Military Review

Aviation against tanks (part of 13)

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Although at the beginning of the war with the Soviet Union in the Luftwaffe there were a significant number of dive bombers and fighter-bombers, work was underway in Germany to create armored attack aircraft. Such a machine to support their own and destroy enemy tanks developed by order of the Ministry aviation. According to the requirements drawn up by 1937, to reduce the affected area and save weight, the aircraft had to be single. It was proposed to increase survivability through the use of two air-cooled engines. The absence of a defensive firing point to protect the rear hemisphere should have been compensated by escort fighters.

The aircraft, designated Hs 129, first flew in May 1939. The level of security of this machine at the time of creation was not equal. The front of the cab was made of 12 mm armor, the floor was of the same thickness, the cabin walls had a thickness of 6 mm. The pilot was sitting in a chair with an armored seat and an armored headpiece. Transparent parts of the lamp from 75 mm bulletproof glass. The front part of the cab was guaranteed to withstand the shelling of the rifle-caliber armor-piercing bullets, and with a high degree of probability protected it from the fire of large-caliber machine guns. To reduce the mass of the armor, the cabin was designed very tight, its width at the level of the pilot’s shoulders was only 60 cm. Due to the tightness, it was necessary to abandon the installation in the cabin of a normal set of control devices. Due to the limited space on the instrument panel, engine control devices were placed on the inside of the engine nacelles. The collimator sight was placed in an armored casing in front of the windshield. The price for good security was a very bad view on the sides. About how to visually control the rear hemisphere, it was not at all.

The aircraft with a maximum take-off weight of 5000 kg was equipped with two French-made Gnome-Rһone 14M 04 / 05 air-cooled air-cooled engines with an 700 hp power. The maximum airspeed at low altitude without external suspensions was 350 km / h. Practical range - 550 km. Built-in weapons consisted of two X-NUMX-mm guns MG-20 / 151 and two X-NUMX-mm MG-20 machine guns. An external load with a total weight of up to 7,92 kg could be placed on the outdoor sling - including one 17 kg aerial bomb, or up to four 250 kg bombs or AB-250 bomb containers. Instead of a large-caliber bombs or fuel tank, the central hub usually placed a container with an 50-mm MK-24 cannon with ammunition on 30 shells, or a container with four MG-101 X-mmX machine guns. Various variants of interchangeable weapons made it possible to prepare an attack aircraft for combat mission, depending on the specific task.

Tests assault "Henschel" revealed a lot of flaws. The main complaints were cramped and poor visibility from the cab, insufficient thrust-to-weight ratio due to weak and unreliable engines and a small bomb load. In case of failure of one engine, the aircraft could not fly without a decrease in the remaining. It turned out that the Hs 129 was not able to dive with an angle of more than 30 °, in this case the load on the control stick at the time of withdrawal from the peak exceeded the physical capabilities of the pilot. The pilots, as a rule, tried not to exceed the dive angle 15 °. For large values, there was a chance that an airplane with bombs on the external load may simply not go up and crash into the ground. Good stability at low altitude made it possible to accurately fire at the chosen target, but it was impossible to quickly change the flight path.


Hs-129B


As a result, the elimination of deficiencies took about two years. The first aircraft of the serial modification Hs-129B-1 began to arrive in the specially created assault connection Sch.G 1 in January 1942 of the year. The training of the crew took five months, during which three vehicles were broken. In May, 1942, the first German armored attack aircraft took part in hostilities on the Crimean peninsula. Here they were successful, the cockpit's armor successfully withstood shelling from a light rifle weaponsand the absence of Soviet fighters in the sky made it possible to act with impunity. Although combat missions were carried out fairly intensively, only two Hs-129 were lost from anti-aircraft fire in two weeks of fighting in the Crimea. However, in conditions of high dustiness of the air, the reliable operation of the “Gnome-Ronn” motors, which did not have air filters, was revealed. Dust also clogged the propeller sleeves, making it difficult to start the engines. A common occurrence was when the French engines did not give out full power, and often suddenly stopped or caught fire in the air. The vulnerability of retrofit but not covered with armor fuel and oil tanks was revealed.

