toleda gunsmiths, the masters of Florence and Milan, whose inlaid weapons spread throughout Europe and were admired everywhere, very successfully used the metal inlay technique. The technology itself is very simple: on metal, grooves are cut with a chisel or chisel, into which pieces of gold or silver wire are hammered. Then the inlaid parts heat up and the wire is firmly connected to the base. There are two types of inlay: the first is flat, in which the wire driven into the base is at the same level with its surface, and the second is relief when it projects above the surface of the base and creates a certain relief. Flat inlay is easier, cheaper and more profitable, as it is enough to polish and polish it, as she is ready. But this method has its limitations. Inlaying is always done in thin lines and in areas of relatively small area. Large areas therefore have to be gilded with gold foil.


The same armor on the other side.

The second half of the 15th century was marked by the use of such decorative equipment, and a new one for weapons business, like chasing for iron. Chasing on gold was known to different nations, in different eras, and even in the Bronze Age, and in Byzantium the heyday was almost the main branch of applied art. But this technology was still typical for working with soft metals, but the iron is by no means relevant to them. And on what, on what gland was minted? Therefore, only with the advent of lamellar armor, and not immediately, the art of master gunsmiths reached such heights that they mastered iron embossing techniques, and managed to create excellent knight armor for both the knights themselves and their horses.


The horsehead is simply amazing, as is the petrail.

At first glance, the work seems to be simple. A drawing is made on the metal with an engraving needle, after which a three-dimensional figure or “picture” is knocked out from the wrong side on which it is made, with the help of hammers and chasers of various shapes. But when it comes to iron, work becomes much more difficult, since the workpiece must be processed in the heated form. And if the work on iron always starts from the "inside", then fine processing is carried out both from the front and from the reverse side. And every time the product needs to be heated. Cities such as Milan, Florence and, of course, Augsburg were famous for their chased works.


One of the scenes on the right. Interestingly, King Eric XIV, in my opinion, has never received the most luxurious armor among the most beautiful ever made. They were intercepted by his enemy, the Danish king, after which in 1603, they were sold to the Elector Christian II of Saxony, and thus they came to Dresden.

The decor of King Eric's armor is downright extraordinarily luxurious: in addition to the fine decoration, it consists of six images of the feats of Hercules. The decoration of the armor was made by the master from Antwerp, Eliseus Lieberts, according to the sketches of the famous master Etienne Delon from Orleans, whose “small ornaments” were highly valued among gunsmiths and were widely used to finish the most luxurious armor.


Hercules tames the Cretan bull.

Another technology used in the design of armor is metal carving. Italy in the XVI century in the use of this technology also overtook all other countries. However, in the 17th century, French and German gunsmiths managed to catch up and even outrun their Italian colleagues in the beauty of their products. It should be noted that the minting is usually done on sheet metal, but the carving of metals is used more widely. It can be seen on the handles of swords, swords and daggers, it adorns the gun locks and gun barrels, stirrups, horse mouthpieces and many other parts and parts of weapons and armor. Both chasing and metal carving were used most often in Italy - in Milan, Florence, Venice, and later in Germany - Augsburg and Munich, very often together with inlay and gilding. That is, the more techniques the master used, the more impressive the armor he created.


Nakrupnik. Rear view on the right.

In different countries, over time, they developed their most popular methods of decorating weapons and armor. For example, in Italy it was fashionable to create chased compositions on large round shields. In Spain, chasing was used in the design of armor and the same shields. At the beginning of the 17th century, they used stamping along with gilding, but the ornaments were not rich at all, so there was a clear decline in applied weapon art.


Nakrupnik. Rear view to the left.

The last type of design weapons and armor has become enamel. It appeared in the early Middle Ages and was widely used in jewelry. Cloisonne enamel was used to decorate the handles of swords and overlays on shields, as well as brooches - pin for raincoats. To decorate the hilt of swords and swords, as well as the sheath of the scabbard, enamel work was carried out in France (in Limoges) and Italy (and in Florence). In the 17th century, artistic enamel was used to decorate the butts of richly decorated rifles, and most often, the powder flasks.


Nakrupnik. Left view.


Petrail view on the left.

A number of changes in the decor of the armor was associated with changes in the actual armor. For example, at the beginning of the XVI century. in Italy, copper horse armor spread and chasing copper became popular. But soon they refused from this armor, as they did not protect from bullets and instead of them began to use leather belts with copper plates in the places of their crosshairs, which braided the horse’s croup and well protected from slashing blows. Accordingly, these badges-medals also began to decorate ...


