By the way, having looked through all the materials of this cycle, it is easy to see what good work the teachers of the history departments of the CPSU wrote in support of the party and the Soviet government. And the lectures on the basis of these works were also given to students by the RK and OK CPSU, and would any of us then try to “stumble” in something? However, no one would have wanted, well, what, excuse me, is a fool sawing a branch on which he sits and cutting a chicken that lays golden eggs for him? 280 p. salary to the candidate of historical sciences, senior lecturer, 320 p. - to an assistant professor plus service at a special clinic of the OK CPSU, plus money for lectures from the Knowledge Society and the Republic of Kazakhstan and OK CPSU (10 rubles for a lecture and 25 for a round table), some of them gave 10 and more lectures per month. At factories and in hairdressing salons, at pig farms and in pharmacies ... Add newspaper articles - from 5 to 25 p. and more than a month, TV shows - 40 p., although this was not for everyone. The result was 400 or more rubles per month - i.e. the salary of the second secretary of the OK CPSU, and in addition free trips to Moscow to the archives and Leninka, but really for sausage and sausages. Who would have neglected all this at that time? Therefore, to say that the teachers of the history of the CPSU “destroyed the USSR” is at least stupid. Already someone, and we just defended him like chain dogs, word for word broadcasting to the people the orders of the party and government from above. If there was an order — there is a concept of party discipline — they would take the machine guns and go to defend it (and what to do, you have to pay for preferences!), But there was no order. Gathered and said - "no longer needed." And if so, then ... officials are accustomed to obeying orders from above, and then why should we rush about? Well, we played one, now we will play another ...
Well, now, since we have reached the conclusion, I will have to change my rule not to comment on this work. In some places, just have to, because without this, well, can not do. Nevertheless, the original text of the dissertation research itself was not subjected to even the slightest revision, therefore both the style and the manner of presentation of the material by the author remained the same as in the 1986 year.
So, read ...
The new edition of the CPSU program, adopted by the XXVII Party Congress, emphasized: "The Great Patriotic War was the severe test of the new system, rallying around the party, displaying unprecedented heroism, the Soviet people and its armed forces inflicted a crushing defeat on Germany’s fascism - the shock detachment of world imperialist reaction." [1, c.126] K. Marx was deeply right, noting: "... the war makes a final sentence on social institutions that have lost their viability." [2, c.551] Results of the Great Patriotic War convincingly show that in the world there is no force that could crush the socialist state. (As you can see, Soviet historical science was not free at that time. It was necessary to refer to the opinion of the next secretary general, without which the work would simply not be released. The words of the secretary general were the measure of the truth of everything, Alpha and Omega - comment V.Sh.)
Appreciation of the feat of the Soviet people in the last war was given in the report of the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, MS. Gorbachev at the solemn meeting on the occasion of the 40 anniversary of victory: "The feat of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War is great and unforgettable. The war years were infinitely much together - the pain of loss and the happiness of victory, the courage of fierce battles and the modest greatness of everyday work, the pasha victory raised high international authority of the Soviet Union. It caused a surge of patriotic feelings among the Soviet people. For us, victory was and will remain an inspiring source from which we will always draw energy for the realization of enormous sound plans, strengthening the power and further prosperity of the Motherland - the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. "[3, c.14] (Remembering these passages to MS Gorbachev, I remember my own mother, also a teacher of history of the CPSU, candidate of historical sciences, associate professor “As he says!” She exclaimed in the same 1985 year, “as he says!” “Mama — he hasn’t done anything yet,” I reasoned. “For now, only words!” But ... it was a voice crying in the wilderness. Then, when the "case" began, she no longer liked them. It’s just amazing how easy our people buy not even for money, I would just understand it, namely with words! - approx. V.Sh.)
Crucial in achieving victory over the enemy, according to VI. Lenin, is in the organizational activities of the Communist Party, its ability to mobilize and lead the working people. The loyalty of the Leninist position was revealed with particular force during the Great Patriotic War, when in the name of the defense of the socialist Fatherland the party acted as the inspiration and militant leader of our people.
On many buildings of our cities there are such signs. They indicate that during the war years there were located hospitals. There is it on the building of the Penza gymnasium №6.
By successfully relocating the productive forces to safe areas, the plans of the enemy were disrupted, counting on the occupation of industrial centers to undermine the economic power of the USSR. Issues of evacuation were solved at the highest party and state level. In the unprecedentedly difficult conditions of the first period of the war, the Communist Party and the Soviet state in a short time carried out the transfer of human and material resources and organized their use with maximum impact on the sites.