Measures to improve the reliability of engines and some improvements in the fuel system implemented on the modification of Hs-129В-2. The release of this model began in May 1942. Taking into account the wishes of combat pilots on the Hs-129В-2 made improvements. Due to the installation of additional equipment and engine reservation, the maximum take-off weight of the Hs-129В-2 increased by 200 kg, and the flight range decreased to 680 km. Also changed the shape of the nose of the fuselage, thereby improving the view forward - down. Since December 1942, the aircraft was equipped with gasoline cabin heaters. A striking external difference between airplanes equipped with stoves was a large air intake hole in the forward fuselage.

After the combat debut in Crimea, “Hensheli” was transferred to Kharkov, where they took part in repelling the Soviet counteroffensive in May 1942. Here, the anti-aircraft cover and counter-attack of the fighters was much stronger, and the attack squadrons lost 7 Hs-129. At the same time, according to German data, with the help of 30-mm cannons MK-101, the pilots of "Hensheli" operating in the Voronezh and Kharkov region managed to knock out the 23 of the Soviet tank.

By the second half of 1942, relatively few squadrons, armed with Hs-129 with 30-mm guns, became a kind of "fire brigades" that the German command, with the threat of a breakthrough of Soviet tanks, moved from one front to another. So, November 19 1942, after approximately 250 Soviet tanks broke through the defenses of the Italian troops in the area between the Don and Volga rivers, six Hs 129B-1 were used against them. According to the photo machine guns, in two days of fighting, the Henschel pilots counted the destruction of 10 tanks. However, the combat sorties of armored tank destroyers on this sector of the front could not affect the course of the battles. By the middle of the 1943 of the year, there were five separate anti-tank squadrons Hs 129B-2 on the Eastern Front. To participate in the operation "Citadel" four of them to the beginning of June, focused on a separate airfield in Zaporozhye. At the same time, the staff of each squadron was increased from 12 to 16 aircraft. In total, by the start of the battle near Kursk, it was possible to prepare 68 "tank destroyers". Pilot attack aircraft who fought at Kursk from 5 to 11 in July, announced the destruction of at least 70 Soviet tanks.

As mentioned in a previous publication, conventional 30-mm armor-piercing shells were ineffective against “thirty-four”, and shells with a hard-alloy core were always lacking. In this regard, attempts were made to strengthen the anti-tank weapons Hs-129. By the beginning of the battles near Kursk, new suspended 30-mm MK 103 guns were introduced into the Henschel armament.


Equipment ammunition 30-mm gun MK 103 on Hs-129


Compared to the MK 101 cannon, the MK 103’s firing rate was twice as high and reached 400 rounds per minute, and the ammunition load reached the 100 projectiles. According to the complex of combat characteristics, this was probably the best German aircraft gun. It was distinguished by comparative simplicity of design and wide use of stamping and welding. The weight of the gun was 142 kg, and the weight of the cartridge box on 100 shells was 95 kg.

Although the use of 30-mm shells with a metal-ceramic core, known as Hartkernmunition (it is a hard-core ammunition), was limited, the Henschel pilots achieved some success in the fight against Soviet tanks. During the fighting, an optimal tactic was developed: the attack of the tank was made from the stern, while the pilot slowed down and swooped down on the target, firing from the cannon until the ammunition was completely used up. Thanks to this, the probability of hitting a tank increased, but during a combat sortie it was really possible to hit no more than one armored target. Some experienced pilots allegedly managed to achieve accuracy of shooting, in which 60% of shells hit the target. The timely commencement of the attack was of great importance; this required a great deal of experience, skill and intuition of the pilot, since during a gentle dive it was very difficult to correct the flight of a heavy machine.

