Guy Julius Caesar - a great politician and commander

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Guy Julius Caesar - the greatest commander and statesman of all times and peoples, whose name has become a common noun. Caesar was born on July 12 102 BC. As a representative of the old patrician clan Julius, Caesar still plunged into politics as a young man, becoming one of the popular party leaders, which, however, contradicted the family tradition, since the family members of the future emperor belonged to the party of optimates representing the old Roman aristocracy in the senate. In ancient Rome, as well as in the modern world, politics was closely intertwined with family relationships: Caesar's aunt, Julia, was the wife of Guy Maria, who in turn was the then ruler of Rome, and Caesar's first wife, Cornelia, is the daughter of Cinna, the successor to all maria

The development of the personality of Caesar was influenced by the early death of his father, who died when the boy was only 15 years old. Therefore, the upbringing and education of a teenager completely fell on the shoulders of the mother. And the famous Roman educator Mark Anthony Gnifon, the author of the book On Latin, was the home tutor of the future great ruler and commander. Gnifon taught Guy to read and write, as well as instilled a love for oratory, raised in the young man respect for the interlocutor - the quality necessary for any politician. The lessons of the teacher, a true professional of his time, gave Caesar the opportunity to truly develop his personality: read the ancient Greek epic, the works of many philosophers, get acquainted with history victories of Alexander of Macedon, to master the techniques and tricks of oratory - in a word, to become an extremely developed and versatile person.



Surrender to Caesar of the Gallic leader Versirengetorix. (Picture of Lionel Royer. 1899)


However, the young Caesar showed particular interest in the art of eloquence. Before Caesar, Cicero presented an example of his career, thanks in large part to his great mastery of oratory, his tremendous ability to convince his listeners. In 87 BC, a year after the death of his father, in the year of his sixteenth birthday, Caesar donned a monochrome toga virilis, which symbolized his maturity.
Matured Caesar began his career, becoming the priest of the supreme god of Rome, Jupiter, and asked for the hand of Cornelia. The consent of the girl allowed the young politician to receive the necessary support in the government, which would be one of the starting points that predetermined his great future.

However, the political career of the young Caesar was not destined to take off too quickly - Sulla seized power in Rome (82 BC). He ordered Guy to divorce his young wife, but upon hearing a categorical refusal, deprived him of the title of priest and all his property. Only the patronizing position of Caesar's relatives, who were in Sulla’s inner circle, saved his life.

However, this sharp turn in destiny did not break Caesar, but only contributed to the development of his personality. Deprived of priestly privileges in 81 BC, Caesar begins his military career by going east to take part in his first military campaign under the authority of Minucius (Mark) Terma, whose goal was to suppress the centers of resistance in the Roman province of Asia (Malaya Asia, Pergam). During the campaign, Caesar came to the first military glory. In 78 BC, during the storming of the city of Mytilene (Lesbos Island), he was awarded the “oak wreath” sign to save the life of a Roman citizen.

Guy Julius Caesar - a great politician and commanderHowever, Caesar decided not to devote himself exclusively to military affairs. He continued his career as a politician, returning to Rome after the death of Sulla. Caesar spoke at lawsuits. The young speaker’s speech was so engaging and temperamental that crowds of people from the street gathered to listen to him. So Caesar multiplied his supporters. Although Caesar did not win a single judicial victory, his speech was recorded, and the phrases diverged from quotes. Caesar was truly fascinated by oratory and constantly improved. To develop his oratorical talents, he went to about. Rhodes, to learn the art of eloquence from the famous rhetorician Apollonia Molon.

In politics, Gaius Julius Caesar remained loyal to the party of the popular - the party, whose loyalty has already brought him certain political successes. But after in 67-66's. BC. The Senate and the consuls, Manilius and Gabinius, endowed Pompey with enormous powers, and Caesar, in his public speeches, began to speak out more often for democracy. In particular, Caesar proposed to revive the almost forgotten procedure of holding the court by the people's assembly. Apart from democratic initiatives, Caesar was a model of generosity. Having become edilom (an official who observed the state of the urban infrastructure), he did not stint on the decoration of the city and organizing mass events - games and circuses, which won great popularity among the common people, for which he was elected a great pontiff. In short, Caesar sought in every way to strengthen his popularity among citizens, playing an increasing role in the life of the state.

62-60 BC can be called a turning point in the biography of Caesar. During these years he served as governor in the province of Far Spain, where for the first time he truly revealed his outstanding managerial and military talent. The service in Far Spain allowed him to get rich and was calculated with debts that did not give him a long sigh to breathe.

In 60 BC Caesar triumphantly returns to Rome, where a year later he is elected to the post of senior consul of the Roman Republic. In this regard, the so-called triumvirate is formed at the Roman political Olympus. Caesar's consulate suited both Caesar himself and Pompey - both claimed a leading role in the state. Supporters of Pompey, who disbanded his army, which triumphantly crushed the Spanish rebellion of Sertorius, were not enough, they needed a peculiar addition of forces. Therefore, the union of Pompey, Caesar and Crassus (the winner of Spartacus) was very welcome. In short, the triumvirate was a kind of union of mutually beneficial cooperation of money and political influence.

