Military Review

Wings for kettle

27



Deficiencies in the current pilot training system have led to a shortage of professionals in both the military and civilian aviation. In order for aces to be born, serious selection is needed, which is based on mass enthusiasm for the sky. About what we have and how it should be, the Military-Industrial Courier was told by Andrei Sinitsyn, a first-class test pilot, international sports master of the USSR, Hero of Russia.

- For several years at specialized aviation forums, the discussion of which aircraft is needed for the initial training of pilots has not subsided. Some say - the easiest. Opinion of others: now is not the time, and the first flights should be made not on archaic "cloths", but on machines, after which the Boeing or Erbas booth does not look like a curiosity. Your half a century of experience and ability to fly at all what they say about this?

- You can, of course, cite as an example the method of driving schools: there are no simplified cars - what you learn, then you go. But the stages of training seafarers seem more sensible to me, and they are more applicable to aviation, since air and water are an unfamiliar environment for a person who has grown up on the surface of the earth. Future sea wolves are first put into a boat, then they sail under sail, and only after that does the development of modern technology begin. This is not to feed the romance, although it is not the last thing: the oars and sails allow you to understand the unusual element in your gut and just decide whether you are created for the seas-oceans or you are sick of them.

Modern airplanes are not at all those cars that were half a century ago or even less. Now between the pilot and the plane there is another link - the computer, not to mention the other systems present in the chain. These are hydraulic boosters, systems for improving stability, limiters of limit modes, and so on. Many feedbacks from the plane to the pilot are simply cut off. That is, everything that happens in the control circuit, the pilot can represent, but in fact, he actually steers only a computer. And in case of refusal - and it is impossible to foresee all of them - the development of events can be fatal. Therefore, the pilot must be ready to fly the plane and, if the computer fails, be able to use any chance left by the automatics that had stopped. This is an ideal, but how in practice is a big question.

- And the pilots need to start with an air analogue of the rowing boat?

- What is remarkable about the training aircraft, the simplest ones - from the handle or the steering wheel; from the pedals there is a direct link to the controls. And every movement of the pilot is transmitted directly, as is the response of the car to all the manipulations. Such a hard link allows you to feel how the plane lives in the air. And the “flown”, as they say, the pilot already foresees what his or other movement will lead to. No wonder there was an expression "to feel the plane backwards." I don’t know how much to believe, but, they say, the Germans carried out experiments before the war, chopping off the fifth point to the pilots with novocaine or something similar. And as soon as this organ was “turned off”, pilots immediately had difficulty piloting. I am inclined to believe that this is true. The pilot is able to feel changes in the acceleration in hundredths, and he feels them just this very place. Therefore, the basis of the formation of the pilot should be exactly this direct interaction: the pilot - the controls - the "live" reaction of the aircraft. And back - any indignation acting on the plane is parried by the corresponding movement of the controls. This development comes with increasing plaque. When I started back in DOSAAF, they did not let me fly on my own until you worked with an instructor on actions in major emergencies - stalling, spin, landing without an engine. And if the verifier was not sure that the cadet was ready for these negative moments, they were not allowed to fly independently.

- So what, in your opinion, is the most logical and justified chain of training for a man with his mouth open looking at planes, but never flying?

- Let's start with the fact that releasing a professional pilot is a very expensive business, it is more costly than training an astronaut, and even then, I think, not everyone. Therefore, expenses should be minimized as far as possible, at least in the first stage. By entering the school, the future pilot passes the selection - medical, educational, physical training. The commission also analyzes its psychological status: can a person become a pilot at all? But even a suitable status does not at all determine future pilot talents, and it so happens that, in principle, a person is able to fly, but with the start of training he suddenly understands that this is not his business, he did not go there. Including therefore I am sure that the first stage of selection should be carried out on the simplest plane - three instruments and a piston engine. Such a selection is cheap enough, and immediately shows whether a person will fly or not. From the point of view of tactical and technical data, an aircraft of Po-2 type would be perfect. Unfortunately, today I do not know the serial analogs of this legendary car.