To increase the antitank potential, the next step was the installation of an 129-mm X XUMUMX cannon with 2 ammunition shells on the Hs-3B-37 / R3.7 12-gun. However, the already low Henschel flight data after the suspension of 37-mm guns fell. The pilots noted the complicated piloting technique, great vibration and a strong diving moment when firing. Due to the low practical rate of fire, in one attack it was possible to make an 2-4 sighting shot. As a result, the large-scale construction of the Hs-129B-2 / R3 with the 37-mm VK gun 3.7 was refused. The 50-mm VK gun 5 had approximately the same practical rate of fire with a comparable weight, but it was not mounted on the Hs-129.

The 75-mm VK gun 7.5 became the most large-caliber weapon installed on the Henschel. In the autumn of 1943, they tried to use such an instrument on a Ju 88P-1 tank destroyer. But due to the low practical rate of fire, the effectiveness of shooting was low. However, this did not stop the designers of the company "Henschel." Based on the experience of using the 50-mm VK gun 5 in aviation, for 75-mm guns a similar pneumoelectric reloading mechanism was created with a radial magazine for 12 shells (according to other data from 16 shells). The mass of the gun with the mechanism for loading projectiles and ammunition was 705 kg. To reduce recoil the gun was supplied with a muzzle brake.

Aviation against tanks (part of 13)

Layout of 75-mm guns VK 7.5 on the tank destroyer Hs 129B-3 / Wa


Naturally, there was no talk of a suspension yet on any aircraft with an 75-mm gun. From the built-in weapons saved a pair of 7,92-mm machine guns, which could be used for zeroing. Practical rate of fire VC 7.5 was 30 rds / min. During one attack, the pilot, using a telescopic sight ZFR 3В, could produce an 3-4 shot. In different sources, aircraft with 75-mm guns are referred to as Hs-129B-2 / R4 or Hs 129B-3 / Wa.


Tank destroyer Hs 129B-3 / Wa


To install the 75-mm guns on the Hs 129 attack aircraft, we had to use a bulky outboard gondola, which badly damaged the aerodynamics of the aircraft. Although the 75-mm gun VC 7.5, created on the basis of PaK-40L with manual loading, had excellent ballistics and could destroy any Soviet tanks, an increase in take-off weight and drag resistance had the most negative impact on flight data. The maximum flight speed decreased to 300 km / h, and after the shot it decreased to 250 km / h.



Among the pilots, the tank destroyer with the 75-mm gun was given the name Buchsenoffner (German can opener). According to German sources, the effectiveness of these vehicles against armored vehicles was high. Against the background of such statements, a very small number of attack aircraft equipped with 75-mm guns look very strange. Prior to the cessation of the production of all versions of Hs 129 in September 1944, they had time to build 25 units, several more machines were converted from Hs-129B-2.



According to German statistics, the entire German aircraft industry has released the 878 Hs-129. At the same time, on field airfields, in the best scenario, the number of combat-ready attack aircraft did not exceed 80 units. Naturally, given the scale of hostilities on the Soviet-German front and the number of Soviet armored vehicles, such a fleet of anti-tank aircraft could not have a noticeable effect on the course of hostilities. It must be admitted that the Hs-129 possessed good survivability against anti-aircraft guns of the 7,62 caliber and partly of the 12,7-mm. The plane could easily be repaired in the field and quickly repair combat damage. The pilots noted that with the forced landing "on the belly" due to the presence of armored capsules, there were good chances to survive. At the same time, in the absence of a fighter escort, the Hs-129 often suffered heavy losses. Armored "Henschel" was considered very easy prey from our fighters. The combat use of the Hs-129 continued until the beginning of the 1945 of the year, but by April there were almost no serviceable vehicles in the ranks. The Henschel pilots who survived in the Eastern Front meat grinder, for the most part, switched to the FW 190 assault variants

With the advent of the understanding that the war in the East was being delayed, the German command also realized the need to replace the existing fighter-bombers and dive-bombers. The increasing increase of Soviet anti-aircraft artillery and the increase in the number of new types of fighter aircraft led to an increase in losses in the Luftwaffe attack squadrons. At the front, a fairly robust, high-speed aircraft with powerful built-in armament and a decent bomb load was required, capable, if necessary, of standing up for itself in air combat. For this role, the FW 190 fighter with an air-cooled engine was quite suitable. The aircraft was created by Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau GmbH in 1939 and appeared on the Soviet-German front in September 1942.