Bourgeois falsifiers, deliberately moving away from objective coverage of the war, try to prove that successful evacuation is in no way connected with the fundamental advantages of socialism, the leading role of Lenin’s party, but ideological opponents of socialism will not be able to distort history. A great work was done in the USSR to criticize bourgeois historiography of the leading role of the FPSU during the war years. The results of our study and the conclusions arising from the analysis of the problem under study contribute to the exposure of the concept of Western historians, discrediting the activities of the party in wartime, its role in the evacuation of the productive forces of the USSR, the implementation of economic and social policy. (Without mentioning the critics of bad bourgeois falsifiers, as indeed now, no scientific work could have done, they simply wouldn’t have missed it. But I wondered if I asked the author if he read at least one such falsifier, he frankly laughed. " What are you asking about? As if you weren’t there then? What books are “from there” and where would I get them and how would I read them? You know how it was: “I didn’t read, but I condemn!” And, By the way, note that there are no references in the work to the work of bourgeois falsifiers, but none of the reviewers I didn’t pay attention to it, that is, in serious scientific work there are NO REFERENCES to foreign authors criticized in it, but since these are “bourgeois falsifiers,” then it’s possible to do without page-based references. A priori, they are all “bad.” Something many articles on It reminded today, and they also say that the USSR died long ago. And this is what: its “scientific tradition”, or better to say, propaganda technique — using the ignorance of our citizens, pouring mud at foreign scientists just because it is beneficial for our powers. Although, yes, their political leaders sometimes make very illiterate statements. Well, so these are different things, a round cannot be equated with a salty one! - approx. V.Sh.)
The present study showed that, on the basis of Lenin's regulations on the leading role of the party in organizing the defense of the socialist Motherland, a system of directions, forms and methods of party leadership for the evacuated population was formed, the components of which are:
- development of a scientifically grounded concept, specific political, economic, social tasks and main directions of activity of party, Soviet, Komsomol, economic organizations in matters of evacuation, distribution of productive forces, their involvement in the functioning of the entire economy, the struggle of the entire people, ensuring victory;
- defining the role, place, and duties of evacuation agencies in solving the problem of population displacement, its material and social support, and political education in new places of residence;
- organizational and political strengthening of primary party organizations created from the arrived communists, increasing the vanguard role of party members, placing them in the decisive areas of administrative, economic and production work;
- the use of methods of persuasion, control, including in the form of discussions at conferences, plenary sessions, meetings of party committees, bureaus, assets, and party meetings of work among evacuated citizens;
- the study, synthesis, dissemination and implementation of the advanced experience of work of party organizations in the management of the labor activities of immigrants, their ideological and political growth.
This photo in red "circle" shows the location of this memorial plate on the wall of the gymnasium. It is interesting that during the war its building was two-storied, but then it was built on another floor. To the left of the sign is a fir tree, which I had to plant when I was a student of the 9 grade of this school. Then another school. Never in those years did I ever think that I would ever see her so huge!
The high effectiveness of party influence on the evacuated population was achieved when the components that made up the system were used simultaneously, regularly, which allowed in practice to master the Leninist style of leadership.
The study of issues related to the activities of party organizations of the Kuibyshev, Penza and Ulyanovsk regions among the evacuated population makes it possible to draw the following conclusions:
Party organizations in the region during the wartime quickly solved the most difficult economic, social and political-educational tasks in connection with the stay of evacuees. Party committees regularly addressed the issues of satisfying household needs and spiritual needs of immigrants, created a system of providing ongoing material and financial assistance, contributed to the development of various additional sources of supply, children’s facilities that provided residential and residential buildings were provided with special attention and care, provision of food, industrial goods. The locals, brought up by the party in the spirit of friendship and mutual assistance, launched a movement to provide comprehensive voluntary assistance to evacuees.
Recreating an objective picture of systematic assistance to about 380 to thousands of immigrants is a worthy rebuff to bourgeois ideologists, contributes to dispelling the fabrications of the essence of the party’s social policy during the war years, its organizational skills in creating the necessary conditions for an evacuated population for life and work. (If only one example of what those perverts were writing at the time was “bourgeois ideologues”, at least one! - V. Sh. Comment)
Having joined a friendly family of workers of the Middle Volga region, evacuated citizens with deep faith in victory worked in the national economy. Party organizations led the industrial training of immigrants who did not have working specialties, giving them the opportunity to take an active part in the productive pile, for which courses, training and production combines were opened, and studies were conducted at the machine tool, in technical circles, and tractor brigades.
The labor collectives of the arrived enterprises, with the assistance of the party, Soviet, economic organizations, workers of the region, in a short time, put the evacuated factories and plants into operation, began to produce the products necessary for the front. The completion of the restoration of the majority of redeployed enterprises made it possible for evacuated aviation industry workers to take the initiative of the All-Union Socialist Competition for over-fulfillment of the plans that unfolded since May 1942.
