Military Review

Indian Armored Forces

20
At present, Indian troops have almost 3500 tanks and several thousand infantry fighting vehicles of various brands. Most of the country's armored vehicles were produced at local factories, which have been producing it for several decades. Most of the tank fleet falls on Soviet and Russian-made vehicles. Only the Arjun Mk.I tank and its advanced version of the Arjun Mk.II can be considered fully Indian development. The armored forces of India consist of 58 tank regiments.


Indian tank building was established at the beginning of the 1960s, when an agreement was reached between the Indian government and the British company Vickers to build a tank factory in the city of Avadi. This plant was commissioned in 1966 year and provided for the Indian army the construction of tanks Vijayanta (Ind. Winner). This tank was the Indian version of the English tank Vickers Mk 1. Initially, Avadi carried out only the assembly of tanks from components and parts that were supplied from England, but later, as Indian engineers acquired the necessary experience, the production of tanks was established in India. By the end of the 1980-s, the Indian industry produced about 2200 such machines. This tank was in service with the Indian army until 2008 year.

Currently, the basis of the country's tank fleet consists of Soviet and Russian vehicles. Most of the BMP is also represented by Soviet BMP-2 machines and their local modifications. India’s land forces are armed with X-NUMX T-600 tanks, X-NUMX T-55X1925 and 72 T-1C tanks. Also, to date, the Indian army has approximately 640 Arjun Mk.I own developed, in total, the military should get 90 such tanks. Another order for 169 tanks involves the purchase of the next modification of the Arjun Mk.II car. After it is completed, the total number of Arjun tanks in the Indian Army will be 248 units.
Indian Armored Forces
T-90C Indian Army

In 2001, India and Russia entered into a licensing agreement for the production of X-NUMX T-1000 tanks in India, but the production of these tanks at the Avadi plant was only possible in 90. By 2009, India’s ground forces should be equipped with X-NUMX T-2020 tanks. Also, by this time, a complete write-off of the T-1657 and T-90 tanks and their replacement with the Arjun Mk.II and FMBT (Future Main Battle Tank) vehicles should occur. Work on the FMBT program Indian tank builders plan to begin in 55 year. At the beginning of 72, a report was published by experts of the auditing company KPMG together with the Union of Industrialists of India, according to which about half of India’s military is obsolete. At the same time 2012% of tanks do not have night vision devices.

Tank Vijayanta

The first tank Vijayanta, the production of which was established in India, had a classic layout: in front - a control unit, in the center - a fighting compartment, in the stern of the tank - a power transmission compartment (MTO). The hull and turret of the tank were welded, and were made of rolled homogeneous armored steel. In front of the hull was a driver's seat, it was offset from the longitudinal axis of the tank to the right (traditionally for countries with left-hand traffic). The rest of the crew was in the tank tower: the gunner and the commander - to the right of the gun, charging to the left.

The basic one weapons The tank was an English 105-mm rifled gun, L7A1, using unitary ammunition with armor-piercing sabotage and high-explosive fragmentation projectiles. The initial speed of the armor-piercing projectile was equal to 1470 m / s. This tool was used on almost all types of Western armored vehicles until 120-mm rifled and smooth-bore guns appeared in Germany and Great Britain. Together with the gun was paired 7,62-mm machine gun, and to determine the distance to the target used 12,7-mm machine gun mounted on the roof of the tower.

In the middle of the 60 of the last century, Vijayanta, like its English prototype, was one of the few tanks that had weapon stabilization in the 2's planes, which was provided with an electric stabilizer. During its operation, the tank was repeatedly upgraded. In particular, the Center for the provision of tank electronics in Madras produced for him a new MSA Mk 1A, which had an improved connection of the sight with the gun, which minimized the backlash between the scope and the gun. Also in the new fire control system was provided a control system of the bend of the gun, which eliminated the misalignment of the axes of the bore and the sight, which could be caused by thermal deformation of the gun. A more advanced MSA Mk 1B was also created, which had a ballistic computer that increases the likelihood of hitting the target with the first shot and a laser sight-rangefinder of English production.
The first Indian-made tank Vijayanta

At the same time, the installation option for tanks of the Yugoslav OMS SUV-T55A, which was intended for the T-54, T-55, T-62 vehicles, was considered. Its production was established in India. Also, the modernization concerned the improvement of the security of the tank, which as a result received modern Kanchan combined armor, created specifically for the Arjun tank. Although Vijayanta is a licensed copy of the tank Vickers Mk. 1, its characteristics were slightly different from the original. The tank's ammunition consisted of 44 shots, 3000 ammunition for an 7,62-mm machine gun coupled with a gun, and 600 ammunition for a large-caliber machine gun.

