Soldier, learn to wear your body,
Learn to breathe in the loop,
Learn to boil your coffee
On a narrow wick,
Learn not to remember black eyes,
Learn not to wait for heaven -
Then you will meet the hour of death
Like your Birnam forest.
Boris Lapin (1905 – 1941)
To solve the tasks facing the state security in the war period, people need a very special warehouse, combining the qualities of an illegal intelligence officer and special forces. They must be able not only to destroy the enemy rocket launcher, hijack a submarine or kidnap a high-ranking official, but also with the help of agents to infiltrate its military and industrial facilities, paralyze their activities, disable communications, create centers of resistance and partisan detachments. The first experience of such formations was the Special Group under the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs Lawrence Beria, created in the early days of the war. It was led by Senior State Security Major Pavel Sudoplatov.
In its operational subordination a separate motorized rifle special-purpose brigade (OMSBON) was formed, from which reconnaissance and sabotage groups were sent over the front line. The OMSBON, that is, it was equipped with state security, in which only volunteers from among the KGB and Dynamo athletes were enrolled, became the most effective military unit of the period of the Great Patriotic War. His experience was again in demand with the coming to the leadership of the KGB under the USSR Council of Ministers Yury Andropov. 19 March 1969 of the year passed the organizational design of the Officer Enhancement Course (EMIS). If desired, this abbreviation can be deciphered as “forge equipment”. KUOS was deployed on the territory of the former Special Purpose School (SHON) in Balashikha on the basis of the Higher School of the KGB of the USSR.
At the same time, they were under the operational control of the leadership of the foreign intelligence service of the PGU of the KGB of the USSR and made its special reserve, and only the heads of departments and their staff cadre knew about their passing through the Kuosovsky science staff at the territorial departments of the KGB of the USSR. For all the others, the operative, who already had experience in intelligence work and knowledge of foreign languages, was on a business trip. In the meantime, he received special physical, fire, airborne and mountain training for seven months, studied special tactics, mine explosives, topography and guerrilla warfare experience. Special reserve personnel were trained by people who had experience in agent-operative and sabotage work received during the Great Patriotic War, such as “grandfather of special forces” Ilya Starinov and “Major Vikhr” Alexey Botyan.
Colonel Grigory Boyarinov became the head of the courses and the legend during his lifetime. As the director of the FSB of Russia, General of the Army Nikolai Kovalyov, later put it, “Boyarinov is our icon.” The fact is that Grigory Ivanovich literally lived in courses, personally lined up the whole educational process and was constantly in the thick of things. And since the audience included representatives from all the other KGB units, almost everyone knew him in the bodies. And they didn’t just know, but followed him, as his last attack showed when taking Amin’s palace in Kabul on December 27 of 1979 of the year.
On the eve of Grigori Ivanovich's 95 anniversary, we met with his son Andrei. My father also knew Grigory Ivanovich well, and the commander of the KUOS “Zenith” special group at the storming of the palace of Amin Yakov Semyonov, then the teacher of KUOS, was a friend of our family in general. So, Andrei and I had something to talk about and something to remember.
Of course, it’s impossible to convey our entire conversation in a short article, so below I’ll focus on the key moments of Grigory Boyarinov’s life in the way that Andrei told me about them.
Grigory Ivanovich 15 was born on November 1922 of the year in the village of Sukromlya of the Smolensk region on the very border with the Bryansk region.