We in the Hermitage also have similar headsets for a horse and a rider. And they are also very interesting. For example, this one from Nuremberg. Between 1670-1690 Materials - steel, leather; Technologies - forging, etching, engraving. That's just something with the leg of this rider ... "not that"! The armor is not put on a mannequin, but simply fastened and mounted on a horse ...


In this regard, the knights in armor and on horseback from the Artillery Museum in St. Petersburg, Dresden are not inferior! Photo N.Mihaylova
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 12 December 2017 08: 06
    +9
    Decor, knightly armor, as the "glamor" of the time ... And at the same time, new technologies in metal processing ..
  2. BRONEVIK
    BRONEVIK 12 December 2017 08: 46
    18
    Beauty
    And babble
    hi
  3. Mikado
    Mikado 12 December 2017 11: 39
    10
    the pistols turned out very well, I'm talking about the quality of the photo. Thank you - colorful, informative. hi
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 13 December 2017 01: 02
      +2
      You are right - a beautiful review.
  4. marline
    marline 12 December 2017 12: 57
    +7
    Thank you for the article. Photo as always above praise. The material is very interesting. From myself, I only note - they knew how to do beautiful things before, albeit for dubious purposes.
  5. Curious
    Curious 12 December 2017 14: 26
    +8
    "Three pairs of pistols with wheel locks. Above and in the center: masters WH, NZ, NK, Suhl., 1610 - 1615. Below, Germany - 1635."
    There are three pairs of pistols and four brands. This does not happen. Or some pistols are unpaired, or the stigma is nevertheless, and Suhl is an integral part of one or all three.
    Suhl is clearly the city of Suhl. Just during the Thirty Years' War, Suhl earned a reputation as the "Armory of Europe." 106 gunsmiths of the city delivered their goods to 16 warring parties.
    Although such hallmarks are also characteristic of masters - monogramists of Nuremberg and Augsburg, whose influence dominated over almost the entire history of the production of pistols with a wheel lock.
    Could there really be any drawings besides monograms?
  6. XII Legion
    XII Legion 12 December 2017 14: 28
    17
    If it’s allowed to draw parallels, that’s when the full dress went laughing
    Colorful cycle
    Thank you
    1. XII Legion
      XII Legion 12 December 2017 14: 33
      17
      In combination with the heraldic distinctions, the spectacle is incomparable.
      Happy is the one who saw.
      I read something about Asencourt - so there one movement of French chivalry with waving banners is described, God forbid, how ...
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 12 December 2017 21: 57
        +4
        so there is one movement of French chivalry with waving banners described, God forbid, how ...

        didn't help them ... what The one hundred year war only exposed the flaws of the knightly cavalry and emphasized the importance of professional infantry (and shooters, including) request and the importance of tactical use of different units.
  7. Ostrovsky
    Ostrovsky 12 December 2017 15: 09
    18
    When viewing the full body armor after the question, how much did it cost? The next question immediately arises: how long did it take?
    1. kalibr
      12 December 2017 16: 31
      +6
      This question has already been asked. I’ll contact the scientific department of the Dresden Armory, I’ll ask. I will ask - they will answer - I will answer.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 12 December 2017 17: 07
      +6
      Look at the previous part, there Curious cited excerpts from documents with deadlines.
      1. Ostrovsky
        Ostrovsky 13 December 2017 08: 42
        16
        Thanks, be sure to watch.
  8. kalibr
    12 December 2017 16: 30
    +5
    Quote: Curious
    Could there really be any drawings besides monograms?

    No! And in the signatures explaining there is nothing more. And the last two - all right, belong to one gun, or rather a pair.
    1. Curious
      Curious 12 December 2017 18: 54
      +3
      So this is exactly the "Armory city of Suhl."
      Somewhere there on the trunk pillow or another place that is not visible, there is a brand like this