Soviet-Russian cooperation

Around the same year, when the Indian tank industry mastered the production of Vijayanta tanks, the Indian army received for service from the USSR T-54 and T-55 tanks, which proved themselves very well during the fighting with Pakistan in 1971 year. To ensure the long service life of these tanks, a special tank repair plant was built in the city of Kirche. Currently, the T-55 tanks are still in service with the Indian army.

In parallel with this, the Indian designers carried out work to create their own tank, but this process was slow, not everything could be implemented immediately. In order to keep its tank fleet up to date, the government of India decided to purchase in the USSR a consignment of T-72М1 tanks. Originally it was planned to order a small batch of tanks (about 200 units), but waiting for the start of production in Indian factories own tank Arjun was delayed. As a result, due to the lack of reliability, high cost and the duration of work on its own tank, it was decided to start the production of a licensed copy of the T-72M1 tank in Avadi. The installation batch of tanks left the factory gates already in 1987 year.

The first 175 machines were assembled from kits obtained from the USSR, which provided substantial assistance in the development of Indian heavy industry. The final goal of the Indian designers was to make India produce this tank, using its own resources to the maximum, bringing the share of Indian parts and components in the tank to 97%. Currently, it is the T-72М1 tank, called the “Ajeya”, that forms the basis of the Indian tank park.
Indian Army T-72 Tank

At the beginning of 1997, Russia proposed to install an Arena-E active defense system on Indian T-72М1 tanks, which could be a response to the acquisition of Ukrainian-made T-80UD tanks. The T-80UD tanks were in some respects superior to the T-72, which form the basis of Indian armored vehicles. However, in India it was decided to purchase modern T-90С tanks in Russia and further develop their production under license. Today, India has the largest fleet of T-90 tanks in the world, ahead of even Russia in their numbers. By 2020, the number of T-90C tanks in service with the Indian army will exceed the 1600 units, which will be consolidated into the 21 tank regiment.

Own development - tank Arjun Mk.I and Mk.II

After gaining sufficient experience in the production of licensed tanks, Indian engineers began designing their own tank. The epic of creating the first fully Indian Arjun tank is comparable in duration with the time that the epic Russian hero Ilya of Murom lay on the stove. The development of this tank began in India in 1972 year. Initially, it was created to replace the Vijayanta tanks in the army, but now it will have to change the T-72 tanks. India has attracted well-known foreign companies German Krauss-Maffei, Renk and Diehl (MTU engine, automatic transmission and tracks), as well as the Dutch Oldelft.

The first copy of the machine was ready for 1984 year, at that stage of the project implementation, the cost of it exceeded 6 million dollars. In the future, work on fine-tuning the machine and its tests passed with varying success all 90-s. In this case, the operation of the tank in the Indian army began only in 2011 year. Total defense order provides for the purchase of Arjun Mk.I 248 tanks. The first 124 tanks supplied to the troops were armed with a 2 tank regiment, in which they replaced the Soviet T-55 vehicles.

Indian tank Arjun has a classic layout. The tank driver is in front and to the right, the tank tower is in the center of the hull. The gunner and machine commander are located in the turret to the right of the gun, the loader is on the left. In the stern of the tank installed power plant. Initially, German MTU MB838 Ka-501 diesel engines with 1 400 hp power were installed on the tank, working in conjunction with the Renk automatic transmission. This engine allows the 59-ton car to reach speeds in 70 km / h on the highway and to 40 km / h on rough terrain.
Tank Arjun Mk.I

Serial machines are equipped with a new type of Indian-made Kanchan combined armor, which was created by the Metallurgy Laboratory of the Ministry of Defense of India. Also, tanks are equipped with a system of protection against weapons of mass destruction and an integrated automatic fire extinguishing system, which consists of infrared detectors for fire detection and fire extinguishing systems. This system works during 200 milliseconds in the crew compartment and for 15 seconds in the engine compartment of the tank, increasing its survivability.

Unlike many of their foreign counterparts, the Indian tank is armed with an 120-mm rifled and not a smooth-bore gun. Especially for this gun, the Indian Research Institute of Explosives in the city of Pune created unitary shots with a partially burning cartridge case with an armor-piercing-type, armor-piercing with plastic explosives, cumulative and smoke projectiles. The tool is made of special steel using electroslag remelting technology and is equipped with an ejector and a heat-insulating casing. Together with the gun, the 7,62-mm machine gun is paired, and the 12,7-mm anti-aircraft machine gun is used to combat low-flying targets.

The Arjun tank control system includes a ballistic computer, a laser rangefinder, a thermal sight, a commander’s stabilized panoramic sight, and an additional telescopic sight. According to experts of the 3 generation LMS, together with a twin gun and an electronically controlled sight, the vehicle's gunner can detect, identify, accompany and destroy targets both from the spot and on the move.

