Military Review

"Metal War": from the island of Cyprus to Egypt

88
Very often we come across questions like: "How do scientists know this?" or even worse - "They made it up!" Meanwhile, there are a number of historical disciplines that provide historians with the information they need. They are called “auxiliary historical disciplines”. There are many of them, but today we will talk about the text, so we will name only three. This is epigraphy that studies those inscriptions made on hard materials, such as stone, metal, etc. (usually these are inscriptions containing information contemporary to that time). Paleography is a historical and philological specialty that studies the found monuments of ancient writing as a whole, that is, their form and content. And even diplomacy, a special science dealing with the study of documents, letters and treaties of military-political, diplomatic and commercial content. Today we will tell you about one such document, which is closely related to the history of the Bronze Age and the island of Cyprus.


In his remarkable dilogy “The Journey of Baurdjed” and “On the Edge of Oikumen”, Ivan Efremov expressed for that time the bold idea that in ancient times the seas did not divide, but united different peoples. And in fact. No other way, except by sea, could not get the ancient inhabitants of the island of Cyprus on your piece of land. By sea, the ancestors of the late Minoans reached Crete, and the ancient Cycladic people likewise reached their islands. But does this mean that they then forgot their homeland and didn’t go there anymore? Or did not swim somewhere else in search of a better lot or valuable raw materials? Of course not. And the ships sailed, and trade caravans went, and communications between the ancient peoples existed. For example, we have reached the hieroglyphic records, indicating that the official relations of Ancient Egypt with foreign countries took place even during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep III, when Egypt was experiencing an economic rise. Today 382 is known for such labels. A part of this diplomatic correspondence of Amenhotep, which was conducted in the Akkadian language, was in the archives of the city of Al-Amarn and it was their decoding that provided interesting information about this period of Egyptian history. However, today we are talking not so much about Egypt, as about deciphering the "letter 35", that is, the history of ancient diplomatic and trade Cypriot-Egyptian relations.


These are such comic plates that can tell a lot (and tell!) To specialists. Egypt, Sakkara, relief from the tomb of Ptahemhat, the New Kingdom, XVIII dynasty, around 1320 (Egyptian Museum, Berlin)


The Egyptian Museum and the collection of papyrus - a museum in the Berlin State Museums. Since 2009, the Egyptian Museum has been located in the restored New Museum on Museum Island.

In the past, the material on the Bronze Age on the island of Cyprus was told that soon after the Minoan disaster of the XV century. BC er there appeared the state of Alacia, whose ruler in the XIV century BC. er Magnificently called himself the brother of the Egyptian Pharaoh. And just the diplomatic correspondence from El Amarna helps to shed light on the events of those distant years of the late Bronze Age. After all, what is written in them, to a large extent, allows archaeologists to draw conclusions about the realities of that era and compare them with archaeological finds. That is, we have written confirmation of the many finds that tell us that there were strong trade links between the island of Cyprus and Egypt. There is a document EA35, which is an example of correspondence between the ruler of Alacia and the pharaoh of Egypt, which contains detailed information about the political and economic structure of life on this island in the late Bronze Age, and moreover, it gives us very valuable information about Alacians and Egyptians traded among themselves, and a diplomatic statue of relations between the two states.


British Museum in London.

"Metal War": from the island of Cyprus to Egypt

And this is the very "Letter 35". (British Museum, London)


The ceramic ship model found in 1894 in Cyprus, 750 - 500 BC. Length 31, see. (British Museum)

What is this document about? The “35 Letter” or EA 35 is a clay plate, by the way, made from Cypriot clay, found in El Amarna in 1887, 5,75 x 3,875 inch, and covered with Akkadian cuneiform around 1375 BC. Bought it for the British Museum Sir Ernest W. Wallis Budge in 1888. At the beginning of the letter in the 10 line, the ruler of Alacia apologizes for the small amount (only 500 of talents) of copper that he sent to Egypt. However, today it is the largest batch recorded on any of the records from the Amarna archive. He blames the compiler of the letter with the death of many workers caused by Nergal (the god of death and the underworld), before whom, of course, ordinary people were powerless. Further, having apologized in the letter for violation of the supply volumes, the king of Alasia asks to send him silver, bull, oil and magician eagle (!) And, finally, politely demands unpaid money for the previously delivered wood from his lands. At the end of his letter, he advises Pharaoh not to deal with the kings of Hattie and Shanher, which implies that he did not swear allegiance to the Hittite king and tried to pursue an independent policy.


Ancient Egyptian frescoes are not just works of art of a particular era. They tell a lot. For example, this is a painting from the tomb of a nobleman of the XVIII Nebamun dynasty, buried in 1350 BC. Interestingly, in the upper part of the picture, a horse is harnessed to the chariot, but below it is onagra. Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh! Indeed, if you see the inscription “elephant” on a cage with a tiger, do not trust your eyes. (British museum)


Another painting from the tomb of Nebamun. Hunters are caught animals.