During the first year of study, having completed the theoretical minimum necessary lessons and ground training, cadets should get on the simplest machine, which allows them to receive only basic piloting skills. After a month or two of flight, it becomes clear who will be worth something and from whom it will grow. Whose training is really worth investing, and for whom all costs will be empty. And you’ll think whether the main economy will be eliminated, say, 20 percent of those who are not allowed to fly at all, or that they have identified a dozen talents who are destined to become aces and whose further specialization is worth spending on money.
Having accumulated forty hours in the air, the cadet will master the take-off and climb, simple and complex aerobatics, will feel that such a stall and a corkscrew will begin to perform flights along the route. If we are talking about a military flight school, then at this stage the cadet can already be safely sentenced: this one is a potential fighter, the other is a bomber, and the third is a transport worker. I heard conversations that it would be good to organize a Suvorov school with an aviation bias, which means that the guys will be able to fly with an instructor from 14 years. And aviation as a whole is important for the most talented people to go to it, and it is interesting for boys to try themselves in this business. The romance of the sky is great, of course, but when faced with it in real life, many change their point of view. And there will be inexpensive airplanes in the production and operation - it will be possible to check with the sky an order of magnitude more people than now, including in the DOSAAF system.

- The program “Russian - on a plane!” ...

- Why not? For adults and people held in other professions, flights are perceived as a kind of extreme sports, akin to alpine skiing. But who can afford to just learn to fly a pilot and spend free time at the airport? Now - units, very expensive. There will be a budget alternative - I assure you that thousands will be able to realize their dream. This means that the training fleet of the simplest aircraft will be in demand, and in large quantities. Cheap and angry - what else is needed? The main thing - he will give the person the ability to feel the most necessary pilot feel the plane ass. And how successful the commercial production and operation of such an aircraft will be is not a question for me, since the task of the state is to concern itself with its solution to the authorities.

- What is the cadets teaching now?

- Civilian flight schools are buying Austrian "Diamonds", single-engine Diamond DA40 for training and twin-engine Diamond DA42T - already as a final aircraft. Graduation - the one on which the pilot receives a commercial aviation license. These are machines that are full-fledged in terms of avionics and have, instead of a heap of traditional instruments, large information displays - what is called a "glass cabin". Yes, for training an on-board computer operator of an airliner, this is probably more convenient, but not for the education of a real pilot.

- And what, from a small "Diamond" immediately into the cabin of a huge Airbus?

- The further professional growth of the pilot is already the concern of the airlines, with a commercial certificate you are entitled to take the right seat, and then how it goes.

Here, too, there are certain difficulties. In Soviet times, permanent crews were the norm, for which flying was considered one of the most important characteristics. Everyone knew what to expect from colleagues in a given situation. And the commander was directly interested in the fact that his co-pilot constantly grew in flying skills, including safety depended on it. With this formulation of the question, everything looked logical: I graduated from the An-2, flew a certain number of hours in the right-hand seat - entered by the commander. After the corresponding raid in the left seat, he could already change to the right seat of the plane, a class higher - An-24 or Yak-40. And so on.
Today, most airlines practice mixed crews: the commander, coming to take off, may not know who they put him as a co-pilot today. It is clear that from the point of view of management it is more rational. But who is he, this co-pilot, chosen from the list, come see if you have never flown with him. Do I trust him piloting, especially in crucial moments? I doubt it. I do not know his level of training, nor how he progressed or, as it happens, degraded in flying skills, I don’t know how his family has to react to stressful situations ... Yes, in the West it is so accepted, but My opinion is not the best practice. It is in the sense of security, which directly depends on the skill of the pilot and his psychological state. Recall, at least, a catastrophe in the French Alps, when the co-pilot of the Lufthansa A-320 decided to commit suicide, locked himself in the cockpit and sent the plane to the ground. If I am not mistaken, then one and a half hundred people died, and to the question whether their lives are worth the savings that result from the random formation of crews, have everyone answer for themselves.

- With civilian pilots understandable. But military pilots have a different specificity. How do they become asas?

- If you graduated from college as a fighter, then you came to the regiment with the third class or without a class at all. In the best of times, the cadets still mastered the combat vehicles in the school, which they later began to serve in the combat unit: MiG-21, MiG-23, Su-7. Already by this time, everyone had a total 200 hours, and the regiment continued to improve it - flying, flying in the ranks, reducing meteorological minimum, expanding the capabilities of combat use ... As a result, depending on the zeal and talent, the person has grown to first class, and to pilot sniper. And since a fighter is the highest requirements for health and psychological stability, in the event of a slight decrease in physical condition, it was always possible to go to a bomber or transport aircraft. Such transitions were, if not massive, then quite normal. And on multi-seat machines, the improvement system is in principle similar to that developed in civil aviation, with some nuances determining the specificity of combat use.

- Is it implied that after the simplest training aircraft, the next step should be a little more complicated machine and so on?

