Military Review

Suvorov against the Confederates

31
On the birthday of the great Russian commander, we remember the 1771 campaign of the year, when Major General Alexander Suvorov acted against the troops of the Bar Confederation in Poland. The Confederates were opponents of the Polish "dissidents" (that is, the Orthodox and Uniates), as well as of King Stanislav Poniatowski. They were not satisfied with the strengthening of the position of Russia in Warsaw. France helped the Confederates with gold and weapons. With a small detachment Suvorov opposed the best forces of the enemy.


Suvorov against the Confederates


9 February 1771, a detachment of Suvorov, sweeping away the Polish posts, took the place of Landskrona (Lyantskorona) and tried to take the local castle by storm, where Poles retreated to the garrison. Noting that the castle is small, small, Suvorov christened it "chambers". However, the opponents in the "wards" lodged more than the attacking Russians, and the French lieutenant colonel Leven commanded the detachment. It turned out to be not enough forces for a successful attack: they managed to pat the enemy, but the castle did not give up. At that time, Russian officers loved to force in “smart” clothes, which they seized from the Poles as a trophy. Such a habit turned out to be disastrous: the enemy recognized officers by dress and hit them. Suvorov will remember this lesson. The Suzdal regiment broke into the Landskrona citadel. A battle ensued, in which several Suzdal officers were wounded, including Lieutenant Nikolai Suvorov, a general’s nephew. I had to stop the attack and retire to their original positions. In a battle of five guns possessed by the Poles, Suvorov managed to capture two guns. In a letter to Shakhovsky, Suvorov will tell about the case: “Their cavalry was dispersed, climbed, smashed and cut their multiple barriers and slingshots and took a place, broke their magazine and otbycha two guns, cut off two, they had only one left, - they beat at the gate on the steepest hill of the Landskoron Chambers. As the best officers were injured, the sheep were left without shepherds, and we, after six hours fighting, left the won case, being content to act on the image of the blockade. ” Suvorov was upset that the Suzdalians were not ready for the solution of the Landskron riddle "from the sheet." He said that during the separation from him, with the author of the “Suzdal Institution”, the regiment had lost its best qualities. There is no doubt that he expressed his disappointment not only in letters to colleagues, but also in conversations with officers and soldiers. And the Suzdalians replied to the reproaches with steadfastness and energetic actions already in the February and March battles. And these months in the Lublin and Krakow districts stood out hot. Note that after Suvorov, the Suzdal regiment in 1770 was received by Colonel Baron Vladimir Stakelberg, who now served in Lublin under the command of Alexander Vasilyevich. Suvorov left him instead of himself at the head of a small Lublin team during numerous campaigns in Poland, but he evaluated the fighting qualities of Shtakelberg as very, very mediocre. On the night of April 22, 1772, Shtakelberg, is foolish, being the commandant of the Krakow castle: the Poles and the French will then occupy the castle, it will not be easy for Suvorov to take it away from them. In one of his letters to Alexander Bibikov, Suvorov would condescendingly call the colonel “poor old man Stakelberg”, being only a year older than this “poor old man”.

Soon, a well-armed army in 4000 was concentrated in Landskrona under the command of French brigadier Dumouriez, the future General of the Great Army, who would skillfully smash the opponents of the republic in Holland. Charles Francois Dumouriez arrived in Poland with French gold and French martial art.



Dumouriez was a very ambitious plan to revitalize the actions of the Confederates. He intended with the help of money and propaganda to quadruply increase the confederate army and act against Suvorov's grouping with the 60-thousandth army. Before such mobilization successes, the Confederates were far away, but with the arrival of Dumouriez, their ranks increased noticeably. Suvorov intended to use his own methods of warfare against a new, worthy adversary, but the attack on Landskron was postponed for the time being. As we can see, the situation in the area of ​​Lublin and Krakow changed rapidly, and Suvorov had to adapt to the circumstances.

