Military Review

About knight tournaments in detail ... (part four)

47

Herald will say and singer:

"She is the mistress of the heart,
In tournaments fought for her
Invincible spear.
And by her sword was inspired
Who hurt the husband of so many wives:
The hour of death came to the Sultan -
Mahomet did not save him either.
Shining golden strand.
The number of hair does not count, -
So there are no heathen numbers,
Which killed carried. "
Beloved! Honor wins
I give you; I have no glory.
Rather, open your door!
Dressed in the garden night dew;
The heat of Syria was familiar to me
I'm cold in the breeze.
Open your quarters
I brought glory as a gift of love. ”
(Walter Scott "Ivanhoe")


Over time, tournaments from preparation for war turned into a bright and colorful sport with its tote and rules, very, very conditional. In previous materials, it was, for example, about this kind of fight, as rennen. So, already by 1480, a whole range of its varieties appeared, such as: “mechanical” rennen, then “exact” rennen, Bund-rennen, rennen “mixed”, which was also called rennen with a crown spear and, finally, field rennen . All of them had their differences and their own specifics, and the audience understood all this.


"Hard" rennen. The “hard” rennen differed from the others in that the tarch was screwed (see photo) to the cuirass tightly. You just had to break the spear on the enemy’s tarch and knock him out of the saddle, after which he dropped out of the competition. The horse forehead was "blind." (Dresden armory Ward)

Let's start with the "mechanical" rennen, as the simplest. To participate in this fight knight needed a minimum of armor. That is, a Renzoyg armor without braces and leggings, which replaced the pads attached to the saddle, which were called dildzhe. Sleeves - with puffs. Saddle - no high bow.

In this kind of tournament, too, were two varieties. First: "mechanical" rennen with tar ". The essence of the fight was to get into the tarch, arranged in such a way that the spring mechanism hidden under it threw it into the air. It is clear that all this was done in order to amuse the most respectable audience, it had no other meaning.

About knight tournaments in detail ... (part four)

Miniature from the "Art of Athletics" (Volume I and II), manuscript of the mid-XVI century. from the Bavarian State Library. In this treatise of more than 600 pages, more than 120 of color miniatures depicting various types of warfare (Volume I), and in the second volume, types of knightly tournaments. Some scenes are based on real tournaments that have taken place. The miniature depicts the armor for the Bundrennen. It can be clearly seen that no special armor is required for the conquerors, in general, because the target — the tharch attached to the cuirass — is large enough. It is also seen that the face is not protected by anything.

Its type was “mechanical” rented with a breast target. What is the difference, if in any case the goal was a chest tarch? Just in this case, the metal plate fastened on the chest, after the impact of the spear, remained in place, and only the wedges with which it was fixed in the “cocked state” flew out. It was not so spectacular, but safer for the rider. It is important to note that due to the lack of high bows behind, it was not easy to sit in the saddle. And the one who flew out of it along with the target wedges was no longer allowed to the next fights!


Such a duel with the participation of Emperor Maximilian I, who loved this kind of “fight”, was depicted in his drawing by the English artist Angus McBride.

“Exact” rennen differed from the two previous varieties only in that the tharch, curved outward, was fixed on the cuirass on hooks and it was necessary to strike it in such a way as to knock it out of this mount. At the same time he slid up, covering the face of the enemy, then fell to the ground. There was no particular danger in all this, since the helmet had a chin rest. That is, the touche could not touch your face by any means. The tip of the spear was sharp, otherwise it would not have been possible. That is, it was necessary that he stuck in the tharch, and did not slip on it!


"Hard" rennen. Tarche is attached with a screw with a lamb to the chin, and he himself is rigidly screwed to the cuirass! The figures and costumes are amazing! (Dresden Armory) As you can see, the knights are in fact covered in the most minimal way. But the equipment itself is distinguished by extraordinary pomp.


Dilzhe close-up. (Dresden Armory)


The same group, but from the opposite side.


