Military Review

Black Sea Shipyard: years of occupation and recovery after the war

4
June 22 The Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany began. The outbreak of war caught the shipyard named after Andre Marty under the number 1941 fully loaded with its main products - ships. The plant was already working in an enhanced mode: in 198, it was transferred to an eight-hour working day (since 1940 in May 1, the 1931-hour working day was introduced) and a seven-day working week. The company hastily proceeded to the organization of the production of bombs, transfer pontoons and other equipment. At the same time, work on ships whose completion or the slipway period was nearing completion was forced in every possible way.


Black Sea Shipyard: years of occupation and recovery after the war

Heavy cruiser project 82 "Stalingrad" (figure)


29 June 1941 was launched the 48 “Yerevan” project leader. Air defense artillery positions were deployed at the plant. Workers began recording in the people's militia. In total, about 5 thousand people signed up. 8 July 1941 was ordered to the city by the People's Commissariat of Shipbuilding to start the evacuation of the most valuable equipment. The situation on the fronts, meanwhile, continued to remain unfavorable, and ten days later, on July 18, 1941, Moscow received an order for mass and complete evacuation. These days the first train with people and valuable equipment was loaded and sent to Astrakhan.

July 22, 1941 in Nikolaev the Danube ships concentrated flotilla. These were the monitors Zheleznyakov, Shock, Martynov, 17 armored boats, the Kolkhoznik mine base, the Bug headquarters ship, patrol and auxiliary ships and boats. Many units were damaged and had to be urgently repaired. Repair work went on continuously day and night. At the same time, construction of defensive structures on the approaches to Nikolaev began: battalion strongholds on the banks of the Southern Bug and Ingul, bunkers, anti-tank ditches and trenches. At the Andre Marty factory, among other things, two armored trains were equipped.

By the end of July, the following ships were under construction at the enterprise: the 23 “Soviet Ukraine” battleship, the 68 “Ordzhonikidze” light cruisers (on the stocks) and “Frunze” (lowered); the destroyers "Svobodny" and the unfinished project 30 "Ozornoy", the unfinished leader of the destroyers "Kiev" ("Yerevan" was already sent in tow to Sevastopol) - at the input; submarines С-35, Л-23 and Л-24. On the stocks were C-36 and C-37. The icebreaker “Anastas Mikoyan” was preparing for the withdrawal near the building wall.

By early August, 1941 was already threatened by the Wehrmacht to capture the city. Equipment and the most valuable materials, as well as workers and their families, were loaded onto unfinished ships. After that, in tow, they were dragged down through the Dnepro-Bugsky Liman. On August 5, without completing the acceptance tests, the icebreaker Anastas Mikoyan left. 13 August 1941 in the morning 4 from Nikolaev went east to Nikolaev and managed to break through the last echelon with people and material values. In the afternoon, the plant named Andre Marty left the L-24 submarine loaded with equipment and workers' families under diesel engines. At 15, the Danube Flotilla ships began to leave the waters of the city.

In 7 hours 15 minutes in the morning, the Nikolaev radio said to the command that it was shutting down - the Red Army troops were leaving the city. Special subversive teams of sappers carried out a series of explosions of some factory and city facilities. The hulls of the unfinished C-type submarines were set ablaze. The hull of the Ordzhonikidze cruiser that was on the stocks was damaged. 16 August 1941. German troops entered Nikolaev. The occupation of the city began.


The Germans bypass the case of the unfinished battleship of the Soviet Ukraine 23 project. Nikolaev, 1941 year


After the enemy occupied the city, the unfinished ships in the shipyards of the plant were examined first by the military and then by representatives of industry. They were of interest to the Reich only as a source of high-quality steel - there was no question of any additional construction work. Nevertheless, the German administration decided to use as much as possible for their needs the remaining production capacity of Nikolaev enterprises. The personnel issue was resolved in a radical and tough way: the shipbuilders who remained in the city had to go through mandatory registration and return to the enterprise. Refusal or evasion of such a procedure entailed the most stringent punishments - up to the death penalty.