But can ancient Alassia be on the island of Cyprus? Could this state formation be located in Anatolia, Syria or Sicily? However, a comparison of the eight letters of Al-Amarna and the documents of the Hittite and Ugarit, as well as the petrographic analysis of EA 34 and 35, it was convincingly proved that ancient Alasia can really be identified with Cyprus. The records of El Amarna (EA 33-39) indicate that Alasia was a state, such as Assyria, Mitanni and Babylon, and not one single city. The mention of the lost labor force in Alacia from the “hand of Nergal” indicates, above all, the identification of Alacia with a specific area of ​​mining, and not with the whole island of Cyprus. That is, it is possible that people there died from some unknown disease, possibly the plague. In addition, Alacia was an independent state, and the Egyptian pharaoh was considered as the “brother” of the king of Alasia, which implies equality (at least, declared!) Of both rulers. Their correspondence (EA 33-39) also shows that Alacia was an island using ships to travel to and from Egypt, and that she maintained economic and political relations not only with Egypt and with the states in Syria, and that there was exported a large amount of copper.


"Nebamun's Hunt" is one of the most remarkable frescoes from this tomb. The image is made in the best traditions of Amarna art and is notable for its vividness and richness of colors.


For example, a butterfly.


Cats in Egypt took part in the hunting of waterfowl owners and were trained to bring prey to them.


Scene of the feast. Here and fashion, and products - everything is depicted very clearly.

The reference to the "low" weight in 500 talents (7500 kg) of copper may indicate certain standards in supply, and the continuous repetition of these supplies, indicating that there is an established trade between Egypt and Cyprus. In addition, the archaeologist can make an important conclusion about the average tonnage of cargo, and the capabilities of the courts of the Late Bronze Age. The demand to pay for the wood supplied also shows that the relations of the two countries were based precisely on trade, and that Cyprus was not a tributary of Egypt, but exported copper, wood and ships there, receiving silver and various luxury items for it.


Tomb of Sennefer. Some tombs were painted with frescoes from the floor to the ceiling.

The predominant location of Cyprus on the most visited maritime routes in the eastern Mediterranean, as well as its raw materials, made it an important point of the late Bronzese maritime trade. The demand for Cypriot copper was constantly increasing, especially in the XIV century, and provoked the strengthening of centralized power on the island. An archaeological report reveals the presence of several centers of copper mining and metallurgy associated with coastal harbors. Thanks to this, Cyprus maintained relations of socio-economic and cultural exchange with its neighbors from the Aegean Sea to Babylonia and from Anatolia to Egypt.


Stele with a picturesque image of a Syrian merchant drinking wine. New Kingdom, XVIII Dynasty, 1351 – 1334 BC.

Letters of El-Amarna give a reliable picture of this economic and, apparently, friendly relationship with the Egyptian power. Egypt needed Cypriot copper, as well as Cypriot wood, well, and the rulers of Cyprus sought Egyptian silver and luxury items. The information obtained from EA 35 adds a lot of interesting information to Cyprus, and hopefully it will help to draw the attention of specialists to the study of Cyprus shipbuilding and the role of the island not only as a supplier of metal, but also of wood. With such a colossal deforestation, which should have taken place on the island for the sake of charcoal and the construction of ships, it is not surprising that the island eventually became treeless and arid.


There is a very interesting story by the Englishwoman Mary Chubb “Nefertiti lived here”, which also tells about the work of archaeologists, the Amarnian period in the art of Ancient Egypt, and the discovery of the famous “Nefertitti head”.


And this is she, Nefertiti or her daughter Meritaton in the Egyptian Museum of Archeology in Berlin.


Relief from Amarna, presumably depicting Akhenaton and Nefertiti, ca. 1335 BC

But as they say, then - more. In 1991, in Ezbeth Helmi in Egypt (ancient Avaris), a very important archaeological discovery was made: fragments of Minoan wall paintings, which depicted games with a bull, were found on the site of the palace garden. In the typical Minoan style, it depicted boys on the back of a bull. In addition to Santorini, Crete and Avaris, wall paintings made in the Minoan manner are preserved only in two places: Tel-Kabri in Israel and Allah in Syria. It is possible that the embassy of the ancient Cretans could be located here in Avaris, and the building was painted in the appropriate style for its staff.


Reconstruction of the Minoan frescoes from Avaris (modern Tel al-Dab).

