Military Review

Stories about weapons. Rifles of the First World War. Mosin rifle

42



As promised, we continue the series "Tales of weapons". In the near future, with the help of the head of the military-historical club Infanteria, we will acquaint viewers and readers with samples of weapons that took part in World War I on both sides of the front.



The list is quite extensive and interesting. Moreover, thanks to Andrew, we will be able to compare these rifles later.

1. Mosin rifle, infantry version of the model 1891, Russia.
2. Mauser rifle model 1898, Germany.
3. Commission rifle sample 1888, Germany.
4. Winchester rifle model 1895, USA.
5. Arisaka rifle type 38 of model 1905 of the year, Japan.
6. Rifle Lee Enfield model 1907 year, UK.
7. Enfield rifle model 1914, UK / USA.
8. Mannicher rifle model 1895, Germany.

We begin, of course, in all fairness, with the Russian three-line rifle of the 1891 model of the year, or the Mosin rifle.


Major General Sergei Ivanovich Mosin (1849-1902).

A person who has lived a short life and who has given up a large part of this life to the strength and power of Russian weapons. The rifle was significantly ahead of the life of its creator. Even today, the special forces are using the “Mosinka” as a sniper weapon.

Немного stories before moving on to the rifle itself.



The first developments were carried out under the 4,2-linear cartridge for the Berdan rifle, equipped with black powder. The Russian military department frantically searched for new weapons for the army. From 1885 to 1889, about 150 Russian and foreign systems were considered, including the 4,2-Linear rifle of Captain S. I. Mosin's system developed by 1887 of the year with a rack-and-pin ammunition magazine.

The rifle showed good results, but was rejected due to the already mentioned lack of a common for all systems with such stores - the loading time and the difficulty of reloading the store in combat conditions.

The American system was good for blunt bullets only. Pointed bullets, and even with the central battle, could have caused the capsule and shot in the store during the submission of the cartridge.



In 1889, Sergei Ivanovich Mosin proposed a three-line (7,62 mm) rifle, developed on the basis of his earlier single-shot, from which the gate group and receiver were borrowed almost unchanged.

Some ideas of the store's design were borrowed from the Austrian-Hungarian rifle of the Mannicher system with burst loading, which was tested in the same year. The single-row shop was recognized by Russian military specialists as fully complying with all requirements for a modern rifle.



Simultaneously with Mosin, inventor Leo Nagan from Belgium submitted a rifle to the competition. The rifle, however, had by that time lost a number of contests to the Mauser 98, but this did not bother Nagana.

The Mosin rifle was not only not worse, but much better, although Nagan's rifles were notable for their workmanship and assembly. Plus "Mosinka" was pretty cheaper.

So in the 1891 year, at the end of military trials, the Commission developed a compromise solution: a rifle was adopted, developed on the basis of the Mosin design, but with changes and additions, both borrowed from the Nagant design and made taking into account the proposals of the Commission members themselves.

In some sources, the rifle is called: the Mosin-Nagan rifle.

What was taken from Nagan's rifle:

- the idea of ​​placing the feeder on the door of the store and opening it down;
- method of filling the store by lowering the cartridge rounds with a finger;
- grooves for the holder in the receiver;
- the form of the holder for loading;
- fastening the supply spring to the lid of the store;
- the shape of the cut-off reflector.

All other parts were developed by Sergei Mosin or members of the Commission, again, with the participation of Mosin.

The changes borrowed from the Nagant rifle somewhat increased the ease of handling the rifle, but even if they were removed, they did not deprive it of its functionality. For example, if you opt out of the charger loading at all, a magazine can be equipped with one cartridge each. If you disconnect the supply spring from the magazine cover, the cartridges will still be fed, although the risk of losing the spring when cleaning is increased.

Thus, the role of these changes is secondary in relation to the purpose and operation of weapons and does not give grounds to call Nagan the creator of weapons.

One could call the rifle, like the Germans, a commission. “Commission rifle model 1891 of the year”, by analogy with the German “Commission rifle” model 1888 of the year, developed at one time by the commission based on the Mannlicher and Mauser systems.

Since the rifle had parts proposed by Colonel Rogovtsev, the commission of Lieutenant General Chagin, Captain Mosin and gunsmith Nagan, was suggested to give the weapon the following name: Russian trilinear rifle of the 1891 model of the year.

Emperor Alexander III approved the sample, deleting the word “Russian” from behind the Belgian Nagant, so the rifle was adopted as the “three-line rifle of the 1891 model of the year”. Right? I do not know.