One of the mobile partisan detachments that Dumouriez was counting on was headed by Sawa Chaly Jr. (Chalenko), the son of the famous Mazepa gaydamak Sawa Chaly, whose life and death in Ukraine is still sung by songs. The son of Haydamak was often called in the Polish manner - Savva Tsalinsky. And Suvorov, in reports, usually called him briefly, by name, Savva. In the best days, the Tsalinsky detachment reached ten thousand sabers. In all the campaigns, he was accompanied by his mother, the militant widow of Haydamak Chaly. Suvorov received information that the squad Savva Tsalinsky moving to Lublin. Suvorov was forced to break the blockade of the Landskrony and began a long campaign in which the places of residence of the Major General changed as in a kaleidoscope, and every two days I had to give battles. With his fast movements, Suvorov covered Lublin, Warsaw and Lithuania from the Polish troops. Chaly he intended to break in Rakhiv. Suvorov decided at night to attack a strong detachment of Marshal Savva Chaly, who was stationed near Rakhiv. Sawa had 400 dragoons, reputed to be the best confederate warriors. On the night of February 18, the Russian cavalry swept away the posts of Tsalinsky, in a fight the Polish captain Mostovsky didn’t bear the head.

The battle began, the Suzdalians and the St. Petersburg carabineers came to the rescue, pushed the Tsalins into the taverns. The Confederates preferred to defend themselves from cover, and the Cossacks already hosted Rakhiv. The dismounted Voronezh dragoons went to bayonet on the taverns. Suvorov himself was in the hot parts of the battle, once even in danger of being alone with several Polish dragoons who sat down in the tavern. The Cossacks by mistake had opened fire on the tavern when Suvorov was negotiating. Everything turned out, the detachment of Chaly was defeated, an impressive wagon train with provisions and more than a hundred prisoners fell into the hands of Suvorov. The French spread rumors that Chaly was captured by Suvorov and died in torture chambers after torture. This was not true: the detachment was defeated, but Savva himself managed to escape with his remnants. Sawa Tsalinsky's detachment was no longer considered a serious combat unit, but Suvorov still received conflicting information about the presence of restless Sawa in different parts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: now with Pulawski, then with other connections. He will go to Lithuania, where he will be defeated twice by the order of the crown hetman, Count Xavier Branicki. In this case, every time Savva managed to avoid captivity. Only the 13 of April of 1771 will be overtaken by Savva Tsalinsky of the team of Prime-Minister of the Narva Carabinerier Regiment K.M. Saleman. A severely wounded brave commander of the Confederates died in the arms of his own mother.



17 – 18 February, when Suvorov in Rakhiv fought against Sava, the captain of the Suzdal regiment Alexei Pankratiev with a hundred soldiers repelled the attack of the Polish detachment in Krasnik and held against new attacks for several hours. Suvorov 18 February rode in Rakhov. Seeing the Suvorov detachment, the Poles hastily retreated. With delight, Suvorov listened to the story of the feat of Captain Pankratiev. In several reports from Weimarn, he will insist on awarding the distinguished officer. Not so long ago, Pankratiev was bestowed with a reward: “Many his younger went to the majors. And the captain was already thinking about resigning. Suvorov reported about him to Ivan Weymarn: “On the regiment, his company was always among the first, as it has now complied with. Serves for a long time, was always a brave and decent man, and the empress will lose one of the best majors in him. ” I did not forget Suvorov and Sergeant Stepan Dolgov-Saburov, who heroically proved himself in the battle of Krasnik. The merits of this soldier pointed captain Pankratiev.