The beginning of Caesar's commanding journey was his Gallic proconsulta when major military forces came to Caesar’s jurisdiction, which enabled him to launch his invasion of Transalpine Gaul in 58 BC. After victories over Celts and Germans in 58-57. BC. Caesar proceeds to conquer the Gallic tribes. Already in 56 year BC. er the vast territory between the Alps, the Pyrenees and the Rhine were ruled by Rome.
Caesar rapidly developed success: he forced the Rhine and inflicted a series of defeats on the Germanic tribes. The next dizzying success of Caesar began two campaigns in Britain and its complete submission to Rome.

Do not forget Caesar and politics. While Caesar and his political companions - Crassus and Pompey - were on the verge of breaking. Their meeting took place in the city of Luka, where they reaffirmed the validity of the adopted agreements, distributing the provinces: Pompey was given control over Spain and Africa, and Crassus - Syria. The powers of Caesar in Gaul were extended for the next 5 years.

However, the situation in Gaul left much to be desired. Neither thanksgiving prayers, nor festivals organized in honor of Caesar's victories failed to tame the spirit of the freedom-loving Gauls, who did not abandon attempts to get rid of Roman rule.

In order to prevent an uprising in Gaul, Caesar decided to adhere to the policy of mercy, the basic principles of which formed the basis of all his policies in the future. Avoiding excessive bloodshed, he forgave those who repent, believing that the Gauls alive and those who owe him life are more necessary than the dead.

But even this did not help prevent the impending storm, and 52 BC. e. was marked by the beginning of the Gallic uprising under the leadership of the young leader Vircingetorix. Caesar's position was very difficult. The number of his army did not exceed 60 thousand people, while the number of rebels reached 250-300 thousand people. After a series of defeats, the Gauls switched to the tactics of guerrilla warfare. Caesar's conquests were in jeopardy. However, in 51 B.C. e. in the battle of Alesia, the Romans, though not without difficulty, defeated the rebels. Vircingetorix himself was captured and the uprising began to subside.

In 53 year BC. er a fateful event occurred for the Roman state: Crassus died in the Parthian campaign. From that moment on, the fate of the triumvirate was predetermined. Pompey did not want to respect the previous agreements with Caesar and began to pursue an independent policy. The Roman Republic was on the verge of collapse. The dispute between Caesar and Pompey for power began to acquire the character of armed confrontation.

At the same time, the law was not on the side of Caesar - he was obliged to submit to the senate and abandon his imperious claims. However, Caesar decides to fight. "The die is cast," said Caesar and invaded Italy, having only one legion at his disposal. Caesar moved in the direction of Rome, and the undefeated Pompey the Great and the Senate handed over the city outside the city. The Roman garrisons, originally loyal to Pompey, joined Caesar’s army.

Caesar entered Rome 1 April 49 BC. er Caesar carries out a number of democratic reforms: a number of punitive laws of Sulla and Pompey are abolished. An important innovation of Caesar was the empowerment of the inhabitants of the provinces of the rights of citizens of Rome.

The confrontation between Caesar and Pompey continued in Greece, where Pompey fled after the capture of Rome by Caesar. The first battle with the army of Pompey in Dirrahii was for Caesar unsuccessful. His troops fled in disgrace, and Caesar himself almost died at the hands of his standard-bearer.

Cleopatra and Caesar. Painting by artist Jean-Leon Gerome (1866 g.)


The next battle of Farsala, 9, August 48 BC. e., became for Caesar much more successful, ending in the complete defeat of Pompey, as a result of which he was forced to flee to Egypt. Caesar also began to subjugate Greece and Asia Minor. Now Caesar's road lay in Egypt. However, Pompey did not pose any threat to Caesar - he was killed by the Egyptians, who felt the direction in which the wind of political changes in the world was blowing.

He sensed the global changes and the Senate, which completely switched over to the side of Caesar, proclaiming him to be an indefinite dictator. But, instead of taking advantage of a favorable political situation in Rome, Caesar delved into the decision of the Egyptian affairs, fascinated by the beautiful Egyptian Cleopatra. Caesar's active position on domestic political issues resulted in an uprising against the Romans, one of the central episodes of which was the burning of the famous Library of Alexandria. However, Caesar did not abandon his interventionist intentions, and Cleopatra ascended the throne, and Egypt came under Roman patronage. This was followed by nine months, during which Caesar, smitten with the beauty of Cleopatra, leaving all state and military concerns, was in Alexandria.

However, the carefree life of Caesar soon ended. In Rome and on the outskirts of the empire a new distemper was brewing. The Parthian ruler Pharnack threatened the possessions of Rome in Asia Minor. The situation in Italy, too, tensions - even loyal earlier Caesar's veterans began to rebel. Army Farnak 2 August 47 year BC. er was defeated by the army of Caesar, who informed the Romans about such a quick victory with a short message: “I came. Had seen. Won."