To Bryansk there is about 60 km. Boyarinovs lived here for a long time - for several centuries - and were smolkurami. On the left bank of the Voronitsy there is a large mound group of 97 embankments, to the south - another group of 100 mounds. His father, Ivan Lukyanovich, was a participant in the First World War, had a cross for courage, fought in Civil War against Seeds Budyonny, then became chairman of a collective farm. In the beginning. 1930's family moves to Ukraine, in the village of Kirpichnaya near Melitopol. “But relatives remained in Sukromla, and when I finished school in 1973, my father took me there,” says Andrei. - By the way, this characterizes his lifestyle quite well. With us was Alexander Ivanovich Dolmatov, who taught physical training at KUOS. According to the recollections of the listeners, he turned muscles into iron, taught him not to be afraid of massacre. He taught to throw knives and axes at a target, use improvised means in hand-to-hand combat with a stronger opponent and fight simultaneously with six partners. This version of the fight and called: "Dolmatovskaya six." I then drove the car well and was driving. We arrive in the evening, but Grigory Ivanovich did not go to the village, began to observe. We set up a tent a kilometer away, got a gun, I went to get some mushrooms. And near the river - there were some fishermen. Came up, started a conversation. Upon learning that we were Boyarinovs, they threw fishing rods and a bullet into the village. After a few minutes, the crowd is already running towards, including the father’s aunt Arina. That's the whole Gregory Ivanovich - to make every event in life thoroughly, so that it crashes into memory. ”
With my wife Valentina Sergeevna
The village of Kirpichnoye in Ukraine, where the family moved, was located in the zone of residence of German colonists who settled on the coast of the Azov Sea in the 18th century under Catherine, and until 1944, all the villages had German names: Langenthal, Langenau. German colonists built canals here, a tile factory, houses, gardens, a stud farm - then the grandfather was its director - and every year they received prizes in Moscow at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements. But there was no school, and Grisha first, and then with his brother Misha, went to the district center Akimovka to school number 2 - 8 km there and the same number back. And so every day for several years. But in the end, there were only fives and one troika in the certificate in the Ukrainian language. “My father brought me there in 1961, when I was 5 years old. The places there were heavenly, still bloomed, although the Germans were evicted to Kazakhstan before the war, fish was caught in the canals and they were caught in a boat. When I arrived in 2012, I was just horrified. During the years of Ukrainian rule, everything fell apart, the channels were overgrown, the terms were desolate. ”
In 1940, Grigory Boyarinov was called to the Red Army, and in July, 1941, after graduating from the Sverdlovsk military infantry school, he got to the North-Western Front in the region north of Pskov. His first battle, 19, the junior lieutenant Boyarinov, took over the position of the mortar platoon commander of the 1016 Infantry Regiment of the 288 Infantry Division in August. In the fall, he already commanded a company, raised fighters to counterattacks, and personally destroyed a German tank with a grenade. At the end of 1941, they submit him to the Order of the Red Banner - the relevant and only document about him is on the website of the Ministry of Defense. After that, he was seriously injured, as evidenced by a deep scar above his right eyebrow, at the beginning. 1942 of the year was under treatment, and then was an instructor of the front school of snipers. From this moment on there is no information about him in the archives of the Ministry of Defense.
“He shot very well,” says Andrei. - Subsequently, as an adult, he preferred the Stechkin pistol. What I will tell you further is not in his official biography. This is what I heard personally from my father or from his friends. In the school of snipers, he was watched over by the 4-e Directorate of the NKVD, whose chief was Sudoplatov. He had representatives on every front, who were assigned the task of conducting sabotage intelligence in the enemy's rear area and coordinating partisan actions. The North-Western Front, by its conditions, was extremely difficult. On the one hand, there was no solid front line.
On the other hand, the area is marshy, the population is small. He commanded a special squad Shalva Yasonovich Chedia. During the revolution in the Caucasus, he was one of the companions of Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria. Like Nikolai Kuznetsov in the Medvedev detachment, Chedia had a dedicated intelligence officer who was fluent in German and had a bright appearance — tall brown-haired Victor Shumsky. After the war, all three - Shalva, Victor and father - were firmly friends, they loved to play each other, especially since Shumsky worked in the theater. I remember once we met at the zoo, and Chedia, who lived in Riga, was late. And at that moment an announcement was heard in the loudspeakers: "Boy Shalva, you are expected at the aviary with an elephant." Shumsky and Chedia were at the funeral of his father. The director of the film “The Storming of the Century”, which was released last year on the Zvezda channel, got acquainted with the father’s case and said that there was a whole basement about partisan activities. But in the book of Anatoly Tsvetkov “All Life is an Attack,” not a word about it. Apparently, since the times of Khrushchev, such names as Beria and Chedia have been avoided. Then, in fact, the clouds were thickening over the father as well as over all who served with Beria, Merkulov and Sudoplatov. And in the frames my father’s biography was somewhat corrected, but the living witnesses remained. What I heard from them was that the partisan base was located in the area of Vyshny Volochyok.