This photo clearly shows the figured tarch and the dilage with a lily, as well as the “skirt”, which was at that time a popular attribute of a knightly costume. But why on the shaft of the spear made the edge, while I can not say. On all previously seen miniatures, the poles of tournament copies are completely smooth. (Dresden Armory)


Here such armor for the above types of rennen was quite enough! (Dresden Armory)

The most dangerous type of tournament in Rennen style was Bundrenn, which was different from others because Renntsoy armor for him was equipped with a special breastplate - Bund, under which there was a spring mechanism, which with a successful blow spear threw a high in the air, and he also scattered into pieces. The danger was that the chin in this case is not worn. Only tournament salad. After all, no one was aiming at the head, but only at the tarch, while the “trajectory” of his movement was also known, because he slid along two rails and flew up without touching his face. But ... It was enough to just forget a little and make a head-first movement when shooting the tarch, as it were possible to easily remain without a nose. So this type of duel was considered dangerous for good reason!

In the "mixed" rennen, one knight put on a shtechtsoyg and armed himself with a spear with a crown tip, and his opponent was in a renntsueg and had a spear with a sharp tip. The task - to knock the enemy out of the saddle.

Participating in the “field” rennen, the knight put on armor with leggings and bracers, that is, in practice it was combat armor. The front bows on the saddles are high, but the rear ones are gentle. Horse masks are often deaf, or rather, "blind." The objective of this fight is to break the spears when they hit the tarchi. The duel was of a group nature. In addition to spears, other weapons were permitted, but not often. Sometimes after the first battle with spears, the knights continued the battle, fighting with blunt swords.

During the reign of Emperor Maximilian I, foot fights of opponents armed with spears but fighting through a wooden barrier became fashionable. Spears - fighting, that is, with sharp tips. The armor is also fighting, but only for the torso. The legs are not protected by armor. The goal of the fight was rather strange - to break the enemy’s spear, and in one fight it was allowed to break no more than 5-6 copies. Naturally, the judges carefully followed, so that no one struck below the belt! Sometimes three pairs had mixed weapons - two spears and four swords, or on the contrary - four spears and two swords.


Rennentsoyg - “armor for rennen”, ca.1580 – 1590. Dresden or Annaberg, Weight. 41,45 kg. (Metropolitan Museum, New York)


Armor for the "new" Italian duel of the end of the XVI century. from the Higgins Museum, in Worcester, Massachusetts.

The influence of the Italian Renaissance was reflected in the conduct of tournaments. The “German Tournament” went out of fashion and by the middle of the XVI century, tournaments according to Italian rules spread everywhere: “free” tournament or “free” rennen and “fight through the barrier”. For the first used conventional combat armor with a lining on the left shoulder. For the second used armor type shtehtsoyg, but in a lightweight version. A helmet is like an ordinary arm. The left arm and shoulder were now defended by a massive piece, and the gauntlet had a huge bell. One of the features of this equipment was the use, as noted above, of conventional combat armor, but with the reinforcement of the helmet on the left side and the use of shteh-tarcha, which had a surface with a diamond-shaped lattice of metal rods. Why is it needed, because with her the spearhead could not slip off? But just for this, so that the crown tip did not slide on its surface, because so ... “more interesting”! And sometimes this removable tarch was decorated with painting, etching and blackening in the rhombic lattice cells, although the armor itself was smooth and devoid of any decorations.


Armor set 1549 of Emperor Maximilian II. (Wallace Collection) Stech-tarch with the bars for the Italian tournament through the barrier.


Equipment for the "new" Italian duel through the barrier. From the tournament book of Hans Burgkmayr the Younger. OK. 1554 (the Princely Hohenzollern Museum in Sigmaringen).


But this is a very interesting photo, with which I can say I was lucky. Photographing a spear is generally difficult - it hurts too long. But even if it succeeds, how to determine their length, if it is not specified? And here was this long German - 192 cm tall, and he agreed to pose for me. Well, and the spear - they are standing behind. On the right in the photo are two identical “swords of war”. They can be called two-handed swords, and often they are called that, but this is not entirely true. These are the swords of the riders, which were required in order to hit the infantryman who fell to the ground, or another rider, using such a sword as a spear. That is why its length mattered. The sword, which is in the middle, with a leather pillow to protect the hand weighs ... 8. 25 kg! Medallions on its top make it possible to attribute it as belonging to Juan of Austria (1547 - 1578), who commanded fleet Holy League at the Battle of Lepanto on October 7, 1571. Such a wide sword could easily chop off a hand in battle or tear down a head.