- Not at all. After our hypothetical, the simplest mass aircraft of those who have passed the preliminary selection, you can safely be transplanted to the jet Yak-130. Why not? It is very easy to fly. Yes, there is a computer involved in the control system, but for military schools this is a plus - on this plane we can train the future fighter pilot right on the fighter, moreover - to give any “fighter” specialization by the end of the training. The control system is rebuilt under the characteristics of a variety of aircraft. You will fly to the Su-27 - here's a plane that fully coincides with the reaction to control from the Su-27. Need MiG-29 - no problem, just change the settings. A more “strangled”, sluggish version of the settings is already in preparation for piloting the bomber. The cabin interior, of course, will be different, but the main thing - the dynamics of the behavior of a particular type of aircraft on the Yak-130 can be completely mastered. And graduate from college already on it.

- In the Vadim Zadorozhny Technology Museum there are handsome UT-1, UT-2. As I understand it, the fighters were then taught according to the scheme U-2 (By-2) - UT-2 - UT-1, and then the combat vehicle ...

- A little bit wrong. After Y-2, basic training was conducted on UT-2. Its appearance was caused by the fact that aviation was rapidly developing, the speeds of combat vehicles grew and the transfer of pilots from the deliberately slow U-2 to I-16, which had been the main fighter of the Red Army for almost ten years, was very difficult. And in the “Spark” UT-2, engineers at Yakovlev Design Bureau succeeded very well in combining design reliability and ease of piloting. At the same time, he had a small margin of stability, because he was very maneuverable and, as a result, quite famously spud. And in those years, the methods for extracting from the corkscrew were not yet properly worked out, and it was at UT-2 that such experience was accumulated by testers very actively. But then it was exactly what was needed, because the plane’s inclination to stall and a corkscrew was the price for increased maneuverability, which became the main advantage of the I-16 “donkey”. After all, they fought on these machines right up to 1943, and they shot down much more sophisticated and high-speed German fighters. And the UT-1, as demanding as a pilot, is more designed for the training of combatant pilots. It was cheaper to operate than the I-16, but very much reminded of its aerobatic properties.

- That is, the Yak-130 fits in the same way with the classical system of training military pilots, as at one time the UT-2?

- It fits better, replacing both the training aircraft for the cadets and the training aircraft for maintaining the flight form in the line units. And it is good that such a machine exists, which is produced in series. If the issue of the mass production of the simplest aircraft is finally resolved, then Russia will have no problems with a sufficient number of good pilots, both civilian and military.

- How does a good pilot differ from a bad one?

- A good one is one that does its work without tension and derives pleasure from it. If doing the same actions, the pilot feels uncomfortable, then he should probably think about it.

- How do you feel that we are now with the pilots - there are few, many, enough?

- The hardest question. In combat aircraft, I think, the deficit. As for airlines, it's hard to figure out. On the one hand, Aeroflot appeals to the government with a request to allow foreign pilots to be hired, on the other - from it and other airlines experienced pilots are massively fired and go abroad, to China for example. To say that the airline lacks exclusively experienced pilots, it is impossible: the commanders are leaving, no one will entice bad ones. And if the salary in our and our own airlines is more or less comparable, then overseas pilots have the same income with less pressure. And this is a very important point. Crews often work wear and tear, their norm comes to 90 hours per month. And in the USSR was 70, do you feel the difference?

In general, there are plenty of pilots now. But if our civil aviation still revives on the scale that we remember from the times of the USSR, the issue of mass education will arise very sharply.
Author:
Originator:
https://vpk-news.ru/articles/40018
27 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Andrey Yuryevich
    Andrey Yuryevich 22 November 2017 05: 57 New
    22
    not enough pilots, not enough turners, welders, milling workers, tool makers
    but, on the other hand, there are enough lawyers, merchandisers and "bloggers" and ... work. is the result of the actions of "effective managers".
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion 22 November 2017 08: 28 New
      +3
      Do you really think that in the USSR all these useless and "useless" people (do you understand anything in the work of a lawyer?) Would people be standing at the machine tools? Whatever the case, they would have rubbed the party’s general line or participated in amateur activities. Anything, just to not strain.
      1. AID.S
        AID.S 22 November 2017 11: 05 New
        +6
        Quote: EvilLion
        Do you really think that in the USSR all these useless and "useless" people (do you understand anything in the work of a lawyer?) Would people be standing at the machine tools? Whatever the case, they would have rubbed the general line of the party, or