P.S. The most interesting urban settlements of ancient Cyprus are described in the following dissertation: Armstrong, KM (2003) Settlement of Cyprus, Masters thesis, University of Cincinnati. It easily opens through Google and you can browse and read it page by page.
Author:
88 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Cat
    Cat 5 December 2017 06: 18
    +8
    Liked!
    For cats and cats.
    Judging by the frescoes, the Egyptians domesticated many wild animals and birds from lions and cheetahs to ostriches.
    But the wild custom of laying out the "cats" in the walls of their houses personally revolts me!
    1. kalibr
      5 December 2017 08: 40
      +7
      I have not heard anything about this custom. But I read what the murder of the cat was. When the cat was dying, it was embalmed and buried in a special cemetery. Residents of the house where this happened shaved eyebrows, put on bad clothes and ... mourned for her. They donated money, wine and cloth to the temple of the goddess Bast, so that the spirit and cats rejoiced.
      1. Cat
        Cat 5 December 2017 19: 03
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        I have not heard anything about this custom.

        I.I. Akimushkin "Animal World".
    2. BAI
      BAI 5 December 2017 09: 54
      +7
      To train a cat for hunting is cool! Kuklachev is resting.
      1. kalibr
        5 December 2017 10: 16
        +4
        In Cyprus, Egyptian cats hunted snakes and drained them under the root!
      2. Chertt
        Chertt 5 December 2017 10: 52
        +7
        Quote: BAI
        To train a cat for hunting is cool! Kuklachev is resting.

        In Egypt, or the country of Kem (one of the self-names), Kuklachev would be fed to dung beetles for bullying cats
      3. Mikado
        Mikado 5 December 2017 11: 37
        +4
        To train a cat for hunting is cool! Kuklachev is resting.

        famous lubok on the topic: "Your cat is not a scientist, but walks to Christianity connected "! laughing

        either swearing, or arguing Kuklachev with some kind of "Internet activist."
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 5 December 2017 15: 17
          +7
          Kuklachev collects stray cats in Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova, takes them to Germany, selects documents and makes them work for food!
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 5 December 2017 15: 26
            +6
            what a scoundrel, however! angry although.. what and he could have passed it to the nearest cheburechny. No.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 5 December 2017 15: 42
              +3
              About the cheburechny it to Makarevich or Nagiyev.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 5 December 2017 15: 47
                +4
                about Makarevich - I believe with all my heart. Just out of principle soldier such .. "forgetful singer" is capable of anything!
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 5 December 2017 16: 11
                  +3
                  No, it's me about "Relish" and "Kitchen". But an interesting historical and gastronomic fact, at different times, different nations had dogs on the menu, and cats never.
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 5 December 2017 16: 23
                    +3
                    my father served in Kazakhstan, in the railway troops. Sobachatin - yes, he ate. Who treated (Kazakhs or Koreans) - I do not remember. Yes, he did eat a lot of things there, including camel meat. what Yes, I understood about the transfer. It's just that I've always had a strange attitude towards Andrei Vadimovich. No. At first, I was simply not interested in his work (to listen to just what, it is not interesting, “souls” or something, in his manner of performance there is no). Well, and after the well-known events and statements, the attitude towards him generally changed to negative ... negative
                    1. Aviator_
                      Aviator_ 5 December 2017 22: 06
                      +1
                      He was at a Korean wedding in Karaganda in the 1981 year. When the dog was served, I confused it with pork - a layer of fat, a layer of meat. They are edible dogs like piglets fatten
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 5 December 2017 22: 08
                        0
                        They are edible dogs like piglets fatten

                        did not eat. Father said it looked like lamb to taste .. for what he bought - for that he sold! drinks
                  2. Vasya Vassin
                    Vasya Vassin 5 December 2017 17: 33
                    +3
                    No Brazilian cat soup is still eaten. In China, there is a dish of the battle of a tiger with a dragon, this is a cat and a snake.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 5 December 2017 19: 30
                      +4
                      Interesting. Did not know. Although, China can be suspected, but Brazil !?
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 5 December 2017 21: 48
                        +1
                        KotishchU do not speak only. stop God forbid, seizing upon service in the Strategic Rocket Forces, he’ll blow this sadistic nest to hell! angry fellow Then make excuses for him .. recourse and, to hell with him, we ask Akhedzhakova, she is not the first time! good Vasya Vassin - by the way, it is at you then that they will all point a finger! lol They say he persuaded request
                  3. kalibr
                    5 December 2017 20: 42
                    +4
                    My adoptive father and a friend in the besieged Leningrad ate the cat Vaska so that others would not get it. It was delicious. He was eating mice ...
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 5 December 2017 21: 26
                      +7
                      not only he .. there ate all the pets ..
                      I had an episode in the Dominican Republic. We rested there as neighbors with one pair from under Peter; Misha, about 15 years older than me, was a well-deserved officer and all that. Already on the penultimate day, we were going to dinner, my then-girlfriend (fluent in German) heard the German speech of an elderly couple following us, caught hold of their tongues, they walk, they laugh, they indulge. Misha and I follow them, he grinds his teeth: "How I hate these Germans, I would kill!" (he can! angry ) Why me?" He: “We wouldn’t arrange a blockade, my father would live longer ...” Father was a schoolboy. As far as I understand, I got a bunch of chronic sores during the blockade .. This is it, the people's memory! hi
                      I have a great-grandfather at my place (he lived in a suburb occupied by the Germans), having seen that he had taken a family with meals after occupation of the village by the archkhirens, he took his family and went to the vicinity of Pskov (Pskov then entered the Leningrad Region). They did not take him in the 41st to the army, he was too old at that call. And at the First World War - he was a gentleman of St. George! soldier
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 5 December 2017 22: 11
                        +2
                        They called for the Patriotic War until 50 years inclusive. My grandfather in 1941 was 48, a participant in both the WWII and the Civil, they called him, he worked all the war in the front-line weapons workshop.
      4. mac789
        mac789 5 December 2017 16: 22
        +1
        And on waterfowl. good
      5. Cat
        Cat 5 December 2017 21: 37
        +5
        Quote: BAI
        To train a cat for hunting is cool! Kuklachev is resting.