Nikolaev found itself at the junction of two occupational zones: the Romanian Transnistria, whose border ran along the Southern Bug River, and the General District Nikolayev, which is part of the Reich Commissariat Ukraine. Obergruppenführer Ewald Opperman was appointed the commissioner-general of the district. The city with its shipbuilding facilities and a large port was of great importance for Germany. The leadership of not only the Nikolaev shipyards and ports, but also all similar objects occupied by German troops on the territory of the USSR in the Black Sea basin, was not entrusted to the ministry for economic management in the occupied eastern regions, but to the military economy and equipment at the headquarters Kriegsmarine to grand admiral Erich Raeder.

The plant named Andre Marty was renamed the “South Shipyard”. Next to another Nikolaev shipbuilding plant, the plant of the name 61 of the Communard, renamed the "Northern Shipyard", were located the barracks of the Stalag 364 concentration camp. The prisoners of this camp were used in various forced labor, including in shipyards. During the years of occupation, the plant named after Andre Marty functioned only partially: ship repair was carried out on ships of the German and Romanian fleets operating on the Black Sea.

In the city there was a powerful underground, which was also involved in sabotage at shipbuilding enterprises. So, when trying to lift a flooded floating dock, he was disabled without hope of a speedy recovery. The Nikolaev specialists of the mechanic Dock S. Vodash and the engineer of the dock D. Kostin, who were entrusted with this task, consciously went on sabotage and were immediately shot.

In 1942, Nikolayev was visited by the commander of the Kriegsmarine Erich Raeder, high-ranking officers of the German fleet and technical specialists. They inspected the shipyard and the port. The significance of the shipyards available was confirmed, but the impossibility of organizing complex production in the near future was recognized. The stocks were damaged, and the occupiers were engaged in the export of the most valuable, which they could reach: ship steel.


Rader in Nikolaev, 1942


In 1944, the German command hatched plans for organizing the assembly at the Southern Shipyard of the hull of the newest submarines of the XXIII series, the compartments of which were to be fused along the Danube from Austria. However, the military situation for Germany was rapidly deteriorating. 28 March 1944, Nikolaev was liberated from the occupiers. The retreating German units thoroughly worked on the destruction of the city and its enterprises: there were only two survived from the 784 buildings of the Andre Marti shipyard. Cranes and other slipway equipment were disabled. The remaining parts of the corps of the battleship “Soviet Ukraine” and the cruiser “Ordzhonikidze” were undermined. At the time of liberation in Nikolaev there remained no more than 64 thousand inhabitants - a third of the pre-war number.

Under the red banner

Work on the restoration of the shipyard named after Andre Marty began literally the next day after the liberation of Nikolaev. The workers, who were fortunate enough to survive the occupation, were returning to their enterprise. The dismantling of debris and traces of numerous destruction began - in a short time about 2 thousand people took part in these works. The first thing was restored power plant and plumbing. Then came the turn of the boiler room and pumping stations. Little by little, production revived — production began of some spare parts for military equipment. Thus, the reviving plant contributed to the already close victory.

In parallel with the restoration of the enterprise, the factory workers were engaged in repair work in the area. In 1944, the plant was officially renamed the "Order of the Red Banner of Labor Plant named after A. Marti" and subordinated to the People's Commissariat of the USSR shipbuilding industry. After the end of World War II, many workers, craftsmen and engineers returned home.

The first profile post-war products of the still partially destroyed enterprise were 46 pontoons, 2 barges with a displacement of 700 tons and passenger boats. Restored and floated factory icebreaking tug. The first flight he brought in tow from Romania a German-built floating crane and two barges with various equipment and materials.

By the beginning of 1946, 12 thousand people already worked at the shipyard. More than 50 ths. Sq. M. Was restored and put into operation. meters of production space. In 1950, the construction of all-welded Kazbek type tankers with a displacement of more than 16 thousand tons began. The ships, whose construction was started before the war, were being built. So, in December 1950 the fleet of the project 68-to Frunze was handed over to the fleet. On 22 June 1941, his readiness was 38%, and all the years of the war he stood in the bases on the Caucasian coast. The case badly damaged by the war and occupation of Ordzhonikidze was dismantled for metal.