        Well, suppose under the Union they would not remain idle. And there were fewer "rubbing the general line" then than now lawyers and others and others.
      2. captain
        captain 23 November 2017 09: 15 New
        +3
        Anecdote to the topic. The politician is asked; where will you go after the reduction in the army?
        - To the police.
        -And if they don’t take it there?
        -In the fire department.
        - And if they don’t take it there?
        -What are you molesting? I won’t work anyway.
      3. Dedall
        Dedall 23 November 2017 22: 18 New
        +3
        But how many control offices have divorced now. In our town, for example, all plants are closed. The people work (actually earns money for party-apartment-tourist trips) only in the police, tax and administration. The rest in the workplace only survive. These include those who do something else at the university, schools and hospitals with clinics. Well, and more pensioners ...
    2. evil partisan
      evil partisan 22 November 2017 10: 31 New
      +4
      Quote: Andrew Y.
      not enough pilots, not enough turners, welders, milling workers, tool makers

      Good whining! am Gradually, the situation is getting better. ZiK is full of youth. And they cope with the work.
      Hi, Polymer! drinks
    3. FID
      FID 22 November 2017 10: 55 New
      +4
      Quote: Andrew Y.
      but enough lawyers, merchandisers and "bloggers

      You forgot the most important - MANAGERS !!!!
      1. Felix99
        Felix99 22 November 2017 12: 30 New
        +5
        Hello from the manager! The system of DOSAAF and flying clubs was destroyed, if you ate to fly in the sky on your plane, the prosecutor’s office immediately landed you for a period of 3 to 5. The political and economic system changed, and the small aircraft in the corral. Simplify the licensing of air travel, when in every million of the population there will be 1000 air carriers, taxi drivers of entrepreneurs, then happiness will come. After the Second World War, the Americans sold the bombers to private hands and the cost of transporting mail and passengers by air was equal to the cost of transportation by rail.
  2. andrewkor
    andrewkor 22 November 2017 07: 08 New
    0
    They told me that at the initial stage of preparation, the most difficult thing is to calculate the parameters of the aircraft landing, many were eliminated on this!
  3. Cat Marquis
    Cat Marquis 22 November 2017 07: 11 New
    +8
    not enough pilots, not enough turners, welders, milling workers, tool makers
    but, on the other hand, there are enough lawyers, merchandisers and "bloggers" and ... work. is the result of the actions of "effective managers".

    "Et, for sure" ("The White Sun of the Desert") .... "Russian on a plane"? yeah, well. Neither airplanes for the people, nor free training in aviation business - NO, and not even foreseen. In addition, the Russian aviation codex is "something with something." This is not for you the United States, where you can fly anywhere, even where there are air lines, only at different levels by notification, where many farms have take-offs, and in Alaska, along with boat moorings, the same berths and slips for seaplanes. My son, somehow wondered (about 3 years ago) how much it costs to train for a light-weight aircraft pilot at a school in Gorelovo — it turned out 460000 rubles (with a touch) ..... now, after the price hike, it’s probably more expensive .. " Go study ",,,,," Russian on the plane "....., yeah.
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 22 November 2017 07: 35 New
      0
      If there is no money for training, then you can study in an aircraft modeling club, not so bad.
      1. Cat Marquis
        Cat Marquis 22 November 2017 08: 19 New
        +4
        Now no one indulges in "models" - not at that time. Now they buy or make drones. Speaking of drones. At one time, my friend wanted to do business with drones, such as a warehouse-store of "spare parts", "parts", "components", and finished products. While he was "swinging", the "frantic printer" prepared a bunch of laws governing documents for this type of activity, reducing everything to strict regulation and licensing, actually equating drones to "firearms" ... well, no matter what happens, all of a sudden someone makes a bomb to the drone and sends them to the crowd .... everything for the sake of man, for the sake of his "safety" ....
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion 22 November 2017 08: 30 New
      0
      In your opinion, how much will the tank of fuel alone, which you burn during training, cost?
      1. Cat Marquis
        Cat Marquis 22 November 2017 08: 43 New
        +5
        This is not about the "justice" or "injustice" of the price of training, but about its "ACCESSIBILITY". “Every Russian is on a plane!”, And “what“ shisha ”, let me ask?
        1. EvilLion
          EvilLion 22 November 2017 08: 51 New
          0
          Are you ready to sacrifice, for example, the availability of education for the sake of access to flight training? The question is precisely in this, in objective value and need.
  4. EvilLion
    EvilLion 22 November 2017 08: 26 New
    +2
    I translate from multi-letter into Russian.
    "If you want to achieve something outstanding, then you need a lot of money." On planes for everyone, on medicine, on schools, on the car industry ...
    1. FID
      FID 22 November 2017 10: 58 New
      +5
      And, because, as our prime minister said, there is no money .... then to hell with you, not with schools, not with planes, etc ....
  5. rkkasa xnumx
    rkkasa xnumx 22 November 2017 09: 03 New
    +1
    To begin with, letting out a professional pilot is a very expensive affair, except for training an astronaut, and even then, I think, not everyone.
    True or not, but I met Old, that the "cost" of an experienced fighter pilot with a flying time of more than a thousand hours is approximately equal to the cost of a new aircraft.
    1. FID
      FID 22 November 2017 11: 00 New
      +2
      More, but God forgive me, a fighter is a "consumable", so ... well, multiply the pilot training at times!
    2. ZVO
      ZVO 22 November 2017 18: 58 New
      0
      Quote: rkkasa 81
      To begin with, letting out a professional pilot is a very expensive affair, except for training an astronaut, and even then, I think, not everyone.
      True or not, but I met Old, that the "cost" of an experienced fighter pilot with a flying time of more than a thousand hours is approximately equal to the cost of a new aircraft.

