Military Review

Himself glavkovver

27



Soviet power, inspired by the ideas of the dissolution of the old army and the creation of a new, on the basis of the universal arming of the people, proceeded to military construction, continued the course of the bourgeois Provisional Government for democratization. As a result, the existing armed forces were completely collapsed, and the quality of the socialist army left much to be desired.

Contrary to the generally accepted principle of unity of command, the military organization of the state was entrusted to a collective body - the Committee on Military and Maritime Affairs, established on October 27 1917 by the decree of the II All-Russian Congress of Soviets. The leadership was started by three people's commissars - V. A. Antonov-Ovseenko, N. V. Krylenko, and P. E. Dybenko. They were in equal position. At the same time, none had sufficient training and experience for such a high level of management. The first was a second lieutenant, the only one of the three with a military education, the second was an ensign, the third was a sailor.

The ink on the decree of the congress did not have time to dry, as the committee almost tripled with the addition of voters at the meetings and renaming the Council of People’s Commissars for Military and Naval Affairs, which was soon transformed into the board of the People’s Commissariat only for military affairs. The sailors, led by sailor Dybenko, were released into free navigation.

Collective management was a bit shaky due to the fact that some members of the collegium did not have the opportunity to participate permanently in its work, a quorum problem arose. Therefore, we decided to consider the meeting eligible in the presence of at least three members. Such a scheme was sustained even when the actual leader turned out to be another people's commissar for military affairs, N. I. Podvoisky, since his three colleagues received other appointments. This is evidenced by some orders of the military department, signed by ordinary members of the collegium, and the People's Commissar himself did not stand out of order, as if emphasizing collective responsibility.

By the beginning of spring of next year, according to historian Sergei Voitkov, the main body of military control was "a variety of projects and opinions: not a commissariat, but a discussion club." There was no agreement among the people's commissioners themselves. One noted low business qualities for the management of the military affairs of the other, he spoke about the illegitimacy of the first, the third generally asked the leadership to remove the board from the cases.

If the polyphonic management was a safety net of the authorities to establish a military dictatorship following the example of the French revolution, the commissioners coped with the task of preventing it. But the defense capability of a country in a state of war was further weakened by the decentralization of economic management, the policy of reducing military production and the transition of industry to the output of peacetime products. The old army collapsed completely, and the Red was in a state of becoming.

Vote for demob

At the beginning of work, the Second Congress of Soviets outlined the task of the armed forces, calling on soldiers in the trenches to be vigilant and steadfast, expressed confidence in the ability of the army to defend the revolution from the encroachments of imperialism until the new government achieved a democratic peace. Responsibility for the preservation of the revolutionary order and the strength of the front was assigned to the temporary revolutionary committees created by the troops.

Himself glavkovverBut in the development of the democratic process, the congress takes other decisions that cannot be called anything other than decomposing military discipline. The death penalty on the front is abolished, freedom of agitation is restored. The final collapse of the army accelerated the actions of the executive. Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars V.I. Lenin, the People’s Commissar for Military Affairs and the Supreme Commander Krylenko, in the name of the Government of the Russian Republic, hand over the cause of peace to the soldiers and give the right to military units in direct contact with the enemy to choose who is authorized to enter into negotiations for an armistice .

In the soldier’s mind, already living at the earliest possible end of the war, the idea was strengthened that the question could be considered solved. Army everyday life turns into an endless series of fraternizations, rallies, congresses, polls and resolutions giving rise to initiatives from below, including the arbitrary demobilization, which is more properly called desertion. There was not enough time and discipline even to maintain in the proper order the previously equipped positions and on combat training.

In mid-December, the Council of People's Commissars issued two decrees, on the basis of which all military personnel - from the corporal to the general - were equalized in rights and received the title of a soldier of the revolutionary army, the insignia and awards were canceled. All power in the units and connections passed to the soldiers' committees and councils, and the commanding staff was subject to elections.

According to the Chief of Staff of the Supreme Commander M. D. Bonch-Bruyevich, a general who went over to the side of the new government one of the first, the electoral document terrified him, he, in his words, finished off those pitiful remnants of combat capability, which are still thanks to the amazing properties of the Russian soldier were at the front of the troops. The only thing left for the chief of staff was to write reports to the government, from which it can be seen how rapidly the army began to decompose.