My mother, Valentina Sergeevna, came to this squad in 1943, as a doctor. There is an article in the newspaper of the North-Western Front, which says that the detachment under the command of Boyarinov made a raid to the rear of the enemy and destroyed the headquarters of the Italian division. Associated with this is another incident that occurred already in the 1970s. The KUOS group comes to the city of Elektrostal at the plant to work out the decommissioning of industrial facilities. The meeting was held in the assembly hall, and the curator from the KGB announces that the workshop manager will now speak. A man climbs onto the scene, limping, looks at his father, and he looks at him. The father says: “Volodya!” - and hears in reply: “Grisha!” - they embrace and cry right before the eyes of the numbed teachers and students of the CRU. It turned out that it was Vladimir Ivanovich Laktionov, who in the winter of 1942, the father, at that moment replacing Chedia, sent to reconnoitre the approaches to the Italian headquarters. When the mission was completed, the route was laid, the whole squad moved forward to perform the combat mission. And suddenly - a minefield, which the enemy set in the last hours. And the operation has already been agreed with the command, this is a war, there is no question of non-fulfillment. The father gives the command to Volodya: “You have been scouting, and you can answer - I can’t do anything. Go ahead!". Volodya crawled first, the rest after him. He had almost passed the field, when suddenly there was an explosion, his leg was badly damaged. Volodya is transported to the rear, and since then they have not known anything about each other until they met on the stage at Elektrostal. Volodya is the Hero of Socialist Labor, the head of the workshop, and Grisha is the KGB colonel, the head of KUOS. Such is the fate. ”
In 1943, Boyarinov was transferred to the NKVD troops for the protection of the rear. Now he is a border guard, the head of the reserve outpost. On his account, the search and liquidation of fascist agents and sabotage and reconnaissance groups, raids to the rear of the enemy in order to capture and neutralize the most dangerous saboteurs and traitors. It required not only military skills, but also the ability to quickly establish contacts with the local population, to acquire reliable assistants from among them. In other words, to comprehend the basics of KGB science.
In the beginning. 1944 of the year began the formation of border units of the newly created North-West Frontier District. At this time in the family Boyarinovs appeared firstborn son Igor. The head of the family now serves as commander of the outpost on the Porkkala peninsula in Finland, where a Soviet military base was established, and then chief of staff of the 106 (Tallinn) Border Regiment. His main task was to protect the sea section of the state border from the breakthrough of the “forest brothers” from Estonia to Finland. Similar cases have become more frequent when the Gulf of Finland is frozen. In this case, the perpetrators used special sleighs (smoke), allowing very fast movement on the ice. One day, on a cold winter day, Captain Boyarinov went out with control functions into an outfit with a young fighter. Moving on skis, they suddenly saw on the snow tracks leading towards the bay. Grigory Ivanovich sent the soldier to the frontier post, while he himself rushed to pursue the violators, dropping the coat. Soon a light-engined plane arrived from the outpost, which found armed people and landed next to Boyarinov on the ice. Without hesitation, he climbed onto the wing and fastened to the cab with a belt. A few minutes later, the pilot again put the plane on the ice with some advance on the way of the violators and flew off to report the situation. Grigory Ivanovich waited for them in the hummocks, jumped forward and loudly commanded: “Stop! Throw weapon! The effect of surprise triggered, and the violators dropped their arms and raised their hands. He took out the closures, and returned the weapon, while removing a short fur coat from one of the violators, and from the other - felt boots. When help arrived on the snowmobile, Grigory Ivanovich escorted the group towards the coast. This case has entered history Soviet border troops as the first example of the interaction of the border guard and aviation when detaining violators.
In 1953, Grigory Boyarinov graduated from the MGB Institute, where he was a group headman and studied with many then well-known KGB agents, including Major Vladimir Andrianov, later Major General, Deputy Head of Personnel of the KGB. After graduating from the institute with honors, Grigory Ivanovich was left there as a teacher. Ilya Starinov offers him the topic of dissertation on the tactics of guerrilla actions in the modern war, and since September 1956, Grigori Ivanovich is an associate of the MV Military Academy. Frunze. He is only 34 of the year, and he is already a colonel.