      In this city, by the way, there is the famous Museum of weapons. And the city itself is worthy of an article.
      1. kalibr
        12 December 2017 19: 41
        +3
        I was not in Zul. It's a pity ... But then I was in Meissen, where there is also a museum with weapons. About him will be!
        1. Curious
          Curious 12 December 2017 20: 35
          +2
          An interesting point. Suhl, like Meissen - one of the centers for the production of porcelain in Germany - Schlegelmilch porcelain factory.
          1. kalibr
            13 December 2017 08: 18
            0
            I was offered to go to the factory. But ... decided that the factory is the factory. And he went into the city and was not mistaken. Without supervision from the guide, we wandered around the city for several hours, drank, ate, looked ... then a bus came from the factory and took us away. I saw a lot of interesting things for VO.
  9. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 12 December 2017 18: 00
    17
    It is a pity that the bullet weakly protected
    Good thing heavy cavalry
    Powerful and beautiful
    1. kalibr
      12 December 2017 18: 03
      +5
      These armor well protected from bullets. Marks on the armor were used as test marks. There were double shells that held bullets perfectly. They shot at point blank range, seeing the whites of the enemy’s eyes! But ... weight! The weight was huge, the rider was tired and the horse was scary!
      1. Some kind of compote
        Some kind of compote 12 December 2017 18: 05
        17
        Hardened armor means applied
        Then the weight does not surprise
        thanks for the clarifications hi
        1. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 12 December 2017 21: 50
          +5
          Red-hot armor was the pinnacle of the pre-powder armor story. Since hardening made it possible to further increase the strength of the armor against Lance (spear). And that means - to reduce weight. As soon as the muskets entered the matter, the armor in the mass ceased to burn. For red-hot armor from a bullet burst on the fragments, which caused additional damage. Non-incandescent had no such effect. For greater bulletproofness, there was only the option of increasing the thickness of the front parts and hanging on them various reinforcements.
  10. groks
    groks 12 December 2017 19: 08
    0
    Fiction is unscientific. The horror of chemists and metallurgists. Did you buy gold foil suitable for the described technological method from the people from the future?
    And so - beautiful.
    1. kalibr
      12 December 2017 19: 39
      +2
      And what did the statues of wooden Madonnas in cathedrals and carved altars in the Baroque style gilt? They did, they knew how ...
      1. groks
        groks 12 December 2017 19: 41
        0
        Amalgam. Well, you can’t be so wild in everything!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 12 December 2017 20: 06
          +3
          Oleg, if you have something to tell about old technologies, please educate the audience and Vyacheslav Olegovich personally, he adequately perceives constructive criticism. And the carriers and adherents of secret knowledge on the site are already more than enough.
        2. kalibr
          12 December 2017 20: 07
          +2
          And what is the wildness? Gold foil was known to the ancient Egyptians and Greeks; the Japanese knew how to make it. They knew her in the Middle Ages. Information about this is not classified. And the amalgam does not lie on a tree. The tree is just gilded with foil laid on glue made of cherry or plum resin.
          Found in Sev. Black Sea export products Greek. artisans in many cases are covered with silver and Z. f., the connecting basis of which is gypsum, chalk or egg white. In ancient times, metallic. foil is often used to prevent premature prematurely. wear of clay vessels, products and parts made of wood, marble and metallic. constructions. Economical consumption metallic. foil in ancient times was not observed. The coating made from ZF was more reliable than applied using the still poorly developed method of gold amalgamation or using gold leaf. In earlier products Z. f. just pressed into the ornamental pattern of the base, and its edges were connected by soldering. A sign of one of the "golden deeds" of the masters of the early imperial era shows a common, as early as in Egypt, method of making the West Coast: pieces of metal, lay. parchment sheets and folded. into a bag, flatten on the anvil with the blows of a heavy hammer.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 12 December 2017 20: 46
            +2
            About the gilding of the tree. I thought that this was done with gold dust mixed with drying oil (like the modern "silver"), which at the same time served as a base impregnation, a primer and a binder for the filler.
            1. Curious
              Curious 12 December 2017 21: 34
              +4
              This was done with gold leaf on a mordan or a polymer.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 12 December 2017 21: 55
                +2
                Interestingly, no, I imagined the technology of working with gold leaf, but I did not think that wood was taken as the basis. In my opinion, I suggested a less energy-intensive process. However, the ancestors knew better.
                1. Curious
                  Curious 12 December 2017 22: 10
                  +4
                  In order to make your proposed composition, you need to get metal powder. To get it, especially from gold, is not an easy task. For example, the average thickness of the petals of aluminum powder is approximately 0,25-0,50 microns, and the average linear size of 20-30 microns. So ancient was easier to rivet than to rub soft gold into the heat. In addition, any composition based on such a powder is a paint. For durability and durability can not be compared with gilding.
            2. rasteer
              rasteer 12 December 2017 22: 16
              +3
              like a modern silverfish