Lenin’s report on the work done at the III All-Russian Congress of Soviets 11 in January 1918 of the year in which the leader said: “The old army, the army of barracks, torture of soldiers, is a thing of the past. It is scrapped and there is no stone left on it. The army was fully democratized. ” For applause, the deputies either forgot that the previous congress addressed the soldiers with the task of vigilance and organization, or did not realize that in such a state the army was no longer able to ensure the strength of the front.

And in the military leadership, the desire for the collapse of the old and the fear of the emergence of a new counterrevolutionary leader prevailed over responsibility for the condition of the troops. Therefore, Krylenko did not accept the proposal of the Chief of Staff to form the most combat-ready units from the remnants of the army in case of an enemy attack. 25 January, he goes further and gives the order on the order of disbandment of the rate. Then, having exceeded his authority and not waiting for the conclusion of peace with Germany, after the breakdown of the negotiation process, he declares about the end of the war, the coming peace and authorizes demobilization. This decision provoked an angry reaction from Antonov-Ovseenko, but the telegram from the chairman of the Council of People's Commissars on the cancellation of the order of the Chief Chief Executive Officer was late.

Green light was given to the enemy. The existing armed force — the remnants of the old and the beginnings of the Red Army — did not withstand the renewed advance of the German forces, which led to the conclusion of peace on conditions that were more demanding than previously thought and degrading for Russia. The former enthusiasm was replaced by irritation, which is noticeable in Lenin's article “A Hard, but Necessary Lesson.” The leader writes about the refusal of the regiments to defend their positions, their flight and chaos, the failure to comply with orders. He reproaches the leaders that the victories in the struggle against the counter-revolution were dizzy and a gigantic disintegration of the army was allowed.

Tried, did not work

A bold recognition of the leader required decisive action for a radical change in the situation. The first decision was the creation in early March 1918 of the body of the strategic management of the army - the Supreme Military Council. A course is being taken for the broad involvement of generals and officers, the refusal to recruit troops on a voluntary basis. The results of the construction of the regular army did not appear immediately - the democratic freemen did not want to retreat and, unfortunately, not everyone, even in the highest echelon of the military power, heeded the changes.

The well-armed detachments of sailors headed by the People’s Commissar for Maritime Affairs Dybenko, who were carrying out the task in the Narva region, ignored the demand of the section of the former former lieutenant-general D. P. Parsky appointed by the defense chief and left the front line without permission. Then, removed from office, the People's Commissar, who was under investigation, got out of control of the central government, left Moscow without permission, and, together with a detachment of sailors, showed the people an example of anarchy, insubordination and opposition.

Difficult to build a military one of the achievements of democracy - the politicization of the army and the multi-party system. A disastrous example was given by the left SR and the former lieutenant colonel M.A. Muravyov, who, being commander of the Eastern Front, organized an insurrection in July 1918, which led to the weakening of the troops and subsequently the loss of a number of cities, including Kazan with gold reserves in Russia.

In connection with this treachery, the positions of opponents of recruiting “former” soldiers into the army strengthened. The ultra-revolutionaries were in favor of electing officers, guerrilla warfare, giving party organizations control over the entire work of the army, demanding that the greetings of the commanders of the Red Army be canceled. The question arose so acutely that it was submitted to the Eighth Congress of the RCP (B), held in March 1919, for consideration. Everything. what could be said about the Red Army in its initial state and impartial for those who created it is expressed in the words of I. V. Stalin: “Half a year ago we had a new army, after the collapse of the old, the Tsarist, it was voluntary, poorly organized, with collective management, not always obeying orders. This was the period when the attack was marked by the Entente. The composition of the army was mainly, if not exclusively, a worker. Due to the lack of discipline in this volunteer army, due to the fact that orders were not always executed, due to the disorganization in the administration of the army, we were defeated. ”

Despite serious mistakes at the beginning of military construction, the government acted with the first people's commissars quite democratically. Perhaps, she understood her responsibility for what happened. At the same congress, Lenin will say: "We tried to create a volunteer army, groping ..."