Behind Mosin, they left the rights to separate parts of the rifle designed by him and awarded him the Big Mikhailov Prize for outstanding development in artillery and rifle units.

Last name Mosin appeared in the name of the rifle only in 1924 year, under Soviet rule.

Andrey Bondar will tell about the rifle itself.

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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 28 November 2017 07: 52
    +2
    A magnificent rifle that went down in history as a global application in all military conflicts ... and to this day is considered one of the best world models! good
  2. oops
    oops 28 November 2017 09: 36
    +1
    And indeed Mosinka is still used as a sniper rifle. In "Demolition Rancho" a guy from 1000 meters steadily fell into a telomeric target!
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 28 November 2017 14: 12
      +1
      , Man, in computer games and this can not be. Although you can get out of a trelein with a modern sight.
      In films about the war they show that rifles are fired at by airplanes. As a child, I talked a lot with front-line soldiers and asked them, perhaps this or not. Almost always they told me that this could not be in the movies, but one old man told me: theoretically this is possible, but in practice it is 1 in 1000. Experienced fighters knew that the matter was in the speed of the aircraft and in the ability to take a lead on 3 airplane corps. To increase the chance of getting on the plane, volley shooting was recommended. But they did not believe the publications of the army newspapers that they got into a plane from a rifle.
      1. oops
        oops 28 November 2017 17: 11
        +2
        I have never played a comp game. If you haven’t seen the clips from "Demolition Rancho", then don’t mess with the comments ..
      2. moskowit
        moskowit 28 November 2017 20: 06
        +2
        You, dear, read Terkin? There, Twardowski described real exploits. The truth generalized them under the name of one Hero, to whom the name is People!
        "... No, comrade, evil and proud,
        As the law tells the fighter
        Meet death face to face
        And at least spit in her face
        If everything has come to an end ...

        Well, what kind of change?
        That is not a joke - the battle is on.
        He got up alone and beats from his knee
        From a rifle to an airplane.

        Three-line rifle
        On a canvas belt
        Yes ammo with that head
        What is terrible to steel armor.

        The fight is unequal, the battle is short.
        Alien plane with a cross
        He swayed like a boat
        Scooped up board.

        Leaning in a circle,
        Tumbling over the meadow, -
        Do not delay - come on,
        Drive into the ground with a corkscrew!

        The shooter himself looks in fright:
        What did by chance.

        High-speed, military, black,
        Modern twin-engine
        Aircraft - steel tackle -
        Blew into the ground, howling
        Earth globe punch wishing
        And get to America.

        - I didn’t break through, I tried weakly.
        - Apparently, the place was lost.

        “Who shot?” They call from the headquarters.
        Who shot where hit?

        The adjutants dig the earth
        The general breathes into the phone.
        - Find a hero right away.
        Who shot?
        And who shot?

        Who didn’t hide in the trench,
        Remembering all the relatives
        Who is he - his among his own -
        Not an anti-aircraft gunner or pilot
        And the hero is not worse than them?

        Here he stands with a rifle,
        That congratulated him.
        And as if everyone was embarrassed -
        It is not known why.

        Blame, eh, partly?
        And said the sergeant of wonder:
        - That's what happiness means to a guy,
        Look and order, as if from a bush!

        Do not hesitate to answer,
        The guy gives change:
        - Do not worry, the German has this -
        Not the last plane ...

        With this proverbial joke
        The circled battalion
        Passed into the heroes of Terkin, -
        It was, of course, he. "

        A. Twardowski. Vasily Terkin.
        A book about a fighter. Terkin
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 30 November 2017 10: 57
          +1
          Well, let's also bring Twardowski as a historical document. During the two world wars, they may have shot down a dozen, another planes from a rifle, and maybe even a whole one from a pistol - this is not a reason to change anti-aircraft machine guns and guns to rifles.
          The planes were shot like this
          As you can see, approximately a platoon shoots, in the photo both mosquitoes and SVT, and Dekhtari (one even a DT) - determining in such conditions who was hit at all (if they fall at all) is not realistic, but if there are also anti-aircraft guns nearby, then it’s completely. The entire platoon works as one "machine tool", which is already ineffective on airplanes.
          The photo is clearly staged, no one really shoots. Most likely, he studied, one fighter even fell asleep, it seemed tired of everything. And completely in vain tired - at least some kind of fire from the ground is still better than none.
          In short, even a mosquito, at least any other rifle here is completely without a difference.
          PLYSES And another movie like this was "Twice Born" (a good movie by the way) - there the fighter in general was the last patron and without a butt hit the messenger
      3. Anton Capucin
        Anton Capucin 1 December 2017 15: 01
        +1
        The idea is not that it is possible to bring down an airplane. And the fact that the enemy pilot was nervous, made mistakes, and if you also get on the plane, then cause fear of damage to the aircraft. The same thing with tanks, tankers do not know what flies in them, and if it's not a rifle, but something larger. Accidental damage, too, has not been canceled. Yes, it is commonplace for the same foot soldier not to sit and wait for the inevitability, but to do something.
  3. Cat Marquis
    Cat Marquis 28 November 2017 09: 42
    +4
    There is nothing "magnificent" in it. Disadvantages: 1-when reloading the shooter, it is distracted from the aiming line, 2-unsuccessful fastening of the shutter (made so for the convenience of its extraction) led to its poorly trained arrows, 3-shooting with a bayonet-led to firing “into the milk” if removed , 4- "cutter" - an extra part necessary due to an outdated cartridge.
    1. bistrov.
      bistrov. 28 November 2017 10: 49
      +6
      Quote: Cat Marquis
      There is nothing "magnificent" in her