1 March Suvorov sends Weymarn a very strange description of the plan for the next actions against the Confederates under Landskrona and Czestochowa. The report was encrypted! “This plan is all laid on the image of an offensive, in discord that nowhere defensive against rebels, like reptiles and insects is impossible. Nowhere from them, not only to shelter, but also onym the road can not be stopped, and in the meantime their breed multiplies, like the Lernean hydra. ” Indeed, if we waged a prudent war against the Confederates, fixing ourselves on certain positions and fighting off the Polish detachments, new ones immediately sprang up in the place of each severed head. It was necessary to break and destroy the enemy, and Suvorov felt the strength to do so. The Krakow operation began - a new fast campaign, in which Suvorov will act against Charles Dumouriez and Casimir Pulawski with speed transitions.
The Poles conceived to interrupt Suvorov’s campaign and gave battle at the crossing of the Dunajec River. Suvorov wrote about the fight: "With a good fight, we crossed over to Dunajec, ford." Knocking over the Poles at the crossing, he followed forward with the troops, who retained full combat capability. The lightning-fast Krakow expedition of Suvorov continued. On the approach to the city, the Poles again unsuccessfully attacked the Suvorov detachment. In Krakow, Suvorov’s detachment was replenished with the troops of Colonel Ivan Drevits and Lieutenant Colonel F. Ebshelvits. Now Suvorov's squad consisted of 3500 people. Major General threw the troops of Peter Shepelev and Ivan Drevits onto the trenches under the Tync monastery. Shepelev mastered the redoubt. Then the Confederates drove the Russians out of the redoubt, but by the order of Suvorov, Shepelev again forced them to retreat. Inventive Dumurye tried to control the actions of Suvorov - he was in Tynts too. Considering the defense of the redoubts and the monastery unpromising, Dumouriez, along with the equestrian detachment, rode into Landskronu. Taking two guns from the enemy, Suvorov also decided to move the battle to Landskrona and stopped the attack of Tynts.

Shabby Polish units near Krakow, Suvorov was able to return to Landskrona - and the high-speed transition from one point to another was the key to victory. It was there, in Landskrona, that the best forces of the Bar Confederation headed by Dumouriez, who had chosen these fortifications, were once again located. Due to the rapid transitions Suvorov managed to appear there when Dumouriez did not expect an attack. Landskronsky castle Dumouriez filled with artillery, placed there the one and a half thousandth garrison. The remaining forces occupied comfortable heights near the castle. One flank of the Polish position rested on a cliff, the other - in strengthening the castle. Dumouriez considered the position invulnerable, but Suvorov accepted the challenge. The garrison of the castle - one and a half thousand people - possessed forty guns, which made it possible to conduct a massive shelling of the attackers. The positions of Dumouriez were complicated only by disagreements with the proud Casimir Pulawski, who did not want to obey the foreigner and did not support Dumouriez in Landskrona.

Suvorov gave the role of the attack to the cavalry riflemen of the St. Petersburg regiment under the command of the respected Suvorov Colonel Peter Shepelev, who crushed the enemy’s right flank with a powerful attack. Drevits cavalrymen, who came to the rescue under Landskron, Suvorov threw into battle directly from the march. Suvorov presented Weymarn with a list of distinguished and worthy officers, compiled by Shepelev. Colonel Drevits distinguished himself in Landskrona. Drevits proved himself in battle dashing cavalry, completed the task set by Suvorov - and the differences were forgotten for a while. Suvorov, as we know, did not like this quick-tempered officer, who was soon to be punished, but in a report he noted that Drevits “deserves a very imperial highest excellent mercy and reward.” However, after the Landskrona relationship Suvorov and von Drevits did not become cloudless.

The Poles could not stand the cavalry attack and began a stampede. Prince Sapieha was killed by his soldiers when he tried to stop the retreat.

In the battle for Landskron, other well-known bosses of the Bar Confederation, for example, Marshal Orzhevsky, were killed.

What is a skilled French brigadier? As Suvorov wrote to Veymarn: "Mourier (Dumouriez) managed the business and, without waiting for another career attack, he bowed in French and made an antreshat to Byala on the border." From Byala he wrote an angry letter to Pulavsky and left for France. Recalling the lost campaign, Dumouriez complained that Suvorov had fought incorrectly, in violation of the tenets of military art, relying only on boldness and rapid pressure, leaving his positions vulnerable. Suvorov had to listen to similar accusations more than once, as well as abusive conversations that he, an unskilled commander, was accompanied by happiness, random luck. On this score, “the days of the past jokes” were kept by Suvorov’s witty statement: “Since happiness, two happiness, God have mercy, I need skill!”
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  1. Cat
    Cat 2 December 2017 06: 29
    +9
    I want to turn the members of the forum on the selectivity of the Poles, who VERY selectively recall A.V.Suvorov.
    So the words of the commander to the place: “Once happiness, two happiness, have mercy on God, but skill must be!”.
    1. Weyland
      Weyland 2 December 2017 11: 51
      +9
      Quote: Kotischa
      Poles, who VERY selectively recall A.V. Suvorov.