The dissertation council appreciated the scientific work of Grigory Boyarinov and unanimously voted to award him the degree of Candidate of Military Sciences. The newspaper Frunzevets 14 November 1959 of the year wrote: “The work of Colonel Boyarinov is the result of in-depth research based on a large amount of historical and documentary material, the personal experience of the author of dissertation. It summarizes the many-sided experience of the heroic struggle of partisan formations in the rear of the German fascist invaders during the Great Patriotic War. Of particular interest and integrity of work is that this is the first work in the field of scientific analysis of the methods of forming partisan detachments, the principles of their organization, the tasks they solve, their methods of implementation, the means they use in conducting reconnaissance-sabotage and combat operations, methods of organizing interaction with regular troops. "
In 1961, Colonel Boyarinov became a teacher of the Higher Red Banner School of the KGB of the USSR named after F.E. Dzerzhinsky - now the Academy of the FSB. As Andrei, who was born in 1956, recalls, “at that time we lived at the corner of Avtozavodskaya and Velozavodskaya in a KGB house with one long corridor, kitchen and toilet are common, the water is cold and only in the toilet. Therefore, every week my dad and I went to the Avtozavodsky baths. In addition to our parents, our grandmother lived in our room, and my brother and I — we slept behind a thin partition. Every morning we walked with dad to the Avtozavodskaya metro station, went to Mayakovskaya, where he took me to the KGB kindergarten on the corner of Gorky Street (now Tverskaya) and Fuchik, and walked on foot to the KGB High School on Leningradke. Mom worked as a doctor in the 101-th intelligence school, and after she retired, first as a district physician, and then as deputy head of the district health department of the Proletarsky district. And it was the mother of the district health department that in 1966 had allocated a separate apartment on Val Simonovsky, where we lived until 1978. In 1969, Dad became the head of KUOS in Balashikha. He got up at 5 in the morning and walked 5 km to the “Hammer and Sickle” platform, where the bus arrived. And back from Balashikha he was brought in by a gas car. And so to 1978 year - these were the routine of the head of the top-secret facility of the steepest special forces in the world. He always walked in the form - first flight, then airborne. And in the house, since he came to the "Gazik", everyone knew that there lived a cool colonel. And it must be said that the position of the KUOS in the KGB hierarchy was special. To begin with, they were created by a resolution of the Council of Ministers. In principle, the KUOS graduates are the heirs of the 4 Office of the NKVD Sudoplatov, and Pavel Anatolyevich, freed from the Vladimir Central in 1968, took part in the creation of the KUOS, visited meetings with teachers and trainees. Grigory Ivanovich was also known to everyone who entered the KGB High School. Because the first thing with which the study began was fees based on the “facility” in Balashikha. But only a few were aware that under the “object” foreign intelligence special forces courses — the PSU of the KGB of the USSR — were secreted and that, in the event of war, a special purpose brigade — an analogue of OMSBON — would be deployed on the basis of the “object”. Father and Starinov attracted to work, and Botyan. The man breathed all this.
A huge role was occupied by physical training. He taught me to 6 for years. In the winter through Sunday we got on the tram and went to Zyuzino. Naturally, before this, we, with all the rules, prepared skis with a lamp and mastic. On the track, he put me forward, and when I started to get tired, I overtook me to reach out for him. When I was completely behind, already somewhere in the area of Yasenevo, he stopped, took out a backpack with tea and salsa. And when I got tired again on the way back, my father took out the rope and took me in tow. I also remember the trip to Vyshny Volochyok, where my father fought in the Sudoplatov unit. We arrived there with my mother, pitched a tent. The next day we come to Novgorod, and there we already lost it, because the graduates of KUOS knew that Grigory Ivanovich would come. He told them where he was, and differences arose over distances. They brought a two-mark card, checked it out - Grigory Ivanovich turned out to be right. Then he offers: to dispute any object within a radius of 50 km, which is to the right, that to the left. They ask - he calls. And these were 1970-s - many years after the war. That is, the memory and knowledge of the area were phenomenal. He also coached me at home: in the evening, at dinner, he would unfold a political map of the world and asked to pave the route from Addis Ababa to Kamchatka, tell which countries and cities you pass through, what grows there, and which animals live. That is, it was necessary to prepare, look in the books. Therefore, I already knew more in school than what is written in the textbook of geography. In general, all this pleiad of people who were around their father were extremely enthusiastic and interesting people. I used to go to the “facility”, we even lived