        He looked at his nightmare and came to the conclusion "it’s better to train the owners of cats than cat people"!
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 5 December 2017 21: 45
          +3
          fluffy, well-fed, pleased. It can be seen that the owner is good! hi
          Vladislav, as I understand it, is this a selfie? wink Warn that ... request
          1. Cat
            Cat 5 December 2017 21: 52
            +4
            No, Nikolai, this is my cat, Sonia!
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 5 December 2017 21: 54
              +1
              in the first case I’ll take a picture of Mikado, and publish "from our hut to yours" drinks but you have a thoroughbred. And mine looks like Matroskin. Podshrysh, on the palm brought! smile
              1. Cat
                Cat 5 December 2017 22: 20
                +2
                When they took away (for a large package of food) the hostess said that "culling - of the Siberian chinchilla - a dark strip on the back." Then they supplied all the acquaintances and relatives with similar rejections!
                One kitten was brought as a cat boy. For a whole year, the owners thought that they had a cat named Monya. Monya arranged a concert, and he was taken to a bonfire. What was the shock of the owners when they found out that they did not have a cat, but a cat. Fortunately, there was no need to change the name!
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 5 December 2017 22: 32
                  +2
                  my brother’s wife decided to buy beagles for daughters. And it turned out too - a curve tooth, culling. Husky breed, if the tail is "standing" - also culling. Disfigure animals for the sake of the exterior, damn it .. negative then get closely related crosses! am I had a friend Scottish Fold. Pussycat already born one-eyed. After she was sterilized, she turned out to be a heavy "meat monster" who slept like a vegetable 23 and a half hours a day and was removed only to eat and lighten! request Well, why do this with the breed? negative
                  but .. are they still the most beautiful? good and love us "not for sausage"! They love, treat, do not leave us! And what you say - “a cat affects a person more than vice versa” - is the true truth! (look at our nicknames with you wink )
            2. kalibr
              6 December 2017 08: 02
              +5
              Cat Barsya. He likes to sleep on his back in this position.
        2. tiaman.76
          tiaman.76 6 December 2017 12: 48
          +2
          beautiful kitty fellow
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 6 December 2017 23: 59
            +1
            mine does it when he wants to attract attention. Will decompose, like a monkey, arched, and eyes cunning wink
    3. kalibr
      5 December 2017 20: 48
      +2
      Alas, cats were mocked a lot in Europe. And the plague was punishment !!! I am glad that even now it is not so. I found a time when cats were utilitarian. Well there is. My first cat paid me with such love, she was so grateful, and we ... treated her normally. As everybody! The second cat was already a favorite, she lived in the house for 19,5 years. And now I have a cat. Therapeutic. Very funny. I wrote a book about her. I am waiting for the decision of the jury.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 5 December 2017 21: 42
        +4
        And the plague was punishment !!!

        then the “bare-headed” Khan Dzhanibek, who was the first to use bacteriological weapons, was also a punishment at first ... laughing
        Therapeutic.