Everything was limited by the fact that a new governing body was appointed over the board of the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs. Disagreeing with this Krylenko resigned, became a member of the board of the People's Commissariat of Justice and was looking for a former colleague Dybenko to bring to justice. He suffered more than anyone else - although he was acquitted, but he was expelled from the party. Antonov-Ovseenko continued the struggle against internal counterrevolution, and Podvoisky became a member of the Supreme Military Council.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 25 November 2017 07: 39 New
    +3
    Hmm ... by trial and error ...
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 25 November 2017 07: 47 New
    10
    The leadership began to be carried out by three people's commissars - V. A. Antonov-Ovseenko, N. V. Krylenko and P. E. Dybenko. Despite serious mistakes at the beginning of military construction, the authorities acted quite democratically with the first people's commissars.

    It is quite democratic: all three were shot in 1938. Shared.
    In mid-December, the Council of People's Commissars issued two decrees, on the basis of which all military personnel - from the corporal to the general - were equalized in rights and received the title of a soldier of the revolutionary army, the insignia and awards were canceled. All power in the units and connections passed to the soldiers' committees and councils, and the commanding staff was subject to elections.

    What else could the assembly have published that had never worked or led stupidity anywhere?
    Lenin will say: "We tried to create a volunteer army, groping ..."

    Not only the army, they did everything "gropingly", poking one way, then the other. The price of these training experiences is millions of lives.
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 25 November 2017 11: 47 New
      +4
      Olgovich, I agree with you that: "all three were shot in 1938. Share." In fact, Dybenko had to be shot back in December 1917 or January 1918. Judge for yourselves: arbitrarily throws a small part of the defense, actually dysertia, and then he sent Lenin to the forest and the party: "he showed the people an example of anarch, disobedience and opposition." Krylenko also “fundamentally” breaks down the semblance of discipline.
      Okay, Dybenko, though about the dead or nothing or just good, but he didn’t show any special intellect and the sailor was very mediocre, somewhere he met such info. But Antonov-Ovseenko was a second lieutenant and must understand what DISCIPLINE is. His son was in a "clip" with Nikita and actually anticipated the liberals. Now I’m reading to the Kremlin: "Lavrenty Beria, the best manager of the 20th century" and there are examples of his works
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 25 November 2017 12: 01 New
        +5
        Quote: Monarchist
        Judge for yourselves: arbitrarily throws a defensive part, actually dysertia, and then he sent a party and Lenin to the forest

        This one, um. People's Commissar, when he was shot at by his comrades-in-arms on the revolutionary struggle, declared: "I am not an American spy, I DO NOT speak the AMERICAN language!" Such is the people's commissar
        Quote: Monarchist
        But Antonov-Ovseenko was a second lieutenant and must understand what DISCIPLINE is.

        Pardon, WHAT is he second lieutenant ?! In 1904 he graduated from college, and already in 1905, on the way to the front .... fled and hid forever: he is a traitor and a traitor and he deserved a bullet 30 years earlier!
        both his wives, by the way, were also destroyed by their Bolshevik comrades.
    2. kalibr
      kalibr 25 November 2017 15: 41 New
      +1
      Unfortunately, nothing has changed. Remember the end of the 90s. The authorities speak of the collegiality of the Russian people, the catholic traditions and other blah blah ... Suddenly, with the collegiality everything was quiet. Picked up. But the zemstvo trend went on top. It is necessary to restore the zemstvo, the traditions of the zemstvo - blah blah. By 2005, this nonsense reached its peak. So much so that my graduate student on this wave defended her candidate in the zemstvo - "very relevant work for the grudge of the day." And then ... where is this zemstvo now and who is talking about it now? As a drunken Vanka-chauffeur shakes our tops - back and forth ... I wonder what will be lowered from above this time?
      1. Alf
        Alf 25 November 2017 16: 56 New
        +5
        Quote: kalibr
        I wonder what will be lowered from above this time?

        Unity The worker and the oligarch must unite and instead bear the burdens of sanctions.
        1. Victor Red
          Victor Red 25 November 2017 17: 56 New
          +2
          Quote: Alf

          Unity The worker and the oligarch must unite and instead bear the burdens of sanctions.