      they especially remember him for the Prague Massacre, although Suvorov himself tried unsuccessfully to stop it. The usual double standards: cutting out the Russian garrison for Orthodox Easter, taking advantage of the fact that people go to church without weapons is a perfectly acceptable military trick, and getting a cool answer for it is genocide, and not otherwise!
      1. Varyag_0711
        Varyag_0711 2 December 2017 12: 35
        15
        Weyland Today, 11:51 ↑ New
        they especially remember him for the Prague Massacre, although Suvorov himself tried unsuccessfully to stop it. The usual double standards: cutting out the Russian garrison for Orthodox Easter, taking advantage of the fact that people go to church without weapons is a perfectly acceptable military trick, and getting a cool answer for it is genocide, and not otherwise!
        So the Poles always do. They perfectly remember the execution of Polish officers by allegedly NKVD bodies (although this is a lie), but at the same time they forget about hundreds of thousands of Red Army soldiers brutally tortured in Polish captivity. They recall the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with pleasure, but at the same time completely forget about the Hitler-Pilsudsky Pact, which they signed five years earlier and thanks to which they pulled Czechoslovakia together with Hitler. They remember that the USSR introduced troops into Poland in 1939, but they completely forget that they illegally occupied these lands in the 1920s. In general, their memory was always tight and that is why they will always be sufferers. They have already been divided three times, soon they will probably have to be divided for the fourth time. Excessive ambitions of the lords, coupled with arrogance, will not bring them to good. Miserable and worthless people, imagining himself a navel of the Earth.
  2. Same lech
    Same lech 2 December 2017 06: 43
    +5
    Recalling the lost campaign, Dumurier complained that Suvorov fought incorrectly, in violation of the tenets of military art, relying only on boldness and quick pressure, leaving his positions vulnerable.
    Europeans have always complained about it ... now Russia needs to act in the same way wrong ... both against WADA and against our other enemies ... playing by the rules of the enemy of death is similar.
  3. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 2 December 2017 07: 04
    0
    It’s hard in the Alps .. It turns out Suvorov worked for the St. Petersburg, who could not manage outside the upper rivers.
    That’s what annoys us in Traditional History, they write only their own affairs and that’s not all, but what happened to Muscovy at that time, what did she do? No matter how she was hushed up, the story is actually much more complicated and interesting. as simple as TI.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 2 December 2017 10: 57
      +6
      Quote: p-k Oparyshev
      That’s what annoys us in Traditional History, they write only their own affairs and that’s not all, but what happened to Muscovy at that time, what did she do?

      And now St. Petersburg captured Muscovy, so no one writes anything. laughing
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 2 December 2017 08: 14
    +5
    the famous Mazepa hydamak Savva Chaly
    ... Savva Chaly was not a Mazepa’s gaydamak, but by nature a “Mazepa’s" .. In 1734 he participated in a Gaidamak uprising. After the defeat, he fled to Sich. An amnesty was then declared to the participants in the uprising, but under the condition that they would participate in the suppression of peasant rebellion. He entered the Polish service, received the rank of colonel of the regiment, composed of repentant Haidamaks. He waged an active struggle against former comrades in the uprising of 1734. Savva not only zealously pursued and repelled the Haidamak detachments, but began to break into Zaporizhzhya territory, ravaged and robbed the Zaporozhye wintermen. Christmas of 1741, suddenly at night surrounded the house of Savva and killed the colonel.
  5. solzh
    solzh 2 December 2017 08: 44
    +4
    Liked. Question to the author of the article. Will there be an article on Suvorov’s participation in the suppression of the Polish uprising of 1794?
    1. Weyland
      Weyland 2 December 2017 11: 54
      +3
      Quote: solzh
      Will there be an article on Suvorov’s participation in the suppression of the Polish uprising of 1794?