        how do they do it? At one time, one unsettled nature told me: "Yeah, love .. No. for the sausage! negative "That's why your cat doesn’t love you because she herself is like a burden to him. And mine .. sleeps in his legs every day. I used to love to lie on my chest (and my ass to me!), I’ll open it, it will lie down for ten minutes and leaves. The mission to restore balance is completed! soldier
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 5 December 2017 21: 54
        +2
        They scoffed, yes, but this has nothing to do with the plague pandemic of the mid-14th century!
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 5 December 2017 22: 11
          +2
          but then, EMNIP, the first Jewish pogroms began. what Jews lived separately! And they drank water from their wells. Perhaps they even washed their hands. And "the one whom the plague did not affect - he sent it!" am (medieval logic, which can still be used within the framework of cheers-patriotism and the search for enemies). hi
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 5 December 2017 22: 31
            +1
            No, Nikolai, there were pogroms before.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 5 December 2017 22: 52
              +1
              I repent, they were wrong. recourse Two cultures in one state! request But, it seems, the heyday just then happened. But I could be wrong! hi
    4. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 5 December 2017 22: 01
      +1
      In my opinion, the Kotofeys were walled up in the corners of buildings in medieval Europe, and the Egyptians could feed such builders and crocodiles for this.
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 5 December 2017 06: 44
    17
    Egypt, Crete, Cyprus, the Hittite kingdom, etc., are part of the then civilized Oikumena. The cultural ties between them and close contacts are not surprising.
    It is interesting both in content and in illustrations.
    God forbid in Egypt to kill a kitty - the death penalty
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 5 December 2017 07: 14
    +2
    For example, hieroglyphic records have come down to us, indicating that the official ties of Ancient Egypt with foreign countries took place even during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep III, when Egypt experienced an economic upsurge.

    Perhaps not a topic, but here is the beginning of Beckert’s book: Iron Facts and Legends. A story about trade relations in the Mediterranean Sea and about the decoding of texts by Czech professor Badrich Grozny. By the way, there are mentioned relations with Egypt.
  4. polpot
    polpot 5 December 2017 08: 03
    +6
    Thank you wonderful article wonderful photos
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 5 December 2017 08: 10
    +4
    There is a very interesting story by Englishwoman Mary Chubb “Nefertiti lived here”
    ... Very interesting .. It seems that I took the fifth in the classroom in the district library, read it .. and then re-read it right away .. It was so enthralling. Thank you for the article ...
    1. kalibr
      5 December 2017 08: 35
      +4
      If so, then try to find another wonderful book on a similar topic: Guy Petronius Amatiuni "If the Sphinx spoke." You will not regret...
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 5 December 2017 08: 54
        +3
        What is the familiar name .. I’ll look. Thank you ...
  6. moskowit
    moskowit 5 December 2017 09: 13
    +4
    These are such comic plates that can tell a lot (and tell!) To specialists. Egypt, Sakkara, relief from the tomb of Ptahemhat, the New Kingdom, XVIII dynasty, around 1320 (Egyptian Museum, Berlin)

    Skipped BC Very interesting .... I remember the first time I saw hieroglyphs and drawings in the Children's (yellow) encyclopedia .... In the year 1962-63 ... Very interesting was also colorful material ... Hieroglyphs copied, tried to "attach" them to our alphabet ....
    1. kalibr
      5 December 2017 10: 14
      +3
      And you did the same thing as I did in the same book, "yellow." But then I already found other sources, I even remember trying to write with hieroglyphs ... They made such a strong impression on me when I was young.
  7. Luga
    Luga 5 December 2017 10: 32
    +3
    Interesting and informative, thanks to the author. I have no significant comments. smile hi
  8. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 5 December 2017 11: 50
    +3
    How little is given to us in the lessons of history, I remember the history textbook, it still lies in my barn, so little is written there, not just a gallop, but a supersonic sound in Europe.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 5 December 2017 11: 52
      +4
      well, damn it, don't push everything into the school course. They give a certain idea, just to remember that there were such countries in antiquity. Who needs it - then he will supplement request and then, most will forget everything in a year.
      1. ando_bor
        ando_bor 5 December 2017 13: 13
        +2
        Quote: Mikado
        They give a certain idea, just to remember that there were such countries in antiquity.

        When I studied under the Union, and then for a long time, the whole history was strung on Marxism, I will not deny Marxism - this is a really working pattern, but a significant part of human history and civilization in particular, other patterns were crucial, they are still not clearly formulated and not taught.
        And without laws, history turns from science into an empirical set of facts.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 5 December 2017 16: 27
          +2
          Yes, everything is taught, it’s in our country with the theory of class struggle!
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 5 December 2017 16: 44
            +3
            Case of the slogan "Let's turn the imperialist war into a civil war!" lives, so instead of discussing the image of Russia in wars with enemies, we begin to sort out among themselves who the larger communistlaughing and if you don’t know thoroughly the works of KarloMarx - the label of Russophobe (and also heaps of definitions) is glued to you with casein glue angry national sport in VO! fellow joke, exaggerate. But .. okay, hushed up. drinks
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 5 December 2017 16: 53
              +1
              You will involuntarily become a Makhnovist, out of a feeling of contradiction!
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 5 December 2017 17: 03
                +2
                "Schus fits, the Black Sea sailor with Free Russia, the second head of the rebel. Hungarian on his brother’s bright blue with gold, cap - with a ribbon of St. George’s Black Sea and trellis" Steyer "in half an arshin."
                this is Vsevolod Vishnevsky, “Spartak armored train.” It's funny that he calls the Makhnovists nothing more than “red insurgents.” And this is in 1930! They say they were good fighters, but the anarchist leadership took them in the wrong place request
                Anton, did you serve in the Navy? wink drinks
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 5 December 2017 19: 07
                  +3
                  ".... And he’s a man wherever,
                  He served in the air defense! " soldier
                  (G. Sukachev)
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 5 December 2017 21: 31
                    +1
                    He served in air defense