Knights - participants of the "Saxon tournament." The rod attached to the back shell and to the helmet is clearly visible, which gave this “system” rigidity, which was important when the spear was struck and dropped on the ground. (Dresden Armory)


And this is a knight in "Saxon armor." (Dresden Armory)

Tournament competitions ceased in the 16th century, when knightly cavalry lost its role and was ousted by cavalry pistols and infantry from spearmen and musketeers, recruited from citizens and peasants. The formal reason for banning tournaments in France was an accident that occurred in 1559 at a tournament in honor of the conclusion of peace treaties between France and Spain and Savoy, when Count Montgomery fatally wounded King Henry II with a piece of a spear that hit the king in the eye. True, in Germany they continued until the 1600 year, but it was already an “endangered” sport.

To be continued ...
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  1. Blue cop
    Blue cop 27 November 2017 07: 47 New
    18
    Great sport for big people
    LEARN MORE
    Interestingly
    1. Cat
      Cat 27 November 2017 18: 58 New
      +7
      Yes! Particularly impressed with the "knives" under the fathom length!
      Thank you very much for the article!
      1. Blue cop
        Blue cop 27 November 2017 19: 18 New
        17
        That's right.
        The knife collection itself is. I ordered some, others did in the zone. But these are knives.
        And in the photo - KNIVES laughing
        As soon as small people managed them. If acceleration now. Know not so small were.
        In the meantime, the stirrups were not invented - probably in the saddles were pitching centaurs laughing
        Like Schwartz in Red Son or Conan
        1. Cat
          Cat 27 November 2017 21: 27 New
          +3
          The swords in the photo, I think the infantry. Just knights with horses to plant.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 28 November 2017 00: 19 New
            +2
            infantry "zweikhender" and the features of its application are worthy of a separate article. The best means of riding a knight off a horse (not counting the movie "Conan the Barbarian" fellow ) was either volley firing, or .. line rush! fellow
            1. Cat
              Cat 28 November 2017 05: 25 New
              +3
              Good morning Nikolai!
              As in a proverb - better than a machine gun, only two machine guns!
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 28 November 2017 12: 46 New
                +4
                good afternoon, Vladislav! hi
                yes, therefore, in the absence of a machine gun, they preferred the coordinated shooting of many shooters. fellow Even whole separate types of troops appeared, taking into account national peculiarities - Genoese crossbowmen, English archers. During the time of the shoguns, the Japanese independently reached the advantage of mass shooting, and began to reduce the hunger ..., pah, "barefoot" asigaru into archery units (although initially the bow was the privilege of the samurai), and then the arquebuzirs.
            2. kalibr
              28 November 2017 07: 55 New
              +2
              It is planned, especially since there are photos! But you can already read an article in the journal SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (in Ukraine) -Ballad about two-handed swords. True, then I did not have many photos. And that impoverishes her.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 28 November 2017 12: 42 New
                +3
                SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (in Ukraine) - Ballad of two-handed swords. True, then I did not have many photos. And that impoverishes her.