The cruiser Ordzhonikidze at the time of the liberation of Nikolaev, 1944


The Great Patriotic War died down, and the Western allies of those moved to the camp of likely and very unfriendly-minded opponents with vigorous steps. The Soviet fleet, which suffered significant losses and was worn out by intense hostilities, needed to be re-equipped and replenished with new ships. And, as has happened before, in this case of the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, the plant named after A. Marty was to play a significant role.

The Soviet leadership did not abandon the desire to have large artillery ships as part of the Russian Navy even after the war. The fruit of this was the creation of a heavy cruiser project, designated the “82 project”. The ship was designed with the extensive experience of the Second World War, the creation of the unfinished cruisers of the 69 "Kronstadt" project and purchased in Germany and the remaining unfinished heavy "Lutzov" cruiser. The main initiator of the construction of such ships was Joseph Stalin.

The result of the design work was a cruiser full displacement in 43 thousand tons and armed, in addition to the universal and anti-aircraft artillery, nine 305-mm guns. It was decided first of all to build such large ships for limited water basins of the Baltic and the Black Sea. The lead cruiser, dubbed the "Stalingrad", was laid at the André Marti plant (now it was listed as 444 plant) in December 1951. The following year, the same type of “Moscow” was laid in Leningrad.

The construction of the third cruiser, which never received an official name, began in Molotovsk in the autumn of 1952. Again, as with the construction of Soviet Union battleships, the factories that worked to build large and complex ships faced delays in the supply of equipment from subcontractors and counterparties . Despite the personal monitoring of the progress of work on the 82 project by the Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers and the Minister of the Shipbuilding Industry V. A. Malyshev, readiness for the Stalingrad Corps on January 1 1953 was 18,8% instead of the planned 43%. The willingness of the other two ships was even less.


The stronghold of the heavy cruiser "Stalingrad", turned into an experimental compartment target for testing new models weapons


After the death of Stalin, all work on the ships of the project 82 were discontinued. The views on their use were rather vague, besides the command of the fleet in the person of Admiral Nikolai Kuznetsov expressed frank skepticism about the expediency of building such giants. Nevertheless, the unfinished Stalingrad still served the country, but in a slightly different capacity. In 1954, the cruiser compartment representing its stronghold was launched and towed to the landfill. In subsequent years, he was subjected to various tests: shelling by artillery shells of various calibers, torpedoes and cruise missiles, bombing by air bombs. After all of the above, the Stalingrad compartment has retained its buoyancy, which confirmed the high protection performance of the 82 project.

In addition to the construction of the cruiser "Stalingrad", the plant named after Andre Marty worked on other projects of cruisers. The 1949 was generally ready to draft a new light cruiser, which was a further development of the pre-war ships of the Chapaev type. He received the designation 68-bis. The cruisers of this project, with a full displacement of almost 17 thousand tons, were to be armed with twelve 152-mm guns in four towers. All four fleets of the USSR needed to be replenished with similar ships, since the cruisers of earlier projects were rapidly becoming obsolete.

According to the plan, the construction of 25 units was envisaged. Of the Black Sea cruisers in December 1948 of the year, the Dzerzhinsky was laid, in June of the 1950, the Admiral Nakhimov was laid, and in February of the 1951, the Mikhail Kutuzov. These ships became part of the fleet in 1952 – 1955. In the midst of the construction of a series of 68-cruisers in the USSR, the leadership changed - Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, known for his fiercely innovative designs, often of a very dubious nature, became the head of the country.

Khrushchev was very skeptical of a number of traditional types of weapons, including the fleet, considering it almost a relic of the past in the conditions of rapid development of rocketry. The armed forces of the Soviet Union expected a reduction, often unsystematic and unjustified. Research was discontinued in a number of industries, including heavy tanks and long-range artillery.