there in the summer, went to the officer’s canteen, to the shooting range. Each of them was the best in his case. Starinov, for example, could make explosives from a bedside table - go to the store, buy sugar with potassium permanganate - and that's it. In addition to Dolmatov, Boris Ionovich Vasyukov, a student of Kharlampiev, the creator of sambo, the repeated champion of the USSR, the best of the best, was engaged in physical training. At the request of his father, he showed me the basics of Sambo. And it helped me - in the 8 class I enrolled in the sambo section at the Dynamo stadium, where I worked for two years, and then continued at the Moscow Technical Technical University named after Bauman. Subsequently, it was useful to me in life. Such people were around the father. We raised a toast to his health and 27 December 1979, when we celebrated mom's birthday, and my father was already in Kabul. When we were saying goodbye to 24 of December, he told me: “Consider - no matter what happens, mother is on you” ... Congratulating her, we could not know that it was at that moment that my father was going on his last attack in Amin’s palace. Two days later, when the preparations for the New Year had already begun, my brother came to me at MVTU and brought the sad news that my father was dead. Mom, we talked about it together. Life for her, in essence, ended - her father was her meaning, they were connected by a deep relationship. The Hero Star brought us Kryuchkov home. Well, Yuri Ivanovich Drozdov stood nearby. Handing the award to the mother, Kryuchkov said: “Valentina Sergeyevna, how would you look if we take your youngest to us?” She looked at me. What could I answer after the death of my father? Only one thing: “Honor the honor!” But in 1991, Kryuchkov was in prison, the KGB was gone, the SVR appeared, but under the president, and the president, Yeltsin, who eliminated KUOS, created by my father, on 1993, and transferred Vympel to the police.
And the current authorities are not in a hurry to perpetuate the name of Grigory Boyarinov. But it stands in the same row along with such national heroes as Alexey Stakhanov, Yuri Gagarin or Valery Kharlamov. 27 December 1979 of the Special Purpose Group of the KGB of the USSR Zenit (KUOS) and Thunder (Alpha) for 40 min. They took by storm the Taj-Beck Palace of the President of Afghanistan, which was considered impregnable, and a number of other key facilities in Kabul, thereby changing the political regime in Afghanistan and creating the prerequisites for the successful entry of a limited contingent of Soviet troops into the country. And all this was carried out in absolute secrecy - the Americans, according to radio interception, received only scant information that an unknown unit seized the presidential palace in Kabul. There was no such success in the history of special forces either before or after.
With Boris Vasyukov
The head of the KUOS-Vympel veterans fund, Leonid Smolyar, and other Kuosov and Pennant men have repeatedly pointed out that Grigory Ivanovich could not leave his pupils alone. After all, none of them had a combat experience. It was a psychological overcoming of ourselves, stress, an extreme situation, it was a real fight. Therefore, at least a little bit, but his presence was supposed to help somewhere to fix something, to correct something. This is the feat of a man who valued his people, was responsible for them. To leave his students in this battle, he could not. He was among all, and he, too, died like a hero, jumping out of the building to ask for support. It was the cry of the soul - the Muslim battalion of the GRU was not supposed to participate in the assault, it was to cover. And they responded - a squad of five young guys came to the rescue of the Zenith group. Because before them was a personal example of the warrior Grigory Boyarinov. This must be remembered.
However, there is no monument in Moscow or the street bearing his name. Before 2000, very few people knew about it. And only thanks to Igor Korolev, Chairman of the Board of the Smolensk Vympel-Garant Foundation and the great patriot of Smolensk, in the homeland of Grigory Ivanovich a hand-to-hand fight tournament was held in his name and a street bearing his name appeared. There is evidence that such a street will appear in Balashikha.
But his death certificate still contains the city of Tashkent, and there are no dates of life on the gravestone, although this and the other are no longer a state secret. However, what will be the descendants? According to Andrew, his energy, which was transferred to his sons, grandchildren, all those who studied at KUOS, at the Higher School, who then served in Vympel. Last year, a movie about him was made on the Zvezda channel. In this film, for the first time, beyond the framework of known events, a person appears who has united many and many more to unite, as they say, “with the whole world, with all the people”. The symbol of this union is the smile that the sculptor caught on the bas-relief set on the tombstone of Grigory Boyarinov. Let this smile light the way for all of us, the living, and those who will be after us.
Scout and actor Viktor Shumsky
Right - Shalva Chedia
Andrei Boyarinov, the son of a hero. Right: President of the Vympel Group Association Valery Popov