                that’s why I would prefer to read it, supplemented, on Military Review. And, if possible, also discuss hi
        2. kalibr
          28 November 2017 07: 54 New
          +1
          Average growth was less than now. MIDDLE! But Henry * was 1.80, and there is evidence that others (separate!) Were tall. And someone now ... as I come to the Penza bus station ... no matter what the bus is from the village, then men and women are on my shoulder and lower. And I have 176 now.
  2. Curious
    Curious 27 November 2017 11: 29 New
    13
    “But I can’t say why spears were made on the spear pole. For all the previously seen miniatures, the poles of the tournament copies are completely smooth.”
    It is difficult to come up with some kind of fighting value for the spikes on the pole. Apparently, these spikes are a purely decorative element. Perhaps also some psychological effect on the opponent.
    1. Cat
      Cat 27 November 2017 18: 56 New
      +7
      The trouble with the "spiked" spear is that breaking the structure of the shaft, it becomes fragile. You can arrange an experiment by sticking a shovel with screws.
      1. Curious
        Curious 27 November 2017 19: 42 New
        +5
        For a tournament spear, fragility is not a flaw, but one of the necessary "TTX", preventing the infliction of severe and fatal injuries. This has been achieved in many ways. Perhaps, of course, this is one of them. although if the spikes are simply glued, they are unlikely to affect strength.
        1. Cat
          Cat 27 November 2017 21: 36 New
          +4
          Anything can be? But what was glued, PVA was not, fish ..... unlikely. Perhaps just driven into the shaft. But if you fall on such a comb, it will not seem enough, even in armor. And if such a spike flies into the visor or the eye? Posturing however.
          1. Curious
            Curious 27 November 2017 23: 47 New
            +4
            Even a light spear for an equestrian attack in Rennes had a diameter of 70 mm and weighed 14 kg. Therefore, gluing it with spikes is not difficult.
            As for glue, if we discard archeology, the first mention of glue in the literature appeared around 2000 BC. Further historical records about the use of glue fall on the period starting from 1500 BC. and ending in 1000 BC. e. Artifacts from this period include paintings depicting the bonding of wood and the creation of a variety of caskets.
            And in 1690, a glue production plant was already built in Holland. So there was clearly no problem with gluing.
          2. kalibr
            28 November 2017 07: 49 New
            +2
            This question does not give me rest myself. I read the comments - I came up with: I’ll write a letter to them in the scientific department and I will find out everything. I’ll say “Kotische” asks ... I'm sure they will answer - oh, these Russian names!
            1. Cat
              Cat 28 November 2017 20: 16 New
              +3
              I’ll figure it out, as an option, “spikes” - if they have hats at the base, like nails or stationery buttons, can you tie a metal or fabric strip to the shaft with a spiral twist? At least something like that among the clubs and clubs I met in museums.
  3. burigaz2010
    burigaz2010 27 November 2017 11: 43 New
    +9
    Shpakovsky for photos plus you!
    1. kalibr
      27 November 2017 11: 48 New
      12
      Oh, thanks! Thank you more sensitively! Everyone who, in my opinion, wanted to know about dilge.
      1. burigaz2010
        burigaz2010 27 November 2017 12: 08 New
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        Oh, thanks! Thank you more sensitively! Everyone who, in my opinion, wanted to know about dilge.

        Mr. Shpakovsky, what’s next?
        1. Curious
          Curious 27 November 2017 12: 20 New
          13

          From left to right:
          Thigh shield to protect the hips from hitting the barrier. Con XVI century
          Longer for the right leg. Con XV century
          Lightweight saddle for a rennen tournament. Con XV century
          1. kalibr
            27 November 2017 13: 10 New
            13
            Graphics from a book by Vendalen Beheim of 1995, published in 1898.
        2. kalibr
          27 November 2017 13: 09 New
          12
          Well, in the same article there were two photos of this part at once armor ...
  4. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 27 November 2017 13: 31 New
    19
    Waited for the continuation!
    Since then I have watched several films about the Middle Ages. Aivengo (but not quite modern) was remembered.
    Respect to the author hi
    God grant more such materials
  5. soldier
    soldier 27 November 2017 16: 34 New
    20
    Interesting article and thanks to the author
    The size of the spears and swords is impressive - the guy in the photo is clearly not a kid.
    When we think - what is it like for a person in such armor, it’s even scary to think - how a horse feels under him)
    1. kalibr
      28 November 2017 07: 47 New
      +1
      The guy is 192 cm tall. That's why I Chose it! I saw - I ask - "Help!" - “Than” - “I need you to take a photo on a scale” - OK! - Done. "Your length?" - "My length?" - "Sorry, your height!" - Aah, I realized - 192 cm. "That's how he got here, ha ha
  6. Serge72
    Serge72 27 November 2017 20: 21 New
    17
    Interestingly
    Do we have no such museums?
    The heavy cavalry is very impressive and beautiful.
    Previously, the aristocracy-earned blood status. All my life in the saddle. Although you can respect them.
    And now - they rustle with pieces of paper in grabbing pens, now such an elite
    1. Curious
      Curious 27 November 2017 21: 19 New
      +3
      Interestingly
      Do we have no such museums?

      Почему нет?

      The hall of the eastern and European ceremonial armaments of the XV-XIX centuries of the Armory of the Moscow Kremlin.
      1. Curious
        Curious 27 November 2017 21: 20 New
        +3

        Knightly tournament armor. France, XVI century. Steel, forging, chasing, carving. The Armory of the Moscow Kremlin.
        1. Curious
          Curious 27 November 2017 21: 22 New
          +3

          Full front armor for the rider and horse. Germany, XVI century. Steel, forging, chasing, carving. The Armory of the Moscow Kremlin.
          Armor of the famous Nuremberg metal artist Kunz Lochner.
          This is a gift from the Polish king Stefan Batory to the Russian tsar Fyodor Ivanovich in 1584, about which there is an entry in the archival documents: "In the summer of June 1584, King Stephen Batory's ambassador Leo Sapega donated a golden bracelet to the horse and man."
          1. Serge72
            Serge72 27 November 2017 21: 25 New
            18
            Beauty.
            Thank you for the clarification. hi
            1. Cat
              Cat 27 November 2017 21: 46 New
              +4
              A wonderful collection is in the walls of the Hermitage (St. Petersburg).