      I join the wish! drinks And then we somehow did not write in the textbooks, for which he received the Field Marshal's rank:
      - "Hooray, sovereign, Warsaw is ours!
      - "Hooray, Field Marshal Suvorov!
      1. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 2 December 2017 19: 52
        0
        mind you, it was in St. Petersburg.
        1. Cat
          Cat 2 December 2017 21: 28
          +2
          And where else should it be, if not in the capital of the Russian Empire.
          1. Settlement Oparyshev
            Settlement Oparyshev 2 December 2017 23: 59
            0
            What are you doing with your stupid things? According to your story, Napoleon didn’t just go to Moscow. You say that Muscovy was Russia, but there were no St. Petersburg movements. Napoleon went to where St. Petersburg was not. And Russian is written with two ss.
  6. moskowit
    moskowit 2 December 2017 09: 09
    +3
    The portrait of Alexander Vasilievich with the ribbon of the Order of Vladimir of the 1 degree was painted after the 1783 year, and for the Company 1769-1772. in Poland Suvorov was awarded the following distinctions ...
    Military operations in Poland in 1769 – 1772

    30 September 1770 of the year - awarded the Order of St. Anna for the victory at Orekhov.
    19 August 1771 of the year - awarded the Order of St. George 3-th degree for the victory at Tynts, Landskron, Zamosc.
    20 December 1771 of the year - awarded the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky for the victory at Stolovichi.
    12 of May 1772 of the year - 1000 of Chervontsy was granted, and on his army - 10000 rubles for the capture of the Krakow castle.
  7. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 2 December 2017 11: 04
    0
    It turns out that Suvorov pacified Poland and the region, freeing up space for the joint Army of Russia and France, to capture the river routes to the Volga.
    1. Cat
      Cat 2 December 2017 11: 29
      +5
      Quote: Oparyshev
      It turns out that Suvorov pacified Poland and the region, freeing up space for the joint Army of Russia and France, to capture the river routes to the Volga.

      Question 1. Where and why?
      Question 2. We read
      What is a skilled French foreman? As Suvorov wrote to Weimarn: "Mourier (Dumurier) managed the business and, not even waiting for a career attack, he departed in French and made a mezzanine in Byala to the border." From Byala, he wrote an angry letter to Pulawski and departed for France. Recalling the lost campaign, Dumurier complained that Suvorov fought incorrectly, in violation of the tenets of military art, relying only on boldness and quick pressure, leaving his positions vulnerable.

      Those. Based on your logic, the French have carved themselves?
      Question 3. What are the river spaces beyond the Volga?
      1. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 2 December 2017 15: 31
        0
        It’s time to get paid knowledge already. Too many ignoramuses are around.
        1. Cat
          Cat 2 December 2017 19: 09
          +3
          Quote: dk Oparyshev
          It’s time to get paid knowledge already. Too many ignoramuses are around.

          New order of curators? Or awareness of your stupidity!
          Do not disappoint us, squirrels Sasha and Bonnie have already left for St. Petersburg? Or is the weed over?
          1. Settlement Oparyshev
            Settlement Oparyshev 2 December 2017 19: 54
            0
            You never matured. Sadly.
            And do not bother me to know the history.
            1. Cat
              Cat 2 December 2017 21: 23
              +3
              Quote: dk Oparyshev
              You never matured. Sadly.
              And do not bother me to know the history.