                    Well, then what kind of anarchist are you? request to be an anarchist - one must be a professionally loving sailor a la Dybenko! "Without hesitation I will drink the battleship, but the fleet will not disgrace!" (B. Grebenshchikov) soldier
                    and so .. russish borodatish partisan! laughing drinks
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 5 December 2017 22: 55
                      +1
                      Well, as it is, but I like the Barbunos more.
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 5 December 2017 23: 06
                        +1
                        Che Guevara - our everything! soldier drinks
      2. Curious
        Curious 5 December 2017 13: 28
        +5
        The school course of history has as its goal, as they write in special literature, on the one hand, the upbringing of a comprehensively and harmoniously developed personality, and on the other, the formation of abilities and skills to independently study historical material and operate on acquired knowledge in practice.
        Can you imagine what the school course of history would turn into if it didn’t cover in detail even the most important moments of history?
        We can consider today's article as an example. It mentions Letter 35. But this is just one of the 381 documents of the El-Amarna archive - this is the name used in science to call the archive of Egyptian pharaohs of the XVIII dynasty, discovered in 1887 in El-Amarna by local residents. And if the author at least on the proposal gave each of the documents.
        But to the El-Amarna letters it is customary to include a letter close to these texts in style and content from Tel al-Hesi in Israel.
        And if you pay attention to such an aspect as the analysis of the historical narrative of the Bible and the formation of the ancient Israeli community using the El Amarna archive, the article will turn into a weighty volume. And if the author wants to cover the history of such an ugly side of human relations as a denunciation, then one can safely turn to the El-Amarna letters, since many Al-Amarna letters are actually denunciations, the authors of which portray their opponents as rebels who encroach on the property of the pharaoh , and themselves - faithful defenders of the interests of Egypt (often these denunciations are mutual).
        Therefore, do not reproach the school history course. It is purposeful. And then everything is in your hands.
        1. ando_bor
          ando_bor 5 December 2017 16: 55
          +1
          Emotional evaluations such as
          Quote: Curious
          such an ugly side of human relationships like denunciation
          и
          Quote: Curious
          Faithful Advocates of Egypt

          while natural dependencies work, in those days the climate and its changes were almost the only natural dependence, the described period was perhaps the most favorable in the history of human civilization, in many ways of globalization the world only reached those levels, and late bronze was everywhere developed, not only in Egypt and Cyprus, in the Western Caucasus - dolmen culture, after it no one has built not only similar but generally stone there to the present.
          The collapse of the Bronze Age around 1200 BC. e. happened - everything collapsed, and according to the information posted it is clearly visible that the peak has been passed in the described period, it’s still good, but the trend for deterioration has already bent. This should be said, not really delving into the specifics ..
          1. Curious
            Curious 5 December 2017 17: 06
            +4
            "Emotional ratings don't work in history."
            The store does not sell a sense of humor.
  9. kalibr
    5 December 2017 16: 51
    0
    Quote: ando_bor
    they are still not properly formulated and not taught.

    Do you think so or do you know for sure?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 5 December 2017 17: 10
      +1
      Probably, the comrade is not aware that the rest of the world studied and is studying history according to other axial dominants (culture, scientific and technological revolution, ethnogenesis .....)
    2. ando_bor
      ando_bor 5 December 2017 18: 25
      0
      Quote: kalibr
      Do you think so or do you know for sure?

      I think I have not looked in the primer for a long time.
  10. Cat
    Cat 5 December 2017 19: 02
    +2
    Quote: kalibr
    I have not heard anything about this custom.