Fw 190 fighters turned out to be a difficult enemy in an air battle, at the same time, a rather tenacious star-shaped air-cooled engine provided protection for the pilot in front, and powerful armament made him a good attack aircraft. The first modification specially adapted for strikes against ground targets was the FW-190A-3 / U3. On this machine, the canopy of the cockpit canopy was made of bulletproof glass 50 mm thick. Under the fuselage they installed a bomb rack for the suspension of one 500-kg or 250-kg, or four 50-kg bombs. The built-in armament consisted of two MG 17 rifle caliber machine guns in the fuselage and two MG 151 / 20 guns in the wing.

The next massive shock modification Fw 190A-4 / U3 had an engine of increased power BMW 801D-2 and armor protection with a total weight of 138 kg. The pilot was covered with an armor frame with a thickness of 8 mm and a sliding 13,5 mm armored headpiece. The cabin was also protected from behind by an additional armored barrier. To protect the oil cooler, two armor rings were installed on the front of the engine hood. However, due to the increased anti-aircraft cover of the Soviet troops on the Fw 190A-5 / U3 modification, the weight of the armor was reduced to 310 kg. The 5-6 mm thick armor sheets were protected on the sides and bottom of the pilot's cabin, and the lower part of the engine.

In connection with the emergence of a large number of modifications to Fw 190 to avoid confusion, the Technical Department of the Ministry of Aviation introduced in April 1943 a new system of designations. For attack aircraft introduced the index "F", the index "G" got fighter-bombers. Accordingly, Fw 190A-4 / U3 received the designation Fw 190F-1, and Fw 190A-5 / U3 was renamed Fw 190F-2.


Fw 190F-2


On the shock versions of the Fw 190, the 14-cylinder engine of the BMW-801 air-cooled versions C and D was mainly installed. During production, the engine was constantly improved, the power it developed increased from 1560 to 1700 l. with. In May, the 1943 of the year went to the Fw 190F-3 series with a BMW 801D-2 engine with a power 1700 hp. Thanks to a more powerful engine and refined aerodynamics, the maximum speed of the aircraft compared to the previous modification increased by 20 km / h.


Fw 190F-3


Fw 190F-3 with a maximum take-off weight of 4925 kg had a range of 530 km. The flight speed with one 250 kg bomb was 585 km / h. After dropping the bomb load, the plane could reach speed in a horizontal flight of 630 km / h. Thus, the attack aircraft, having bombed off in 1943, had every chance of breaking away from the Soviet fighters.

With good security and good flight data, the first Fw 190 assault modifications were inferior in accuracy to the bombing of the Ju-87 dive bombers, and the 20-mm guns could only fight with lightly armored vehicles. In this regard, the question arose of enhancing the shock potential of the “Focke-Wolf”.


Fw 190F-8


On the next serial modification of the Fw 190F-8 attack aircraft, created on the basis of the Fw 190А-8 fighter, machine guns of rifle caliber replaced the 13-mm MG 131. In the overload version, the bomb load reached 700 kg. Instead of bombs on the wing nodes of the Fw 190F-8 / R3 modification, two 30-mm MK 103 cannons with 32 rounds of ammunition were suspended on the barrel.


Fw 190F-8 with 30-mm MK 103 guns


The use of 30-mm guns increased the anti-tank potential, but due to the increase in drag, the maximum speed now did not exceed 600 km / h. In addition, the weight of each gun MK 103 with ammunition approached the 200 kg, and their placement on the wing made the plane "thoughtful" when performing maneuvers. In addition, for effective shooting at the tanks it was necessary to have a high flight qualification. The best option was to attack the tank from the stern, at an angle of about 30-40 °. That is, not too hollow, but not cool to easily get out of the peak after the attack. Taking into account the fact that the plane quickly accelerated on a dive and sank heavily when leaving it, it was necessary to carefully control the height and speed of flight. Accurate data on the number of built Fw 190F-8 / R3 could not be found, but, apparently, there were not too many of them.