The new version of the Arjun Mk.II tank, which should be commissioned by the Indian army in 2014, largely repeats the Arjun Mk.I. The main difference is the large localization of the vehicle. So she should get the engine and automatic transmission of Indian production, and the total share of Indian components should exceed 90%. The main differences of the new version will be: the ability to launch guided anti-tank missiles through the barrel of a tank; new active-reactive armor; new guidance and surveillance systems, as well as thermal imagers and communication systems.

Sources used:
www.armor.kiev.ua/Tanks/Modern/India/india.php
www.army.lv/ru/t-90/726/3794
www.pro-tank.ru/brone-world/india
www.tank.itishistory.ru/2_tank_33.php
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  1. Kars
    Kars April 3 2012 09: 30
    +9
    In principle, for the second tank, Arjun is not bad.
    It’s just interesting why they still put a rifled 120 mm gun --- difficulties in logistics two types of tank calibers 125 for T-90 and T-72 and 120 for Arjun
    1. leon-iv
      leon-iv April 3 2012 09: 37
      +7
      ohh why did they get the defective gene of the english tanks?
      Do not bother, they will cut arjun for a long time. And every year before ordering our tanks. They have a business like that.
      Here they are already thinking of canceling the results of the Rafal tender.
      1. VAF
        VAF April 3 2012 13: 57
        +5
        Quote: leon-iv
        And every year before ordering our tanks. They have a business like that.



        Very accurately noticed, +!

        Here are the latest results:

        The UVZ Corporation for the first time presented abroad a sample of the modernized T-90S tank as part of Defexpo India-2012

        During the presentations and negotiations at Defexpo India-2012, an agreement was reached on the implementation of a number of programs aimed at the acquisition of military-industrial production of UVZ and, above all, the modernized T-90S tank

        The presented sample aroused particular interest among Indian and foreign exhibitors.
        During the Defexpo India 2012, the exposition was visited by the leaders of the Ministry of Defense of India, as well as official delegations of European, Asian and African countries.

        According to Indian and other foreign experts, the presented model of the new tank confirmed the undoubted leadership of the Russian tank construction in creating promising models of armored vehicles,
        1. 755962
          755962 April 3 2012 14: 23
          +3
          According to Life News in the Ministry of Defense, India intends to acquire a batch of Russian T-90S tanks.

          - At the exhibition, the Indian side will get acquainted with one of the tank models. This is not a dummy. He will be tested. The contract has not been concluded yet, but in the near future the transaction will be completed, ”said the interlocutor in the department of Serdyukov.

          The Indians' great interest in the Russian Life News tank was told by the Deputy Director of the Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation Vyacheslav Dzirkaln, accompanying President Dmitry Medvedev at the BRICS group summit (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa).

          - In recent years, we have only been transporting models, but here we brought a real tank - it still says something! - the official told Life News. - It’s too early to talk about the deal, but interest in our tanks is high. According to experts, the Russian side made a very correct marketing move, bringing to the exhibition not a model, but a real T-90S tank.
    2. 9991
      9991 April 3 2012 22: 12
      +2
      Something Arjun does not impress. On the Leopard 2A4 similar
      1. leon-iv
        leon-iv April 3 2012 22: 19
        0
        Akstitsya
        This is a challenger and not an Orthodox Leo
        1. Kars
          Kars April 3 2012 22: 35
          +3
          Have you seen the Leopard 2 A4? Look and attach a photo of the Challenger.
  2. Krilion
    Krilion April 3 2012 09: 54
    15
    the top two photos are very funny .. in the first photo the chairs on the tower look very clear - apparently an indispensable attribute of the T-90S export variant .. in the second photo I still didn’t understand what would come out of the tank barrel ... I apologize for the expression, but what kind is it red-hearted or is it just my bad education? wassat
    1. grizzlir
      grizzlir April 3 2012 10: 12
      +7
      What do you want, Indian mentality. High authorities are supposed to show off on fighting elephants. For lack of elephants ...
      1. komTMG
        komTMG April 3 2012 14: 08
        +2
        The shell hangs. wink
        Probably.
        But why was it painted? what
        1. Zynaps
          Zynaps April 3 2012 19: 19
          +2
          in the army everything should be painted, trimmed and sprinkled with sand. (c)
    2. rait 60
      rait 60 April 3 2012 14: 25
      0
      They have a tank, it’s also probably an elephant.
    3. alex86
      alex86 April 3 2012 21: 20
      +2
      As you do not understand, this shell is shown in the process of firing, so that everyone would understand, and red - because the fire is red by definition, and the shell is hot - it means the same red, everyone understood and inspired everyone !!! lol
  3. ramp
    ramp April 3 2012 12: 00
    +3
    Quote: Krilion
    in the second photo I didn’t understand what would get out of the tank barrel ..