    I.I. Akimushkin "Animal World".
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 5 December 2017 21: 34
      +1
      I had his "Freaks of nature" .. good I would love to re-read it!
      1. Cat
        Cat 5 December 2017 22: 11
        +2
        I lost this book from the collection. I gave a neighbor a schoolboy to prepare an essay, so I didn’t return it - sadness.
        Of the series there are three! World of History - Volume 2, World of the Ocean, World of Plants. In principle, from 1999 to 2010 I searched the World of History 1 and 3 volumes, not a single owner parted with them!
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 5 December 2017 22: 13
          +1
          look on the internet, everything is there now (well, a lot, at least). Though. you can’t sit with a laptop in the toilet .. recourse (the cynical truth of life! drinks )
          1. Cat
            Cat 5 December 2017 23: 03
            +2
            Then there was no Internet! Obtaining information was reduced either by the presence of a good library at home or or by a city nearby.
            When I tell my daughters that in the first grade I stood in line at the children's library for reading "Urfin Juice and His Soldiers" by A. Volkov. The child does not believe. And the fact that he had to read his penultimate book of the Yellow Fog series in a living line in the reading room is laughing. And for my peers it was a real disaster, who first came from that and slippers! Sometimes because of this book we read by ear!
            The same story was with the Tolken hobbit. When my parents brought the second book in the city. For three days I had two lines to read in my library! And standing at the same time in both was not patsansky!
            It was even sadder with the Lord of the Rings. The first two books of the Novosibirsk edition were handed over to me at the end of the 80s. With the third part, I was fundamentally unlucky for four years. In 1992, on the occasion of it was bought in St. Petersburg. moreover, together with Lord Michael. Sadness was one both were in Moldavian. I didn’t master the horseradish of the Return of the Lord in five days. And thanks to Mikaveli he mastered about three years. Then, already working at a university, he drove out of himself the habit of yelling pearls, such as "Mikaveli in his Gospadar."
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 5 December 2017 23: 31
              +2
              Then there was no Internet!

              then it was not, now it is! Daughter - you can download everything. I even found a book by one author on modeling, although I came out in '89, and was his second book, which saw the light - there is a scan! and Akimushkin - even more so. And this is a classic that can be studied by any generation at any time. hi and it will always be interesting good
  11. Cat
    Cat 5 December 2017 19: 56
    +4
    Quote: cth; fyn
    How little is given to us in the lessons of history, I remember the history textbook, it still lies in my barn, so little is written there, not just a gallop, but a supersonic sound in Europe.

    And I do not agree with you dear. At one time, he studied under the old Soviet textbook edited by Korovkin

    The textbook is accessible, interesting and charming. The trouble of the ancient world, this is the age of the student. Sixth grade - 12 years to cover the material in a similar volume is still too early. Another terrible misfortune is the teacher’s competence. Then how lucky the pan is or gone.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 5 December 2017 21: 33
      +2
      well, if I’m not mistaken, this is a textbook already in the 90s (although it was done according to the “Soviet groundwork”). I just learned that too! Thank! drinks "remember childhood" is called hi
      1. Cat
        Cat 5 December 2017 22: 06
        +3
        I was in sixth grade in 1990. History books for grades 6 and 7 are considered classics. I have both in my collection. For the seventh grade, "Middle Ages," even without color pictures!
        Both had Christomaties, but I have survived only in the ancient world.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 5 December 2017 22: 16
          +2
          For the seventh grade, "Middle Ages," even without color pictures!

          honestly, I don’t remember the reader, maybe I just didn’t remember it. And "Middle Ages" I had a new edition (we were almost the first to learn from it), already with pictures. It turns out that the difference is three years. drinks
          1. Cat
            Cat 5 December 2017 22: 31
            +2
            Middle Ages 1971 Edition! Moreover, my daughter studied in almost the same textbook. This is power !!!
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 5 December 2017 23: 04
              +1
              Middle Ages 1971 Edition! Moreover, my daughter studied in almost the same textbook. This is power !!!