At the beginning of serial production, the Fw 190F-8 attack aircraft had the same booking scheme as the Fw 190F-3. But the aircraft, over-heavy armor, hopelessly lost in aerial combat to Soviet fighters. The only technique that allowed out of the battle was a dive, but this required a reserve of height. Subsequently, the attack aircraft reservation was reduced to a minimum, thus increasing flight data. Another new feature introduced in the second half of 1944 was the extended cockpit light. Due to this, it was possible to improve the forward and downward visibility, which was very important when attacking ground targets.

The latest serial modification was the Fw 190F-9 with a forced BMW 801TS engine with an 2000 horsepower capable of developing 685 km / h in horizontal flight. Armament attack aircraft remained at Fw 190F-8. Externally, the aircraft differed increased cockpit lantern. Due to the acute shortage of duralumin, on the part of the machines the tail unit, flaps and ailerons were wooden.

On the basis of the Fw 190 fighter, Fw 190G fighter-bombers were also produced. They were intended to deliver bombing strikes at a distance of up to 600 km, that is, outside the combat radius of the Fw 190F attack aircraft. In order to increase the flight range, the planes were not additionally booked, machine guns were dismantled for them, and the ammunition load of two 20-mm guns was reduced to 150 projectiles per barrel.


Fw 190G-3 with 300-liter tanks and 500 kg bomb


Discharged fuel tanks were suspended under the wing. Since the Fw 190G-8 modification aircraft could take 1000 kg bombs, the aircraft landing gear was strengthened. Although fighter-bombers did not have special weapons and were not armored, they were often attracted to attack Soviet tanks. In this case, the bombs were dropped from a gentle dive with a volley, after which they drove off at maximum speed with a decrease.


Fw 190G-7


With more than a bomb load compared to ground attack aircraft, for the home of Fw 190G fighter-bombers, long-length runways were required. However, a common shortcoming of all the shock modifications of the Fw 190 was the high demands on the runways, according to this criterion, the Foke-Wulf was much inferior to the Ju 87 dive bomber.

In total, during the war years, about 20 000 Fw 190 of all modifications was built, about half of them are percussion variants. An interesting trend was observed, fighters were mainly involved on the Western Front and in Germany’s air defense, and most of the Foke-Wulfs were firing on the Eastern Front.

But the “Fokker” with standard weapons did not manage to become a full-fledged tank destroyer. The accuracy of the Fw 190 bombing could not be compared with the dive bomber Ju 87, and by the power of artillery weapons, with the exception of the few Fw 190F-8 / R3, it was inferior to Hs-129B-2. In this regard, in Germany at the final stage of the war feverish searches were conducted for a truly effective anti-tank weapons. Since the description of all experimental samples will take too much time, let us dwell on the aviation means of destruction that were used in the hostilities.

Contrary to popular belief, the Luftwaffe had cumulative bombs. In 1942, the 4 kg of the cumulative SD 4-HL bomb with armor penetration 60 mm at an angle of meeting with the armor 60 ° passed tests.


Cumulative SD bomb X XUMUM-HL


The SD 4-HL cumulative aerial bomb was created on the basis of the SD-4 fragmentation cluster bomb, it had a length of 315 and a diameter of 90 mm. In the inheritance from the fragmentation bomb, the cumulative received a cast-iron body, which gave a large number of fragments. The SD bomb 4-HL was loaded with 340 g with a charge of TNT-hexogen alloy. The undermining of the charge was quite a heaped up instantaneous piezoelectric fuse.


SD 4-HL in section


Compared to the Soviet PTN 2,5-1,5, it was a much more expensive and difficult to manufacture product. Unlike PTAB, loaded into the internal bomb compartments, IL-2 and small bombs cassettes, the German SD 4-HL was used only from 250 and 500 kg bombs that opened in the air, the height of which was exposed before the sortie. According to the reference data, the 250 kg cumulative submunition was placed in the 44 kg cassette, and the 500 was placed in the 118 kg cassette.


