Military Review

Master of Strategic Surprises

18
Master of Strategic Surprises



Marshal of the Soviet Union Bagramyan is a man of a unique military career, his service in the Armed Forces of the USSR lasted two thirds of a century.

He dreamed of following in the footsteps of his father and becoming a railroad worker. Entered to study this case, but the completion of education came at the height of the First World War, and as a true patriot of the Fatherland, the 17-year-old guy decided that his place was in the ranks. In less than two years, an excellent professional came out of Bagramyan, a graduate of the school of ensigns, both an infantryman and a trooper.

A steep change in 1917 gave him a daunting choice. Bagramyan was a supporter of the “Dashnaktsutyun” party, which became ruling with the beginning stories First Armenian Republic. The main threat to the young state came from the Ottoman Empire. Official Ankara had one argument for Yerevan - military. The Turks were opposed by the Armenian division, and in it the company looked solid, and then the saber squadron led by Baghramian.

Over time, the worldview of the young commander has changed. He joined the ranks of those with weapons in the hands fought for the Sovietization of Armenia. Thus began his journey to the Red Army. Bagramyan participated in the formation of the Soviet government in Georgia.

Between the First World War and the Great Patriotic War, he received a fundamental professional education, brilliantly graduating from the VA them. Frunze and the Academy of the General Staff. Accumulated team experience, comprehended in various positions the subtleties of staff work. Military career went uphill. True, in 1936, detractors began to use the fact of Bagramyan’s service in the division of the Armenian Republic as proof that he is an enemy of the people. The intercession of Mikoyan, a member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), saved him from arrest.

Colonel Baghramyan met the war chief of the operational department of the headquarters of the Kiev Special Military District (KOVO). His first operation was the Kiev strategic defensive. The troops had to hold out for as long as possible. The fact that the Nazis spent two whole months on taking the KUR meant that Bagramyan, who in August 1941-th replenished the generals corps of the Red Army, solved the problem. He once again showed professionalism, when the Germans pulled the dense ring of encirclement around Kiev and, it would seem, a direct threat of captivity loomed before the defenders, but thanks to the talent of the commander they avoided this fate. Having timely identified and promptly used a hole in the ring, Baghramyan brought thousands of Red Army soldiers out of 20's environment.

Having headed the operational management of the headquarters of the Southwestern Front, he soon proved himself to be in the offensive. The most significant result is mastering the “Gateway of the North Caucasus”. The return in November of the 1941 of Rostov-on-Don meant the successful completion of the first strategic offensive for the Red Army. The second one in the frontline biography of Bagramyan followed almost immediately. This is the counteroffensive phase of the Moscow battle. Her plan was developed literally overnight. The starting point is December 6 1941. The operation was a success by the most stringent standards. The enemy ceased to control from the south of the territory, adjacent to the capital. The Germans were thrown from Moscow on 80 kilometers. More than 300 villages, dozens of villages, several cities of regional and regional subordination were liberated. On the eve of 1942, Bagramyan received the rank of lieutenant general.

The starting point for the new stage of the combat path was July 1942-th: the appointment to the 16-th army, eventually transformed into the 11-th Guards, brilliantly fought on the Kursk Bulge.

In the Supreme Command Headquarters, the variant of actions of the 11 Guards Army proposed by its commander was considered the best. Baghramyan took the starting point for the fact that the Bolkhov group formed the nucleus of the Hitlerite troops on the Kursk-Oryol arc. And to put an end to it, in his opinion, should have been two armies - 11-I Guards and 61-I. It was supposed to make maximum use of their adjacent location, so that the offensive vectors converged. And this meant the fascists surrounded by a dense ring with their complete defeat. Further, according to the plan, the Nazis were expelled in the southern direction, a productive flank attack, and the establishment of control over the territories that previously constituted the German rear.