          More precisely, "unity". And so everything is true.
        2. Severomor
          Severomor 26 November 2017 01: 57 New
          +5
          Quote: Alf
          Worker and oligarch must unite

          This five !!!, even 10 !!!, and the hardships, YES! Workers will carry.
          Let me remind you: For the sake of 300% profit, the capitalist goes to any crime, and you unite)))), good luck in joining, we will combine a lathe that does not belong to the worker, and a 100500 pound yacht belonging to ....
        3. Golovan Jack
          Golovan Jack 26 November 2017 02: 15 New
          +8
          Alf ...

          Just alpha ...
  3. Pashhenko Nikolay
    Pashhenko Nikolay 25 November 2017 08: 27 New
    10
    Another distortion of history? On order No. 1 of the Petrograd Soviet of March 2, did the author hear anything?
    1. moskowit
      moskowit 25 November 2017 16: 45 New
      +6
      You correctly noticed .... This order has already been presented several times in the comments .... As for the "Author", well, it’s not given, it swings, can’t wait .... They don’t want to read or search ... I threw everything crap and sits grinning ....
  4. solzh
    solzh 25 November 2017 08: 41 New
    +5
    Hmm ... As a result: and in the Pacific Ocean I finished my campaign.
    1. Victor Red
      Victor Red 25 November 2017 18: 04 New
      +3
      And really. Who and how would gloat over, the results of the Civil War are obvious and indisputable.
  5. Curious
    Curious 25 November 2017 15: 54 New
    +5
    An interesting process from the historical point of view to build the central military apparatus of Soviet Russia, under whose leadership the Red Army will ultimately win the Civil War, deserves, of course, better coverage than the present article of the level “for Olgovich”.
    1. moskowit
      moskowit 25 November 2017 17: 00 New
      +5
      Thank you very much for the opportunity presented to you to read such an interesting work on providing the Imperial Army .... I have a very interesting question, maybe you have information ... No one and where could answer me when it was decided to move to a new form in the Red Army. Shoulder straps and uniforms were introduced by order of January 6 of 1943 of the year ... But when the decision was made on sewing, making shoulder straps, minting buttons and emblems, galloon braid ... and other other attributes for all the armed forces that make up 10-11 millions .. Which at the end of the 43 of the year everyone was "flaunting" in the form of a new model ..... And the officers also had a casual form in the form of a tunic, cloth bridges and shoulder straps of gold embroidery or silver ....
      1. Alf
        Alf 25 November 2017 18: 11 New
        +2
        Quote: moskowit
        Thank you very much for the opportunity presented to you to read such an interesting work on providing the Imperial Army .... I have a very interesting question, maybe you have information ... No one and where could answer me when it was decided to move to a new form in the Red Army. Shoulder straps and uniforms were introduced by order of January 6 of 1943 of the year ... But when the decision was made on sewing, making shoulder straps, minting buttons and emblems, galloon braid ... and other other attributes for all the armed forces that make up 10-11 millions .. Which at the end of the 43 of the year everyone was "flaunting" in the form of a new model ..... And the officers also had a casual form in the form of a tunic, cloth bridges and shoulder straps of gold embroidery or silver ....

        Check out the series from Wings of Russia — The History of Military Uniforms.
        1. moskowit
          moskowit 25 November 2017 18: 17 New
          +1
          Thank you for your participation ... But there for amateurs ... Too popular .... What do they show from childhood I know .... I need specifics ... You carefully read what I would like to know ???
      2. Curious
        Curious 25 November 2017 18: 27 New
        +1
        It is necessary to delve into the bins. If something is found, I will definitely inform you.
      3. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 26 November 2017 18: 49 New
        +1
        I think a change of form became possible when Lendlis went widely to the USSR. After all, all these copper and instant buttons, buckle plaques, epaulets were made in America. Copper on the bullets, and on the form at the same time, all came from the United States.
        1. Curious
          Curious 27 November 2017 10: 22 New
          +1
          Sorry, Warrior, but about shoulder straps and buttons in America, you really, really ... well, you understand what. Or give a link to the source.
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 27 November 2017 16: 30 New
            +1
            There are very few details about the supply of uniforms for lend-lease.
            15 million pairs of soldier’s boots are noted, and fabrics - cotton and wool - also
            to millions of soldiers. Of them sewed uniforms. It is logical to assume that
            and buttons, sprockets, shoulder straps, buckles, etc. were also Lend-Lease supplies.
            It would be foolish to receive fabrics, but to make buttons ...
            I read about cockades / stars and buttons - I did not find the link.
            Production in the USSR was focused strictly on weapons and ammunition.
            1. Curious
              Curious 28 November 2017 00: 58 New
              0
              Find Khrulev’s memoirs. There is a whole chapter about it. None of America drove a uniform.
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh 28 November 2017 10: 33 New
                0
                I did not write that they were importing uniforms. Got tissue on the form and "components" that
                I have listed. Of these, the USSR sewed uniforms.
        2. avva2012
          avva2012 27 November 2017 11: 30 New
          +1
          Copper on a bullet