      The cost of a graduate fighter VVAUL over 7 million dollars. This is the lower limit even for Zimbabwe and Lesotho.
  6. komvap
    komvap 22 November 2017 09: 46 New
    +7
    Without the development of small aircraft (which the greedy and stupid bureaucratic tribe has plagued, where, on orders, and where with tacit approval, compradors from power) this situation cannot be rectified.
    Small aviation is the key to the high-tech development of the country, the development of its richest territories and the basis for the emergence of many talented pilots.
  7. thinker
    thinker 22 November 2017 11: 17 New
    0
    I heard conversations that it would be nice to organize a Suvorov school with an aviation bias ...

    And here they wrote - "A cadet school with an aviation center will open in Moscow." June 25, 2016
    It’s interesting how construction progresses in Monino.
    1. Cook
      Cook 22 November 2017 14: 27 New
      +2
      There will be no shifts in the development of small aircraft until the leadership of the Federal Air Transport Agency, accustomed and continuing to operate mainly with restrictive and prohibitive methods, changes. Well, people do not understand and cannot imagine how everything should be built up, what laws should be adopted and measures taken. Reinsurance and absolute reluctance to take responsibility for decisions taken, plus an almost complete absence of specialists who can correctly write laws. And no clearance yet. As for the training of pilots for GA, the aircraft of the initial training in the late USSR were Yak-18 and L-410. Graduation types An-2, L-410, Yak-40, An-24. Now, of course, these types of aircraft, with the possible exception of Elka, are no longer satisfied with potential employers of future pilots. In my opinion, Diamonds with a modern cockpit, with the function of the initial preparation will cope completely. The idea of ​​a respected tester about the methods of crew formation in the Civil Aviation does not quite reflect the actual state of things. Regarding the lack of pilots and the like: among my friends, the commanders of the aircraft who left to work abroad, about 70%. Location: India, China, Indonesia, Iran, Ethiopia. The overwhelming majority of them, among the reasons for which they still work abroad, did not name the salary at all, but just the competent organization of the work process, the absence of administrative pressure, respect for the work and rest schedule, and the highest authority of the flight crew. I am very impressed by the fact that communication between the flight crew and its management is minimized, and is carried out mainly by e-mail and telephone. If you compare with the constant pulling of pilots in the Russian Federation for all kinds of analyzes and safe days, for all sorts of studies and preparations for VLP / OZP, the constant need to justify and prove that you are not to blame, the constant inconsistencies in work and documents, I fully understand and support my friends .
  8. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 22 November 2017 17: 45 New
    +1
    Deficiencies in the current pilot training system have led to a shortage of professionals in both military and civil aviation
    Blah blah blah...
    Salaries led to deficit. Which are many times lower than in other countries. So the professionals are just leaving. And this is all that can be said on the topic ...
  9. captain
    captain 23 November 2017 09: 19 New
    0
    Good article; simple, accessible and interestingly told.
  10. Radikal
    Radikal 23 November 2017 16: 30 New
    0
    Quote: SSI
    And, because, as our prime minister said, there is no money .... then to hell with you, not with schools, not with planes, etc ....

    good
  11. 1536
    1536 25 November 2017 10: 03 New
    0
    Quote: Dedall
    But how many control offices have divorced now. In our town, for example, all plants are closed. The people work (actually earns money for party-apartment-tourist trips) only in the police, tax and administration. The rest in the workplace only survive. These include those who do something else at the university, schools and hospitals with clinics. Well, and more pensioners ...

    Firstly, how should the "rest" work so that others have enough for "party-apartments-tourist trips", etc.? What is the potential of our people, production, industry and agriculture !? And it’s time for pensioners to introduce a pension tax. And in the future, in general, to provide “worthy old age” to people, and not to “humiliate” them with state payments of this kind, which should be immediately distributed to “party-apartments-tourist trips”. Here is the answer to the modern statement: "We must do something ..."