              I answer!
              1. The element of growing up is not always associated with knowledge and wisdom. Some have "sand from .... pouring in", and in the head, as a bear named Pooh said, "sawdust." Although it must be recognized, however, this process is not dependent on a person - senile senility and other diseases.
              2. I wonder how I interfere with you "learn history"? Is it really true that a squirrel, or rather a fat red cat, comes to you in a dream and forbids reading Grekov, Fomenko and Nasonov? Themselves as you imagine this picture Kotische bursts into your bedroom and selects a volume of pseudo-history edited by Grekov.
              Although judging by the replica of Muscovite, Genghis Khan himself is visiting you and holding the "brow" of the red cat to say "Grekov read again? Will I see again the order that Kotische put on the right slipper"?
    2. moskowit
      moskowit 2 December 2017 19: 29
      +1
      According to the will and command of Genghis Khan .... sad recourse
    3. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 2 December 2017 21: 32
      +2
      kennel Oparyshev "It turns out that Suvorov pacified Poland and the surrounding area, freeing up space for the joint Army of Russia and France to seize the river routes to the Volga."
      Such a normal .... but picky ...)))))
  8. kalibr
    kalibr 2 December 2017 12: 51
    +3
    Where are the captions for the first two photos? Who is it, who actually painted portraits?
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 2 December 2017 13: 30
      +5
      I liked the article, the right one. soldier Only one was confused (Author and editorial staff - no offense):
      French foreman Dumurier - the future general of the Great Army, who will skillfully smash the opponents of the republic in Holland.

      Dumourier could not to be a general of the Great Army. Name "Great"the army received already at emperor Napoleone, and Dumurier was already on the run for 12 years. Details! but .. significant! hi sometimes because of such a technical error, an entire article may go down the drain. stop just for the future!
    2. Curious
      Curious 2 December 2017 14: 25
      +4
      Where are the captions for the first two photos? Who is it, who actually painted portraits?
      The first portrait of Alexander Vasilievich Suvorov was painted in 1786 by Dmitry Grigoryevich Levitsky, a famous Russian painter. Russian painter of the 18th century. The artist’s first teacher was his father. He studied in Kiev and Petersburg with A.P. Antropova, having arrived there approx. 1758. Under the leadership of Andropov, he painted the Triumphal Gate erected in Moscow on the occasion of the coronation of Catherine II (1762).
      The museum of V. A. Tropinin and Moscow artists of his time is the Moscow Museum in Zamoskvorechye dedicated to Russian art of the 1st half of the XNUMXth century.
      The portrait of Charles Francois Dumurier was painted by the French portrait painter Jean Sebatstian Ruillard in 1834.
      As for me, it was possible to write a more meaningful article on Suvorov’s birthday.
      Yet this is not the most outstanding episode from his biography. If you really had to beat the Poles. then the assault on Prague on November 4, 1794 seems preferable.
      1. Cat
        Cat 2 December 2017 19: 19
        +4
        One does not interfere!
        In general, the study of the period of Suvorov's participation in Polish events did not find his researcher in the USSR. The topic was not forbidden for scientists, but it was somehow not tactful to unnerve a member of the Warsaw Pact. Similarly, the commander’s role in suppressing the Pugachev uprising was hushed up.
        By the way, the keys to Varashava were given to the Poles in the 40s by the Soviet authorities, as well as Polish trophy guns and banners. The reason did not want to quarrel, but now it is how it happened ......
      2. moskowit
        moskowit 2 December 2017 19: 38
        +3
        Eh was late .... He was busy ... And so Vyacheslav Olegovich wanted to help ... But nonetheless ...
      3. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 2 December 2017 19: 56
        0
        Arriving or sailing? This is important.
        1. moskowit
          moskowit 2 December 2017 21: 51
          +3
          If for you, bunny, this is important, I will answer with the words of the Great Artist Arkady Raikin .... "I started drinking, smoking, talking, at the same time ..."
          1. moskowit
            moskowit 2 December 2017 22: 10
            +3
            True, I don’t smoke 10 for years now ... I lied to you, my dear .... And "click" occasionally "click" .... Three or four times a year.
            1. Cat
              Cat 3 December 2017 11: 13
              +3
              Quote: moskowit
              True, I don’t smoke 10 for years now ... I lied to you, my dear .... And "click" occasionally "click" .... Three or four times a year.

              What is the fundamental difference from Oparyshev! If the frequency of "gluconia" reaches 3-4 times a day, then squirrels with textbooks of Grekov’s pseudo-historian come daily! hi
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 3 December 2017 19: 19
                +2
                maybe you stop answering him together? smart people, adults, in uniform ... No.