Did the fact that Bagramyan formulated the Stake in the form of a plan coincided with what actually happened? A word to one of the creators of victory in the Kursk-Oryol arc, Marshal Ivan Konev: “The enemy’s defense was breached on relatively narrow sectors of the front, where forces and means were boldly massaged, which ensured numerical and material superiority over the enemy’s forces. It is enough, for example, to note that General Baghramyan, commander of the Western Front 11 Guards Army of the Western Front, concentrated 40 percent of infantry divisions and all means of reinforcement on the breakthrough area, which was about 92 percent of the total front of the army. The flank attack of the 11 Guards Army was crucial for the decisive breakdown of the powerful defense orders of the Wehrmacht. The enemy was not ready for this. The prompt throw of guardsmen became a powerful help for solving problems of strategic importance confronting General of the Army Rokossovsky who commanded the Central Front. After the battle of Kursk-Oryol, Baghramyan became a general-colonel.

At the end of 1943, he was appointed Commander of 1 Baltic. According to the staffing table, the com-front should be a general of the army, and on the epaulets the commander became a star more.

The front led by Baghramyan was directly related to 10’s 1944 Stalinist strikes of the year. The compounds most clearly manifested themselves during the liberation of the territory of the Byelorussian SSR, in the Memel operation. Here, as before, the commander risked with exact calculation. For example, he knew that the standard actions of the Red Army did not lead to the liberation of the northern capital of the Byelorussian SSR - Vitebsk in the autumn of 1943. In 1944, Bagramyan, unlike his predecessors, chose a fundamentally new direction of the main attack - where there were continuous swamps. When discussing the operation, the commander of the 43 Army, Afanasy Beloborodov, insisted on repeating the attempt of 1943 of the year. The commander sharply argued with the commander. And I heard from Bagrammyan’s mouth: “Field Marshal von Bush, the commander of Army Group Center, likewise imagines our intentions. And we have to give a disagreeable surprise. We must dare. The idea of ​​the army general worked perfectly.

Bagramyan headed the 1-th Baltic Front until February 1945. Then he commanded the Zemland Group of Forces, the 3 of the Byelorussian Front. In the victorious 1945, his commanding talent became apparent during the capture of Koenigsberg, the defeat of the Courland group.

After the Great Patriotic War Baghramyan, for almost a quarter of a century, held high posts in the military command system, and then joined the group of general inspectors of the USSR Ministry of Defense. In 1955, twice the Hero of the Soviet Union, the gentleman of seven orders of Lenin became a marshal.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 2 December 2017 15: 08 New
    +9
    I didn’t find any information that Baghramyan would be a deputy of the Supreme Council of the Latvian SSR, but there is such a bike: At the first meeting of the Supreme Council of the Latvian SSR, the chairman spoke in Latvian, and everyone else began to speak in Latvian after him. Attending the meeting as a deputy, Baghramyan took the floor and delivered a speech in Armenian. After that, all meetings were conducted in Russian, which was understood by all those present ...
    1. solzh
      solzh 2 December 2017 15: 22 New
      +4
      Quote: parusnik
      I didn’t find any information that Baghramyan would be a deputy of the Supreme Council of the Latvian SSR, but there is such a bike: At the first meeting of the Supreme Council of the Latvian SSR, the chairman spoke in Latvian, and everyone else began to speak in Latvian after him. Attending the meeting as a deputy, Baghramyan took the floor and delivered a speech in Armenian. After that, all meetings were conducted in Russian, which was understood by all those present ...

      According to the memoirs of the marshal’s grandson, such a story was: “Yes, there was such a story. He was tough and at the same time humane. He was always friendly, sought to help people. When he was a deputy of the Armed Forces, I remember that different people came to us from Armenia, Azerbaijan. They always put everyone at the table, treated them. Grandfather always helped with what he could, "said Ivan Sergeyevich Baghramyan, the grandson of the marshal.
      Interview with Marshal’s grandson at: https://m.sputnik.by/society/20160507/1022357415.
      html? mobile_return = no
      1. ImPerts
        ImPerts 2 December 2017 15: 41 New
        +1
        Children are children.
        Khrushchev's son wrote that Crimea was given to Ukraine not because N.S. needed support from the party elite of Ukraine, but because of the impossibility of restoring and flourishing the peninsula within the RSFSR.
        Which version to believe?
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 2 December 2017 17: 15 New
          10
          S. Khrushchev, a US citizen, has nothing more to write about, except that the Crimea as part of the RSFSR is "impossible to restore." The delirium of a geek who has fled abroad.
          1. moskowit
            moskowit 2 December 2017 22: 03 New
            +4
            All traitors have one path. Or a noose on the earth, or fiery hell in the other world ...
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 2 December 2017 22: 16 New
              +2
              Of course, I would like this creature (S. N. Khrushchev) to realize at the end of his life that it did nothing except a bunch of shit, and it consists of it itself. I was already alerted by such a fact from his recollections, where he, so “smart” (in 29 years - the State Prize, Chelomei tried), after removing the pope was out of work. This directly indicates its suitability. A brain drain cannot be called his move to the United States. Sergo Beria was much more talented.
        2. wax
          wax 2 December 2017 17: 50 New
          +4
          Which version to believe?