And in September 47 year BC. er Caesar returned to Rome, his presence alone was enough to stop the unrest. Returning to Rome, Caesar celebrated a magnificent triumph, dedicated to the victory in four operations at once: Gallic, Farnak, Egyptian and Numidian. Caesar's generosity was unprecedented: in Rome there were 22000 tables with treats for the citizens, and games in which even war elephants participated, surpassed all the mass events ever organized by the Roman rulers.

Vasily Surikov. The killing of Julius Caesar. About 1875


Caesar becomes a life dictator, he is given the title "emperor". His name is called the month of his birth - July. Temples are erected in his honor, his statues are placed among the statues of gods. The oath form "by the name of Caesar" becomes obligatory during the court sessions.

Using enormous power and authority, Caesar develops a new set of laws ("Lex Iulia de vi et de majestate"), reforming the calendar (the Julian calendar appears). Caesar plans to build in Rome a new theater, a temple of Mars, and several libraries. In addition, preparations begin for campaigns against the Parthians and Dacians. However, these ambitious plans of Caesar was not destined to come true.

Even the policy of mercy, unswervingly pursued by Caesar, could not prevent the appearance of those displeased with his power. So, despite the fact that former supporters of Pompey were forgiven, for Caesar, this act of mercy ended badly.

Among the Romans, rumors spread about Caesar's desire to further absolutization of power and the transfer of the capital to Asia Minor. Many of those who considered themselves undeservedly deprived of the distribution of ranks and titles, as well as sincerely concerned about the fate of the Roman Republic, made a conspiracy, the number of participants of which reached approximately 60 people. So Caesar was suddenly in political isolation.

15 March 44 BC, two days before the date of his campaign on the campaign to the East, at a meeting of the Senate, Caesar was killed by conspirators led by former supporters of Pompey. Plans for the killers were realized in the eyes of numerous senators - a crowd of conspirators attacked Caesar with daggers. According to legend, noticing among the murderers of his loyal supporter of young Brutus, Caesar doomed exclaimed: "And you, my child!" (Or: "And you, Brutus") and fell at the feet of the statue of his sworn enemy Pompey.

References:
Grant M. Julius Caesar. Priest of Jupiter. - M .: Tsentrpoligraf, 2005.
Plutarch. Comparative biographies. Julius Caesar. M., 1964. T. 3.
Utchenko S. L. Julius Caesar. M., 1984.
Freeman Philip Julius Caesar. - SPb .: AST, Astrel, 2010
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  1. Georg Shep
    +2
    April 5 2012 10: 04
    The great man was Julius Caesar. Today's comparison of Peter, I, Napoleon or Bismarck looks funny. with current faceless politicians and so-called statesmen ...
    1. admiral
      +1
      April 5 2012 19: 28
      Literature is all this! He was a great scoundrel. All the wars waged by Caesar had gold as their goal! Hence, such generosity! I mean paire! It touches the scene where he spares the galls, they say a living gall is better than dead! Naturally. You cannot sell the dead into slaves! And the great Caesar sold these pardons with a big fat! ...
    2. 0
      April 5 2012 21: 58
      Tell me, do you feel sorry for the Gauls? I feel sorry for them a bit.
  2. Rodver
    -5
    April 5 2012 11: 35
    No, there are still people of "great swing" - Lukashenko, Ahmadinejad, Chavez ...
    That is why the world "dictatorship of dullness" does not "love" them.
    1. +2
      April 5 2012 12: 40
      Do you seriously consider these figures to be people of "big swing"? Lukashenka is a jester, Ahmadinejad and Chavez are local bottling politicians who, ironically, find themselves at the forefront of world politics. There are no charismatic figures in the world now, no.
      1. +2
        April 5 2012 13: 40
        How did you decide that Lukashenka is a jester? For me, Lukashenko is more like a statesman, even in comparison with Medvedev. The well-known predilections of Medvedev, for example, have glued to him such nicknames as: "IPhone" or "Tvitriy Nanotolievich". The creation of nano-parties is generally the peak of our president's career.
        Ahmadinejad and Chavez - yes, these are politicians of a regional scale, but they resist the global gray mass of "democrats" and have already written themselves in world history.
      2. Pessimist
        +3
        April 5 2012 16: 02
        It seems to me that we have all the politicians - jesters dancing to the tune of the oligarchs !!! One WHA is worth it !! laughing And against Lukashenka - the whole world stomps and sits on the priest exactly !!! Compare at least the level of medicine in our countries! There, at the "bad" Lukashenko - everything is free and the quality is present, but our doctors only look into the patient's pocket, not the test card! wassat And Caesar did more for Rome than meets the eye! He breathed the fire of life into the decrepit Roman community, into the Latins. Thanks in large part to Caesar, Rome had another half a thousand years of history! Read T. Momzen, "History of Rome" !!!
  3. Hauptmannzimermann
    0
    April 5 2012 14: 55
    Dear Rodver. Lukashenko is far from Caesar. By and large, he is a business executive and only. If he has at least 1 third of G. Yulia’s ability, he probably decided to do more than he has now. But this is my opinion. Respectfully.