              Strength! But having a real justification! Why? Despite the fact that we lived in an era of change and change of stereotypes, in the history textbooks of the century until the 18th (well, approximately) there was nothing to change ... nothing! Could change in the fifth grade - delete Lenin and the other meaning of communism. And in the 6-7th grades - all in fact request classics of Marxism-Leninism you don’t sew there, but for "revitalizing democracy"it's too early! No, a priori! So they left them. Plus .. financing .. what not everywhere could quickly change textbooks to new ones. But I tell you, a certain Kreder’s textbook on foreign history of the 20th century, the teacher told us not to pick up, they say, he will tell. Because the textbook of the 92nd, it seems, was a year, a wave of democracy, "the USSR is a resident evil", etc. Although it was a more than modest notebook in volume. This also happened, and rightly so! (I mean that it was necessary to throw out such a textbook, and to the author - going abroad for permanent residence forever. I even guess where ...).
        2. kalibr
          6 December 2017 07: 46
          +1
          Cat I wanted to write a textbook on the history of Wed. centuries for the 6th grade instead of Agibalovsky ... Presented to the Enlightenment. We looked and said - we need a methodological apparatus, questions and answers - all this is verified by the research institute of education. Expertise - years! Do you need this? Write a book to read. Peer reviewing is easier ... And there are no questions and answers. So it turned out the book "Knights. Castles, Weapons", which is here de inserted into the list of books for reading in the textbook of the 6th grade. So for completeness of a collection you need to get it !!! There is a publication in a yellow cover and black - look for black, it is more beautiful!
          But the most interesting textbook dr. peace and cf. centuries - Nefedova, publishing house of Bustard - read like a novel. It is a pity that he did not receive much distribution.
  12. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 5 December 2017 22: 18
    +2
    Mikado,
    There they make different dishes, the taste may be different. I was served Cho-Kuk-Ti.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 5 December 2017 22: 23
      0
      did not try .. wink
  13. Mikado
    Mikado 5 December 2017 22: 19
    0
    Aviator_,
    I need to clarify the history of the family. what
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 5 December 2017 22: 33
      +2
      I’m writing slowly, sorry, my father has long been gone, I’m gradually recovering from various sources. I am writing for my son and granddaughter. And the grandfather of 1893 year of birth, as well as Grigory Melekhov, and a native of those places. The men’s hostility with the Cossacks was always terrible there, his father said that he was frightened by the Cossacks in early childhood.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 5 December 2017 22: 48
        +2
        and here we found the first grandmother’s husband in the list of awarded on the Internet. "Red Star" for the uninterrupted supply of the Katyush division in Germany in the 45th ... And how to fight without supplies, especially MLRS? Do you remember the film "Zhenya, Zhenechka and Katyusha", in order to drive up the PCs, they became "transvestites involuntarily"? laughing I won’t be surprised if this happened! savvy is the main guarantee of success. soldier
        I had a teacher, whom I can rightly consider one of the Masters (earth rest in peace for him, and a blessed memory!). A man of a very fast and rich mind. A Jew, by the way, but also Colonel VV, professor! So, he told us: "Guys, all our problems are from what we are"Ivanes who do not remember kinship! "And you were absolutely right! You are the third person on the site who told me that he was restoring the pedigree on the sly. The first was the esteemed Muscovite, the second (I don’t remember, forgive me, good man!) The ancestor fought on the battleship Admiral Ushakov. soldier God bless you! hi
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 6 December 2017 08: 51
          +1
          Thank you, they say, on a kind word. Here I perceived the film “Zhenya, Zhenechka and Katyusha” as a normal adventure film in my childhood, it was only surprising that my father (a war veteran, an airplane navigator) did not like to put it mildly, and they didn’t sing songs like “Danish king drops” at the front at least in my father’s regiment, and then I found out that the film was the work of Okudzhavka, who was a cool front-line soldier who had been fighting for a month and was sitting on the Soviet-Turkish border until the end of the war. orientation.
        2. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 6 December 2017 20: 59
          +1
          Yes, more about your Teacher. Probably a professor was wise. Svejk, I remember, said: "Another Magyar and not to blame that he is a Magyar."
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 7 December 2017 00: 12
            +1
            Svejk, I remember, said: "Another Magyar and not to blame that he is a Magyar."

            well, Schweik himself was considered a little "out of this world." But if you take the phrase as an exaggerated "bridge" between nationalities - yes.
            He was a very interesting guy! Very educated, he had his own opinion on everything. Energy from it just beat. We, 17-year-olds, thought he would outlive us in his 70s. It turned out that our first year taught (I even drove to the Kunstkamera, its former director Mylnikov taught us - the first set of psychologists for the police department, all well), went to a friend's cottage in August 2000, got off the train, and .. heart ... Bright memory to him! It will be necessary to unearth his monograph “Russians and the Baltics” in an old apartment, he served in the Baltic states at one time, there is a lot of material there. soldier
  14. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 6 December 2017 11: 01
    +3
    Thanks, good informative article. good
  15. Normal ok
    Normal ok 7 December 2017 13: 04
    +1
    Very often one has to meet questions such as: “How do scientists know this?” Or even worse - “They invented it!”.

    I read this on. There are enough Fomenko witnesses here. Every time I read such statements, I recall a series from "Smeshariki" where Krosh does not accept the statement that the earth is round:
  16. Weyland
    Weyland 8 December 2017 23: 17
    0
    the Egyptian pharaoh was regarded as the “brother” of the Alasian king, which implies the equality (at least declared!) of both rulers.

    Cool - and interestingly, I've never heard of this! The "brothers" of the pharaoh i.e. equal in status kings) can be counted on the fingers of one hand - tablarn Hettia, the meadow of Babylonia these two are constantly), king Mitanni and after the fall of Mitanni and the rise of Assyria, the meadow of Assyria took his place), Vanact of Mycenaean Greece is not always), the king of Kizzuvadna (in those periods when she was independent of Hethia and Mitanni). The rest - "snout did not come out." It was even 3 years later that it was worth it — in all seriousness, one of the reasons for the Crimean War — that in his letters Nicholas I stubbornly referred to Napoleon III not as a “brother”, but as a “dear friend”