      Well, you are jealous of the fact that the States could not create anything like this, and you had to use the English Lee-Enfield in 2 wars. And your “Winchester” is far-oo to Mosinki.
      Although it has a somewhat uncomfortable fuse, it has unique ballistic data that still allow it to be used. A constantly attached bayonet saved many lives, allowing at any time to poke a close-fitting enemy.
      1. Kibb
        Kibb 28 November 2017 11: 00
        +5
        In fact, in the two world wars, they used Springfield, which comes from Mauser. And they were quite happy with it. (Self-loading, since we are talking about "bolts", we will leave alone for now)
    2. kalibr
      kalibr 28 November 2017 11: 19
      +3
      The Mosin rifle is very popular in the United States, where it became the best-selling weapon in 2012.
      1. Kibb
        Kibb 28 November 2017 12: 56
        +2
        Vyacheslav, it’s cheap, the cartridge for re-rollers is also not expensive, this is not at all a sign of the coolness of a rifle. But it’s not bad - a normal barrel, and for many with charisma, I had the M44. Any attitude of civilians to a particular type of weapon is not a complete assessment for military weapons.
        1. oops
          oops 28 November 2017 17: 52
          +3
          The Carcano carbine (Oswald's weapon) is probably even cheaper than a mosquito, but I can’t remember anyone buying it. I don’t know at all the rifles produced at the beginning of the last century that would be used as sniper rifles now. Only Mosinka !!!
          1. Kibb
            Kibb 28 November 2017 18: 08
            +2
            Carcano was not produced in such quantities, and I doubt that he is interested in anyone other than collectors - the mosquito is still very much more accessible, like the cartridge
            Mauser rifles in hundreds of guises are used as sniper rifles.
    3. Kibb
      Kibb 28 November 2017 11: 20
      +4
      1. There is such a thing, but when reloading gloves in the cold, it will not be interesting for you with any scheme - the rifle is not for special forces, but for the mass army
      2. It quite suits me. A little trained shooter can lose a rifle too - although probably all the same in the minus if you consider that the rifle is for the mass army.
      3. There is no sighting of the rifle - there is a lead to a normal battle. 3.1 -What are the attitudes to the design of the rifle, if that was the requirement of the infantry commanders? Who prevents to "shoot" them differently if the requirements change.
      4. In 1891, the cartridge was not yet obsolete, but it corresponded to the technological capabilities of the Republic of Ingushetia - who knew that it would have to fight two world ones - the question of modernization was ripe immediately after the nuclear war, the construction was not the case here - everyone always and everywhere did.
      She still has flaws. It is not magnificent, but a completely normal rifle that meets its tasks, maybe worse than some others, but it is quite normal, for those tasks for which it was created
      1. Monarchist
        Monarchist 28 November 2017 14: 23
        +2
        On the whole, I agree with you, but with the addition: the main advantage of the Mosin rifle or model 1891/10 is not UNBEATABILITY, but at the front, anyone will tell you that this is the most important thing. So it is with Kalashnikov: he is not the most accurate, not the most beautiful and maybe singing is comfortable, but HE IS UNPLEASANT
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 28 November 2017 15: 14
          +2
          The most interesting thing is that according to the reviews of Mosin, and the reviews of the respected Fedorov,
          she was not particularly unpretentious in the REV and WWI — she had no complaints about her “out of unpretentiousness”. more than a lot
    4. fighter angel
      fighter angel 28 November 2017 12: 43
      +2
      And your “exclusive nation” didn’t think of anything better than ripping off Mauser-98, and under the name “Springfield-1903” put into production the shortest version ...
      1. Kibb
        Kibb 28 November 2017 15: 35
        +3
        They simply bought it, without any “bickering,” and adjusted it to their requirements.
        1. fighter angel
          fighter angel 29 November 2017 09: 48
          +2
          All right, there is no mind and a hand in the wrong place, it’s easier to buy ... But what about the "greatness of an exceptional nation" ??? They couldn’t make a rifle for themselves. Is it not hurt somewhere here "mattress" greatness ???
          1. Kibb
            Kibb 29 November 2017 10: 16
            +2
            They did for themselves, what is the problem I do not understand? The same rifle in 1891 has a cartridge, a barrel and a bolt (although the bolt is so modified that it’s not worth talking about borrowing - it’s a very distant relationship based on Lebel, there are borrowings from Nagan. Haha, invent a bicycle?
      2. figwam
        figwam 29 November 2017 15: 29
        +2
        Quote: fighter angel
        And your “exclusive nation” didn’t think of anything better than ripping off Mauser-98, and under the name “Springfield-1903” put into production the shortest version ...