              For the sake of purity of the experiment, try gluing aluminum foil on one part of the object on another part with silver. The difference without even going into the laws of optics will be immediately noticeable.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 12 December 2017 23: 31
                +2
                You are undoubtedly right.
          2. groks
            groks 13 December 2017 08: 01
            0
            For the umpteenth time I’m already saying - do not argue with me. You just have to try it. Not everyone has accumulated excess gold, so brass is close in parameters. Discard parchment immediately, as a complete fantasy, just try to flatten it with a hammer into a rather thin pancake.
            However, you can go to any dental technician who is engaged in the manual manufacture of crowns and not beat yourself on the fingers. The fact is that there are some points there, without which you won’t be able to get even 1mm thickness.
            educate
            Not ordained.
            1. Curious
              Curious 13 December 2017 09: 16
              +3
              "I already say again - no need to argue with me."
              And nobody argues with you. You are being ignored. You have the behavior characteristic of militant ignoramus, which does not just not understand the subject. It also does not understand that it does not understand, that is, does not see itself from the side. And the main thing that distinguishes him is his fanatical desire to impose his ignorance on others, which manifests itself in the form of fierce criticism, conviction, or rather condemnation of the rest of the world, who thinks otherwise.
              What controversy there may be.
              1. groks
                groks 13 December 2017 14: 31
                0
                Once again, again. For once, try to flatten at least something into foil and all the arguments will end. So far, there are only screams from the supporters of orthodox altistory - it works like this and cannot be otherwise. Why? Because it is so written. By whom, did this someone hold a hammer in their hands at least once?
                1. marline
                  marline 13 December 2017 15: 13
                  +4
                  Quote: groks
                  So far from supporters of orthodox altistory

                  "Altistoria" has nothing to do with it)
                  Quote: groks
                  ... screams - it works like this and it cannot be otherwise.

                  Probably, this happens because "orthodox" physics says so)))
                  1. groks
                    groks 13 December 2017 16: 33
                    0
                    Because if the tales of historians do not correspond to reality, then this story is alternative. In the current state, the orthodox have already reached the worst examples.
                    Physics is easy to verify. The simplest test is in the kitchen.
                    1. marline
                      marline 13 December 2017 16: 46
                      +3
                      Sorry, but what you write is complete nonsense. Obviously, you lack a normal systemic education.
                      Quote: groks
                      Physics is easy to verify. The simplest test is in the kitchen.

                      Check, prepare a report on the form, publish it, at least here on the site, and then show us all)))
                      In the meantime, do not carry nonsense ...
                      1. groks
                        groks 13 December 2017 18: 54
                        0
                        Presumably that altistoriki already checked? And these are their reports? Where? I see only beautiful pictures from the gallery of the city, which was destroyed to the ground. They wear armor made by technology impossible for the expected time. In places - impossible at all. Armor without damage. All the front rooms? So in ceremonial and in the 19th, and even in the 20th century, flaunted.
                        Can nonsense be carried only by altistorics? Sect?
                        I. If it is written that I lack, then those who have enough could explain. This is not there. So we stop rushing with words and either keep quiet, or take a hammer and go flatten the metal into foil.
            2. marline
              marline 13 December 2017 11: 14
              +2
              Quote: groks
              Not everyone has accumulated excess gold, so brass is close in parameters.

              laughing laughing laughing humorist! laughing
            3. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 13 December 2017 17: 30
              +2
              If you do not see the difference between the concepts of "enlightenment" and "dedication" ask me. And do not argue with me.
            4. rasteer
              rasteer 13 December 2017 17: 50
              +4
              Quote: groks
              so brass is close in parameters

              What are the parameters? Apparently in color wink Pure gold is highly plastic, try brass up to 0,1 microns, can you roll? Then go ahead and sell the know-how to metallurgical monsters laughing At least you would get basic knowledge in metallurgy then maybe not everything will be so surprising in this world. wassat
        3. Curious
          Curious 12 December 2017 21: 20
          +2
          That’s for sure, it’s impossible to be so wild not to know that leaf gilding appeared before the fire.
  11. polpot
    polpot 12 December 2017 19: 19
    +3
    Thank you as always wonderful article and photos
  12. marline
    marline 13 December 2017 19: 13
    +3
    groks,
    Again rave?)
    Physicists proved that they measured gold parameters such as elongation, hardness, yield strength and many other parameters that you can find in any reference book on “orthodox” physics and which convincingly testify that there are no “do-it-yourself” gold foils nothing complicated and fantastic)))) you can refute the flag in your hands and a drum on your neck)))
  13. kalibr
    14 December 2017 08: 22
    +1
    groks,
    And Petersburg was also destroyed to the ground ... and then rebuilt along with the Hermitage! But this feat of the Soviet people is carefully hushed up!
  14. NF68
    NF68 14 December 2017 19: 01
    +2
    + + + + + + + + + +

    Chic armor.