          Believe not the versions, but the facts that Ukraine was subsidized by the Russian Federation, especially in the 50s, and Khrushchev hated Stalin.
        3. solzh
          solzh 2 December 2017 22: 45 New
          0
          If a bike is about Baghramyan, then you must agree that it’s beautiful and believable.
          And at the expense of Khrushchev and the Crimea, the second version does not seem to be true, the events of the last three years are confirmation of this, Russia has to rebuild the entire infrastructure of the Crimea. So, in my opinion, the first version that N. S. needed the support of the party elite of Ukraine looks more believable.
      2. Monarchist
        Monarchist 2 December 2017 19: 03 New
        +2
        It would be strange that the grandson of the famous marshal did not try to "bask" in the rays of business glory. If the Lord has deprived himself of talents, and to PR or to simply vyzhivatsya on simple, I want
        1. solzh
          solzh 2 December 2017 22: 48 New
          +1
          Why does a grandson need this? He is already old
  2. ImPerts
    ImPerts 2 December 2017 15: 26 New
    +9
    During the war, troops under the command of Baghramyan were the first to reach the Baltic. In order to present this event more pathos, the Armenian general personally poured a bottle of water from the Baltic Sea and ordered his adjutant to fly to Moscow with this bottle to Stalin. He flew. But while he was flying, the Germans counterattacked and threw Baghramyan away from the Baltic coast. By the time the adjutant arrived in Moscow, they were already aware of this, but the adjutant himself did not know - there was no radio in the plane. And so the proud adjutant enters Stalin’s office and proclaims loudly:
    - Comrade Stalin, General Baghramyan sends you Baltic water!
    Stalin takes the bottle, twirls it in his hands for a few seconds, then gives it back to the adjutant and says:
    - Give it back to Baghramyan, say, let it pour out where you took it.
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 2 December 2017 19: 14 New
      +2
      Where can I read about it?
      1. ImPerts
        ImPerts 4 December 2017 07: 09 New
        0
        FELIX CHUYEV - SOLDIERS OF THE EMPIRE. Conversations. MEMORIES. DOCUMENTS
  3. Cartalon
    Cartalon 2 December 2017 15: 57 New
    +2
    Wow, that’s who turns out to be the greatest commander of all time.
  4. Monarchist
    Monarchist 2 December 2017 19: 14 New
    +2
    Dear author, I have a question: what position did Baghramyan hold during the battle for Moscow? I honestly don’t remember him at Zhukov’s headquarters.
    Regarding the Oryol-Kursk operation, there were publications that the main idea5 belonged to Antonov, and Konev and others were only performers
  5. Doliva63
    Doliva63 3 December 2017 20: 59 New
    +5
    Marshal Baghramyan was a general of Victory. Those who don’t like it go to ... censor) Another Armenian is remembered in this regard - Admiral Isakov. They were able to raise personnel in the Union, however.
  6. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 4 December 2017 18: 04 New
    +2
    It is hardly possible to attribute successes to Bargamyan in "Kiev
    strategic defensive operation. "
    It is called beautifully, but in fact it was a grand cauldron
    with the encirclement and capture of more than half a million Red Army soldiers.
    The fact that he brought out 20,000 testifies to courage, but not
    about leadership talent. Although he could do little.
    A retreat order was not given in time from Moscow.
  7. Sverdlov
    Sverdlov 7 December 2017 21: 27 New
    +1
    The son of a railwayman became a marshal!
    And now - the son of the director becomes the director, the son of the academician - the academician, the son of the prosecutor - the prosecutor, etc. And the rest, without hairy, walk in the field.