        The funny thing is that they proudly call their spring rifle Springfield, although they took everything from Mauser, and ours dismissively, Mosin-Nagan, although only the principle of a magazine and a cartridge feeder with great modifications was taken from Nagan there.
    5. anatoliy73
      anatoliy73 30 November 2017 13: 29
      +1
      It seems to me that Mr. Cat Marquis - you appeared here only to "mark the territory." Squirted from under the tail (anyhow stank) - and then "on the cat"! lol
  4. Cartalon
    Cartalon 28 November 2017 09: 46
    +5
    My God, you had a whole series of articles about Mosinka, everyone discussed it and everyone quarreled, why again?
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 28 November 2017 10: 34
      +7
      VO was exhausted in themes and authors, and turned from an excellent military-historical resource into a political platform, it’s a shame
      1. bistrov.
        bistrov. 28 November 2017 11: 08
        +5
        Quote: Kibb
        exhausted in topics and authors

        I tried twice to write articles about nanosatellites and the creation of non-volatile power plants, but did not publish them, I received formal replies. Probably, there’s also “corruption” here.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 28 November 2017 11: 23
          +2
          Quote: bistrov.
          I tried twice to write articles about nanosatellites and the creation of air-independent power plants,

          And the topics are really relevant. Today, Soyuz-2,1b was launched from Vostochny in addition to our two, 17 foreign nanosatellites. That would be interesting to read. Yes, and VNEU, there are several types, and it is also necessary to analyze the advantages and disadvantages.
        2. Kibb
          Kibb 28 November 2017 11: 42
          +3
          I don’t know about corruption, but the topic would be really very interesting.
    2. Fing
      Fing 29 November 2017 14: 17
      +1
      Have you watched the video at all?
  5. kalibr
    kalibr 28 November 2017 11: 24
    +2
    "crossing out the word" Russian "because of the Belgian Nagan"
    Not just because of the Belgian. Initially, the technical task provided for the development of the barrel based on the barrel of the Lebel rifle, which was done by the just-mentioned Colonel Rogovtsey. And he was engaged in a cartridge ... But there is no rifle without a barrel and without a cartridge, these are very important things. With a Mauser rifle there were no problems why? And there everything - both the barrel and the cartridge he created alone. And here there was enough hodgepodge "meat team".
  6. dDYHA
    dDYHA 28 November 2017 12: 52
    +2
    Good rifle. Reliable and simple. It was designed for a soldier from a village who was taught hay, straw. What else do you need?
  7. Monarchist
    Monarchist 28 November 2017 14: 37
    +4
    Actually, the site already had a series of articles about the Mosin rifle and the history of its creation. And another small addition: in fact, Mosinka and Mauser and Anfield and Arisaka participated in WWII and WWII.
    Authors, do not pay attention to my grunts (at work they REACHED: they pay a penny, and you eat at least three years in advance). I look forward to continuing
  8. Curious
    Curious 28 November 2017 14: 41
    +2
    7. Enfield rifle model 1914, UK / USA.
    A magazine rifle of .303 caliber was adopted by the British Army under the designation "Rifle, Magazine, .303, Pattern 1914" (rifle, magazine, caliber. 303, model 1914), abbreviated "Pattern 1914" or simplified "P14" (sample 14).
    Developed by the Royal Small Arms Factory, a small arms arsenal in Anfield, England.
    In view of the lack of production capacity, orders for the production of rifles were placed in the USA at the Winchester, Remington, and Eddystone factories (a division of Remington).
    In service with the US Army was the rifle “United States Rifle, cal .30, Model of 1917” (United States rifle, .30 caliber, model 1917) or in abbreviated form “US Rifle M1917”.
    In terms of its design, the US rifle M1917 rifle was slightly different from its English prototype. In connection with the change of the English .303 British ammunition (7.7x56 R) to the American .30-06 Springfield cartridge (7,62х63), the bolt, magazine and barrel were slightly modified. The target range was reduced from 1650 to 1600 yards. In the American model, they completely abandoned the side sight for salvo shooting at group targets and removed a brass disk with the designation of a regiment on the right side of the butt.
    8. The Manlicher rifle of the sample of 1895, Germany.
    The Steyr Mannlicher M1895 manual-loading infantry rifle, also known as the Infanterie Repetier-Gewehr M1895, was developed by Austrian gunsmith Ferdinand Ritter von Manllicher, who worked at the Steyr arms factory in the city of Shtayr Hungary.
    The specified rifle came to Germany after the Anschluss of Austria in March 1938, during the Second World War a certain amount went into service of auxiliary and security police units (Austrian rifles were used under the name Gewehr 98 (ö), and a number of rifles and carbines captured during the disarmament of Italian troops in 1943 entered service under the names Gewehr 306 (i) and Karabiner 505 (i)); In the autumn of 1944, when the Volkssturm battalions were formed in Germany, 7214 pieces were transferred from reserve warehouses, among other things, to trophy and obsolete weapons. 8 mm Austrian rifles Mannlicher M95.
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 28 November 2017 15: 45
      0
      Explain, did not understand anything?
  9. Usher
    Usher 30 November 2017 13: 06
    +1
    I don’t understand why the obsolete cartridge is still being used? Is it difficult to make another sleeve?
    1. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 30 November 2017 13: 09
      +2
      Quote: Usher
      I don’t understand why the obsolete cartridge is still being used? Is it difficult to make another sleeve?