Light cruiser "Mikhail Kutuzov" project 68-bis on the eternal parking lot in Novorossiysk


Cruisers project 68-bis fully experienced the new trends. In the second half of the 50's. A number of unfinished cruisers in Leningrad and Nikolaev, most of which were in high (more than 70%) readiness, were removed from construction and dismantled for metal. At the Marty plant, it was the cruiser Admiral Kornilov, laid down in 1951, launched in 1954. In 1959, the construction was stopped and, like several of its sisterships, subsequently disposed of. The readiness of the ship at the time of the termination of work was more than 70%. All of the planned 25 ships laid 21, and added only 14. The cruiser built by the plant of Andre Marti "Mikhail Kutuzov" as a museum currently stands at the eternal parking lot in the hero-city of Novorossiysk.

Again submarines

Soviet submarine forces in the Great Patriotic War were used very intensively and suffered in 1941 – 1945. notable loss. They needed to be completed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Pre-war submarine projects increasingly met the requirements of the time when technical development was proceeding at a rapid pace. The need to develop new submarine projects to replace the submarines "C" and "Sh" arose during the war years.

A great influence on the development and design work had an acquaintance of Soviet specialists with German submarines of the XXI series. The unfinished hulls of these submarines, which in their tactical and technical characteristics were among the most advanced ships of their class from the end of World War II, were captured in Danzig. In 1946, the British side handed over four ready-made submarines to the Soviet Union. Based on the materials studied for 1948, the project and the set of drawings of the new Soviet middle submarine, which received the designation 613, was ready. Its displacement was 1055 / 1347 tons, weapons - 4 nasal and 2 stern torpedo tubes. Extreme depth of immersion - 200 meters.


Submarine C-232 project 613 in the waters of the plant. 61 communard in anticipation of conversion into a museum, which did not take place, 80-s. In the background - the building of the Nikolaev regional committee


The construction of the 613 submarines began in 1950 and lasted for 7 years. A number of shipyards of the Soviet Union took part in this process. Most (115 units) was built at the Krasnoye Sormovo plant in Gorky. The second largest builder was the André Marty plant in Nikolaev, who gave submarines to the 76 fleet. The first submarine of the 613 project “C-63” was laid in Nikolaev in April 1950 of the year, and two years later, in May of 1952, it became part of the Black Sea Fleet. This series of submarines was the largest in stories Soviet shipbuilding. From 1950 to 1957, the 215 submarines were built year.

The growing “submarine industry” required an appropriate servicing infrastructure and, among other things, the need arose for floating submarine bases. From October 1955 to June 1960 in Nikolaev at the plant Andre Marti (and later named Nosenko) were laid and subsequently put into operation 7 of the floating bases of the project 310 with a total displacement of 7150 tons. The lead ship was named "Batur".


The head floating base of submarines of the 310 "Batur" project


CSY: submarines, cruisers, battleships and icebreakers
CSY: destroyers leaders and submarines
CSY: recovery after the Civil War
CSY: the first years of Soviet power
CSY: development and decline at the beginning of the 20th century
CSY: foundation and first ships
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  1. BAI
    BAI 21 November 2017 17: 21
    +2
    According to the recollections of the Germans, they were impressed by the skeletons of the ships on the slipways. Surprisingly, judging by the photographs, neither we nor the Germans blew up cranes at the shipyards.
  2. Bronevick
    Bronevick 21 November 2017 18: 06
    +2
    "Soviet Ukraine", yes, there were times.
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 22 November 2017 00: 47
    +1
    M. Surguchev, during the Second World War, the director of the Sevastopol Marine Plant wrote EMNIP in his memoirs. During the evacuation from Nikolaev, the compartments of the L-23 minzag were loaded with the most valuable materials for us: solders, zinc, lead, babbitt and other valuable materials that were useful to us when we reconstructed the ships and vessels of the Black Sea Fleet. I can be mistaken in the boat number, the rest is all right.
  4. Old26
    Old26 22 November 2017 09: 35
    +1
    The article is interesting. The only thing that I will correct is the author’s phrase
    The construction of the third cruiser, which did not receive an official name, began in Molotovsk in the fall of 1952.

    The third was called "Arkhangelsk"