Patriotic undertakings were born at the enterprises that arrived: the movements of two-three hundred men, thousanders, Komsomol youth brigades, and so on. Evacuated workers put forward new forms of socialist labor: front-line decades, monthly, multi-staging, mastering related professions, salute weeks, pre-holiday and front-line watches, and others. Party committees among the arriving workers organized work aimed at saving raw materials, working time, for which months were used to collect rationalization and inventive proposals, material and moral encouragement, visual agitation, oral propaganda.
The practice of party leadership in competition during the war years among large masses of evacuated workers became an integral part of the treasury of the experience of implementing the economic policy of the party. Nowadays, its value and value has not faded due to the tasks set by the ХХУП congress, June / 1986 / Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU to make the most complete use of achieving scientific and technological progress, increasing the efficiency of social production, strengthening labor discipline, increasing its productivity, saving material , labor and financial resources, in the matter of activating the human factor, in a word, in realizing the possibilities and advantages of real socialism.
The party mobilized the evacuated population located in rural areas to participate in agricultural production. Quite a few leading workers who worked out a record number of workdays came out of the ranks of the immigrants, many evacuees were promoted to managerial positions on collective farms, state farms, and MTS.
Party organizations conducted versatile ideological and political work among the arriving population aimed at fostering patriotism and internationalism. The communists systematically acquainted the settlers with the situation on the fronts and in the whole country, conducted conversations, meetings with soldiers, drummers of the labor front, organized international events. Much attention was paid to individual work. The goal of ideological and political education was that no one should feel alone in a new place in order to direct the energy and knowledge of visiting people to the great cause of victory over the aggressor.
Studying the experience of organizing the party among the evacuated population contributes to the military-patriotic education of the Soviet people, careful attitude to this experience, inheritance and further development of what was achieved by older generations of Soviet people is one of the conditions for successful progress along the path of improving socialism and ensuring the country's security. The new edition of the CPSU Program states. "An important task of ideological and educational work remains military-patriotic education, the formation of a readiness to defend the socialist Motherland, to give it all its strength, and, if necessary, life."
(Well, how can I refrain from commenting? There was both military-patriotic education, and Marxist-Leninist institutions, and a bunch of propagandists at all levels, but for some reason nobody in 1991 died for the “socialist Fatherland”. I guess I remembered the anecdote about the newspaper Trud and Soviet Russia. And, by the way, today even those who are fighting for it now write their comments not from the dugouts of the partisan detachments Back in the USSR and the True Stalinist, but from completely different places , much more comfortable and safe, receive pensions and wages are not from the party funds, and from the Ministry of Finance "the anti-people regime of the oligarchs" and ... they live very well for themselves! - V.Sh.
Thus, in the years of the Great Patriotic War, the Communist Party was enriched with the experience of organizational work under extreme conditions, which became a solid foundation, a serious guarantee for the successful post-war leadership of socialist construction. As noted in the political report of the Central Committee of the CPSU of the HHUP Party Congress: "The party activists, all the Communists must master the great traditions of Bolshevism, be brought up on these traditions." [4, c. 84] (They should have been, but ... they did not take possession! Neither the assets, nor all the Communists! - V.Sh. comment.)
The analysis of the problem of organizing the party’s activities among those who arrived in the Middle Volga region on the evacuation of citizens during the war makes it possible to make some recommendations aimed at improving party work, economic strengthening of the country, further scientific development of the problem, improving the educational process at the university, political education of workers, expanding knowledge Soviet people on the history of their homeland.
We love to gossip that, they say, the memory is not saved, the youth do not know anything, the work in schools with patriotic education is put out of their hands badly. Here in the 6 school, even its Victory Garden was laid, and the situation is as it should be with this work. And for the time being, no one has passed a copper board with an inscription about what kind of garden it is!
I. For successful activity of party organizations it is advisable to use: forms and methods of managing evacuated population that justified themselves in 1941-1945 years - efficiency, complexity, scientific soundness in solving social and economic problems, the ability to rely on workers, the high personal responsibility of the communists for the work assigned , sensitive attitude to the needs and needs of people; b / experience in managing the socialist competition of evacuated workers, from which you can borrow militancy, purposefulness, timeliness in summing up, a clear definition of specific, practical tasks for each participant, the ability to achieve coordination of actions of party, Komsomol and trade union organizations, allowing to increase the effectiveness of competition, to eliminate formalism in his organization, pull the lagging behind to the level of the foremost.