      Which one? Do you understand that go ahead hens or eggs? Always forward cartridge, and then weapons under this cartridge! Or are you of a different opinion?
    2. Atenaia
      Atenaia 30 November 2017 20: 14
      +2
      Can you suggest? ....))) Yours! The cartridge is excellent .. There is a whole flaw in the rim, but do you understand what will happen if you make a cartridge with a groove? AND? All Trunks will at least serve four times shorter in time. Obturation will no longer be the edge ....)))
      1. Kibb
        Kibb 30 November 2017 21: 52
        +2
        Nothing of the kind, a cartridge with a groove will not do it. Obturation has no effect whatsoever on trunk survivability. The survivability of the barrel is measured not by time, but by the number of shots. Obturation with a hem is generally five. Immediately visible special laughing
    3. Kibb
      Kibb 30 November 2017 22: 14
      +2
      There is only one problem with the rim - certain difficulties in using a weld cartridge in self-loading / automatic weapons. To change it, it made sense either after the civil war, or between wars, or after WWII.
      After the civilian it was clearly not until the change of the cartridge. Before WWII and WWII, too, start a radical rearmament of the rifleman under a different cartridge - this would really be one rifle for three, and not in myths. After the war, there wasn’t much sense anymore - the direct feed in machine guns had already been solved, machine guns and carbines and light machine guns under 7.62x 39, and large-capacity magazines in rifles were not needed - in short, the problem went away by itself.
      With 7,62x54 ballistics, everything is in order - well, what the hell.
  10. Atenaia
    Atenaia 30 November 2017 20: 09
    +1
    The rifle is excellent, the cartridge is excellent. All the disadvantages are compensated by the simplicity of design and manufacturability. Manufacturing technology and design are tied to what already existed in 1891. machine park. The unpretentiousness of the rifle is associated with large processing tolerances, which allows the rifle to work freely in more dirty conditions than Mauser and many others.
    The videos themselves are uninformative, although how many can you tell in a few minutes.
  11. John22
    John22 30 November 2017 21: 58
    +3
    1. As a Nagan rifle until 1889, it could lose a series of contests to Mauser 98, which was developed by 1897.
    2. The author writes: If you disconnect the feed spring from the magazine cover, the cartridges will still be fed. Question: - how? Firstly, there are two springs in the feed mechanism. Secondly - if after removing the spring the cartridge feeding mechanism works - why is it even present there?
  12. Alexex
    Alexex 23 February 2018 10: 58
    0
    Quote: Cat Marquis
    There is nothing "magnificent" in her

    give a request and watch the video "American advertises Mosin rifle" ... and everything will become clear