    this is probably a projectile stuck)))
  4. ward
    ward April 3 2012 12: 30
    +4
    The grizzlies are right in their mentality ... Hangouts ... spies ... well, at the same time they know how to fight ... But for the Sins, this is generally the meaning of life ... plus ..
    1. datur
      datur April 3 2012 21: 23
      +1
      ward, Hangouts ... spools ... well, at the same time they know how to fight ..--- yes! yes packs from the time they drove from the heart !!! wink
  5. aksakal
    aksakal April 3 2012 15: 30
    +2
    Quote: Krilion
    the top two photos are very funny .. in the first photo the chairs on the tower look very clear - apparently an indispensable attribute of the T-90S export variant .. in the second photo I still didn’t understand what would come out of the tank barrel ... I apologize for the expression, but what kind it’s red malice or I just have a bad education

    - Exactly, it's cool. Hindus in their role laughing Especially adapt the T-90 to an elephant - something our military commanders didn’t think of before that, but they roll out without problems, even an umbrella, so that the Bosko isn’t baked, they’ll install and ride themselves laughing And the elephant is good smile
  6. vostok-47
    vostok-47 April 3 2012 15: 33
    +2
    The fact that India buys T-90s tanks from us indicates the high reliability of our equipment both in the cold and in the heat .... There is reason to be proud!
  7. vylvyn
    vylvyn April 3 2012 15: 42
    +3
    I recently read an article by some experts that the Arjun, created by the Indians, defeated our T-90 in an indicative tank battle. Yo ... it was so upset.

    True numbers on the number of tanks and infantry fighting vehicles are impressive. At our place, a man, 50 years old, told me how he served on the BMP-2. Their regiment was supposed to arrange demonstrations in front of the Indians, who decided which BMP they bought ours or German. They trained them for 2 months. Summer. Dust. According to the scenario, they had to cross the training ground in a convoy, jump at a maximum speed of 6 meters at a maximum speed and turn into battle formation. We trained every day. And every day the same trouble. They walk in a convoy - dust is a pillar, only the first car sees the road, the others, because of zero visibility, can not stand either distance or speed, they collide, they fail. Vobschem from the side of a terrible sight. They don’t know what to do. 2 weeks before the show, the colonel inspects them. He sees all this mess, gathers everyone to the heap and asks, WHY A mess? Everyone complains, dust, back and forth. In short, we do not know what to do. Oh, you don’t know! Construction in full combat gear (helmets, assault rifles, gas masks, stuff bags, etc.). Become the crew in the convoy. The colonel rises to the hill. And the convoy of carriages by a pawnshop train begins to cut circles around the hill changing construction. By evening, there was already an idea how to reduce the dust factor. They put the cars in a checkerboard pattern. The dust remained, but it was already possible to orientate somehow. On the day of the show, the Indians arrived, ours rushed across the landfill at full throttle, walked in front of the stands with two columns, but from the side it seemed that there was only one column. Jumped over the ditch, turned into battle formation and all things. The Hindus liked it so much that they even applauded while standing. As a result, from the article you yourself see how much they bought BMP-2. But in the course of the Germans did not think of building cars in a checkerboard pattern. Yes, their colonels are far from ours in terms of arranging all kinds of window dressings before the high authorities, especially in painting borders, fences and trees. But this was a rare case when a really good deed was done for our country.
  8. Ohrim
    Ohrim April 3 2012 15: 46
    +3
    Dear, not Sinhi, but Sikhs. These are the names of the Sikhs "Singh" (lion in translation). About the mentality. Hindus love to relax very much. I put up some kind of stall on the road - and immediately a trestle bed with a canopy and tea - reclines, waiting for buyers. And tire service is the same, etc. Even at a construction site, the smallest boss - the foreman - will certainly acquire such attributes. Well, the generals - the Gods themselves ordered ...
    But in general they are good people - children of nature.
    And they know how to fight.
    1. leon-iv
      leon-iv April 3 2012 16: 36
      +1
      know how to fight
      This only applies to Sikhs.
  9. dred
    dred April 5 2012 13: 03
    0
    Hmm, a good technique.
  10. Pessimist
    Pessimist April 6 2012 01: 35
    +1
    The Indians are developing Arjun rather than for the urgent needs of the army, (for this there is a T-90), but for the development of their own tank building! It’s not quite right, it’s expensive and very expensive, but this is THEIR SCIENCE, which does not depend on anyone!