2. Party organizations prepare the conditions and fight for the transfer of workers' brigades to genuine cost accounting. Ensure that the level of earnings of each worker directly depends on his personal contribution and on the specific contribution of the collective to increasing social wealth. (And why such a conclusion is number XXUMX? It is clear that at that time everybody was delirious with cost accounting. But did the party fight for it during the war years? What is this conclusion based on? - V.Sh.'s comment)
3. Scientists investigating the period of the Great Patriotic War should continue to cover the activities of the CPSU (b) (written by the CPSU, but I could not fix it. What kind of CPSU in 1941 - 1945? - approx. V.Sh.) among the evacuated population. Documentary sources found in archives, periodicals, disclosing this direction of the party’s organizational work and published in various publications, collect and issue in the form of thematic collections or select a separate section in the collections devoted to the activities of the party during the war years. (In general, I propose to devote a volume to this topic in the new 100 history of the Second World War. The only question is when and who will write it? - V.Sh. comment.)
4. Conduct the historiographic development of the problem of the leadership of the CPSU (b) (why open all the archives for free access, and then many are closed until 2045 of the year! - approx. V.Sh.) evacuated by the population during the Great Patriotic War, which will give an opportunity to more fully represent the degree of knowledge themes, to outline the prospects for further work, to give a reasoned, timely repulse to bourgeois falsifiers. Prepare for publication a recommendatory index of literature on the problem across regions, the USSR, several countries.
5. Historians of the Middle Volga region prepare and publish collections of memoirs of communists, Soviet, Komsomol, trade union activists, economic leaders, IDPs themselves, other participants in the evacuation events of the war years. When reprinting works on the history of regions and party organizations in the region, it is better to disclose the work of party and Soviet bodies among the evacuated population.
6. Teachers of universities of the history of the CPSU to develop a special course "Organizational activities of the Communist Party among the evacuated population during the Great Patriotic War I94I - I945", reading of which it is advisable to introduce in the history departments of universities and pedagogical institutes, which will allow students to present the problem of evacuation and the work of the Soviet rear during the war. (We are poor, poor! Our lectures at that time were evaluated according to 62 parameters !!! And the 90 lecture lasted for minutes. Count how many minutes each parameter had? And then the evacuees are advised to mention ... He himself understood what ? - approx. V.Sh.)
7. Komsomol committees to increase the effectiveness of educating young people during the All-Union campaigns to the places of military and labor glory of the Soviet people should allocate in a special direction the collection of materials about nationwide assistance to evacuated citizens who arrived from different republics, about the contribution of immigrants to victory.
8. Soviet bodies, enterprise administrations, party, Komsomol, trade union committees organize expositions in local history, factory, factory museums that demonstrate the party’s organizational work during the war years to move productive forces and create normal conditions for life and work in the places of evacuation.
9. Ideological workers constantly improve the forms of ideological and political education of workers, enrich and diversify the themes of their speeches, using material from the history of the evacuation of productive forces, assistance to immigrants, and labor activities evacuated in the Soviet rear in wartime.
10. When forming the content of cases, staff members of the archives are asked to observe the thematic principle as clearly as possible, including documents revealing the work of the party and the state among the evacuees, into independent storage units, and where this cannot be done, be sure to indicate their full contents in the title of the cases. Employees of the State Archive of the Penza Region, following the example of the Kuibyshev and Ulyanovsk colleagues, isolate into an independent fund the documents of the regional executive committee's department on the economic structure of the evacuated population. (And where can I get money for this? - V. Sh.)
The experience of the CPSU in guiding the armed defense of socialism is of international importance; it entered the treasury of the international labor and national liberation movement as a warning to the aggressive forces of imperialism, which are striving to destroy the socialist state and social system.
The Party and the government are unswervingly pursuing a peace-loving policy, the essence of which lies in the words of V.I. Lenin: "... we promise the workers and peasants to do everything for the world, and we will do it." [5, c.343] The CPSU is making great efforts to ensure that the fruits of the creative labor of the Soviet people are under reliable protection, and our people had the opportunity to carry out ambitious plans to improve socialism and the gradual transition to communism. “The leadership of the CPSU and the Soviet state will do everything to ensure that our people have the opportunity to work in conditions of lasting peace and freedom” [6, c.347], MS Gorbachev said in a speech at the close of the XXUP CPSU Congress.
But no final conclusions do not want something. And so everything is clear to those who carefully read it. Well, he knows how it all ended in 1991 year ...
1. Materials HHUP Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. M., Politizdat, 1986.
2. Marx K. New Exposures in England. - Marx K., Engels F. Soch., T. P.
3. Gorbachev M.S. The immortal feat of the Soviet people. M., Politizdat, 1985.
4. Materials HHUP Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. M., Politizdat, 1986.
5. Lenin V.I. Report on foreign policy at the joint meeting of the Central Executive Committee and the Moscow Council. 14 May 1918 g .- Poly, Coll. cit., t.36.
6. Materials HHUP Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. M., Politizdat, 1986.