          “The tendency to reduce the cost of materials also affected the most widespread Soviet bullet, model 1930. In order to save expensive non-ferrous metals, its shell began to be made of steel coated with a thin layer of brass, zinc or no coating at all. Brass sleeves were gradually replaced by cheaper bimetallic and steel. Brass was used mainly for equipment with special bullets. 1944 g. production of gross cartridges in brass the liners were discontinued. Steel sleeves were most often used with L and D bullets. In the middle of the war, a large number of special bullets for ground troops were equipped in ShKAS sleeves coated to facilitate extraction with colorless varnish. ”Enthusiasm world: Hunting & Arms 01-2010“ Our, three-linear (Part III) ” ps And that the USSR would do without America ....
          1. Curious
            Curious 27 November 2017 13: 27 New
            +1
            "In order to save expensive non-ferrous metals, its shell began to be made of steel coated with a thin layer of brass, zinc or no coating at all. Brass sleeves were gradually replaced by cheaper bimetallic and steel ones. Brass sleeves were mainly used for equipment with special bullets."
            At the same time, in 1983 we received 7,62x54R cartridges in such “zinc” for PCT.

            The cartridges had brass sleeves and were produced in 1943. This indicates production volumes. For 40 years they have not been shot.
            1. avva2012
              avva2012 27 November 2017 14: 47 New
              0
              I don’t know, I looked at several sources. Almost everyone says the same thing. A certain amount was made of brass, of course. That's just with steel sleeves and bullets covered with varnish, it is unlikely that the warehouses began to hammer instead of the shell. Corrosion. That left what was done from colormet.
  6. Seal
    Seal 28 November 2017 17: 21 New
    +1
    Quote: moskowit
    But when the decision was made on sewing, making shoulder straps, minting buttons and emblems, galloon braid ... and other other attributes for all the armed forces, amounting to 10-11 million ..

    "From the memoirs of the Marshal of the Soviet Union A.M. Vasilevsky" P.114.

    In athe end of September or the beginning of October 1942 G.K. Zhukov and I, engaged in the preparation of the offensive operation near Stalingrad, were summoned to Headquarters with the next report. After the discussion of the report was completed and all decisions on it were adopted, Stalin informed us about the GKO’s intention, with the aim of further strengthening and raising the authority of the commanding staff of the army and navy, to establish unity of command in them, to abolish the institution of military commissars, and after that change the form of clothing officers and generals, taking at the same time the old insignia of the old army as shoulder straps - shoulder straps. We were immediately asked to look at samples of this clothing prepared in the next room by Comrade Khrulev. During the inspection was M. I. Kalinin and some other members of the Politburo. Discussing this issue, we were convinced that this was not the first conversation with our leadership on this topic.


    On the issue of the golden thread, it once caught sight that when the question arose about the resumption of production of shoulder straps (back in 1942), another question immediately arose - where to get the gilded twisted thread. Someone (I don’t remember who) remembered about Ogudnevo village (naming from memory, I may be mistaken), whose inhabitants under "tsarism" were just engaged in the development of all these accessories. It seems like someone from the military bosses (from Khrulev?) Came to the village, gathered a meeting, the residents denied for a long time, but then, when they realized that it was seriously about resuming their traditional craft, they assured that they were producing gilt twisted thread and galloons they will resume at least tomorrow, there are production capacities for this, moreover, many have a fair supply of gilded twisted yarn from the time of tsar.

    I looked on the Internet: Ogudnevsky Metal Mesh Plant LLC is a former copper-channel factory of the Trading House of the brothers Ivan and Fedor Pavlovich Titushins. In 1916, 135 workers worked on it - they made copper gimp and brass posture. So the truth is, probably, it.