              Note both museums: the Faceted Chamber and the Hermitage have a 3D format in the internet! Although live, a song !!!
              1. Curious
                Curious 27 November 2017 22: 13 New
                +3

                Military History Museum of Artillery, Engineering and Signal Corps, St. Petersburg.
                Weapons of Western Europe XV-XVII centuries. (Knight's Hall)
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 28 November 2017 00: 04 New
                  +3
                  Military History Museum of Artillery, Engineering and Signal Corps, St. Petersburg. Weapons of Western Europe XV-XVII centuries. (Knight's Hall)

                  the lighting there is not very, it’s difficult to shoot, it glare with artificial. The windows on the ground floor, small in size, are also insufficient for a lay photographer. Here, there is a photo.
                  1. kalibr
                    28 November 2017 07: 43 New
                    +2
                    By the way, a very good photo that devalues ​​only the glare on the helmet! He is very ... "flashing." Therefore, it is necessary to use photographs mainly from foreign museums.
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 28 November 2017 12: 51 New
                      +1
                      there are lights right in the racks mounted .. recourse glare! and the halls on the ground floor are, yes, dark.
                2. kalibr
                  28 November 2017 07: 41 New
                  +2
                  I have been to all these museums and what can I say. In the Hermitage, not dummies are sitting on horses, but empty armor, which is why their legs are sometimes simply turned out, for example, this is observed by the rider on the left (extreme). It looks very ... ugly. Most of the shop windows in this room are opposite the windows, so it’s impossible to take pictures yourself! In the Artillery Museum, as described below, it is simply dark. It’s difficult to shoot yourself. Agree on professional shooting - you’ll be left without pants. I don’t remember in which, but in some provincial (!!!) museum, 12.700 p. under contract! He was in the Kremlin Armory for a long time, in the 90s. Then photographing there was not allowed. The administration offered me ready-made slides - $ 50 per slide. Like now, I don’t know. I know that for a photo from the archive of the magazine of History of the Illustreidids and the Pushkin Museum in Moscow, 200 p. Five photos - 1000 p. For altruists and non-family members then.
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 28 November 2017 12: 50 New
                    +4
                    For altruists and non-family members then.

                    therefore, one must clearly understand where altruism ends and idiocy begins ... what fanaticism is harmful!
  7. Dimka75
    Dimka75 27 November 2017 21: 31 New
    +4
    Thank you!
  8. polpot
    polpot 28 November 2017 05: 07 New
    +2
    Thank you wonderful article and wonderful photos
  9. Seal
    Seal 28 November 2017 13: 26 New
    +2
    Quote: Curious
    Further historical records about the use of glue fall on the period starting from 1500 BC. and ending in 1000 BC. e.

    Can you imagine at least one such historical record? But only genuine and clearly dated by the time of writing! And not just someone’s opinion: “Historian scientists (spitting on the floor and ceiling) attributed this discovered papyrus to the year 2000 BC”.
    1. kalibr
      28 November 2017 18: 54 New
      +1
      Can you use your post as an epigraph to an article about the writings of the ancients? Please answer in PM.
      1. Curious
        Curious 29 November 2017 00: 45 New
        +2
        It can also be used as an epigraph on other topics.
  10. kalibr
    29 November 2017 07: 43 New
    +2
    Quote: Mikado
    fanaticism is harmful!

    Ah, if everyone understood this!
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 29 November 2017 11: 54 New
      +1
      Ah, if everyone understood this!

      People are different request everyone goes crazy in his own way ...
  11. 1970mk
    1970mk 18 June 2018 11: 57 New
    0
    A photo with a 1.92m man on the background of "murder weapons" is simply impressive))) Then the average height was something around 165cm. Modern man simply can’t wave a boggling iron, and the “dummies” waved and not “just one minute”. This is how healthy they were))
    1. Tsayper
      Tsayper 15 August 2018 11: 46 New
      0
      The average man waved smaller guns, and the feudal lords were all fine with growth. Henry VIII - 188 cm, for example