Cassette bomb AB-500 equipped with SD-4


Compared with the Soviet PTAB, which, as a rule, were dropped from a horizontal flight, from a height of no more than 100 m and formed a continuous defeat band of 15х75 m, bomber cassettes with SD 4-HL were dropped from a specific object. At the same time, it was necessary to monitor the height of the bomb cassette compartment very precisely, since the accuracy of the bombing and the dispersion of cumulative bombs directly depended on this. The experience of combat use of cassettes has demonstrated that they are quite difficult to use. The optimum opening height was considered to be at which an ellipse of 50-55 m long was formed on the ground. With a smaller SD 4-HL scatter, the target might not be covered, and with a larger tank it could be between the gaps. In addition, it was noted that up to 10% of cumulative bombs because of the unreliable operation of the fuses did not work or the bombs had time to split before the explosion, hitting the armor. As a rule, one 500 kg with a bomb cassette on the battlefield managed to cover a maximum of the 1-2 tank. In practice, the Hs-129 pilots preferred to use 30-mm guns against armored vehicles, as they were easier to use.


Cassette bomb AB-250 on the suspension Fw-190


Although the AB-250 and AB-500 cluster bombs, equipped with SD 4-HL cumulative ammunition, remained in service until the end of the war, they were used occasionally in combat. This was due to both the complexity of use and the longer preparation for combat sortie compared to other German types of bombs. In addition, the combat effectiveness of the SD 4-HL could not but affect their greater weight compared to PTAB 2,5-1,5, whereby one carrier took a smaller number of anti-tank bombs.

In the second half of the war, unguided rockets were considered as anti-tank weapons in the Luftwaffe. Although the Red Army Air Force RS-82 and RS-132 were actively used on ground targets from the first days of the war, until the 1943, no samples of such weapons were adopted in Germany.

The first model of an aviation rocket armament was the 210-mm missile, known as Wfr. Gr. 21 "Doedel" (Wurframmen Granate 21) or BR 21 (Bordrakete 21). This munition was developed on the basis of a reactive mine from a five-barrel 210-mm jet towed mortar Nb.W.42 (21cm Nebelwerfer 42). The launch of an aviation rocket was carried out from a tube-type guide, 1,3 m long. The guides were fixed in slots for outboard fuel tanks. Like tanks, they could be dropped in flight. Stabilization of the projectile on the trajectory occurred due to rotation. For this, there were 22 inclined nozzles in its bottom.


Equipment Wfr. Gr. 21 launcher on Fw-190


210-mm NAR weighed 112,6 kg, of which 41 kg accounted for fragmentation warhead containing more than 10 kg of TNT-hexogen alloy. With a maximum speed of 320 m / s, the target launch range did not exceed 1200 meters. The original Wfr rocket. Gr. 21 was designed to shoot at the dense formation of heavy bombers. As a rule, the Bf-109 and Fw-190 fighters took one Wfr launcher under the wing. Gr. 21. Attempts have also been made to use 210-mm missiles from Hs-129 attack aircraft. But large-caliber missiles proved to be unsuitable for hitting point moving targets. They gave too much dispersion, and the number of missiles on board was limited.

Also unsuccessful was the use of high-explosive jet mines against tanks 280-mm Wfr.Gr.28, the combat part of which contained 45,4 kg of explosives. Launchers in the form of a welded metal frame in an amount of from two to four were suspended under the wing of the Fw-190F-8 attack aircraft.


280-mm mine under the wing Fw-190F-8


After launch, a heavy reactive mine gave a strong drawdown, which had to be taken into account when aiming. The suspension of a bulky launcher with a mine had a negative effect on the flight data of the attack aircraft. When starting from a distance of less than 300 meters, there was a real danger of running into one’s own fragments.

In the first half of 1944, the enemy attempted to introduce into the armament of anti-tank attack aircraft 88-mm RPzB.54 / 1 "Panzerschreck" grenade launchers. Under the wing of the aircraft housed a block of four launchers with a total weight of about 40 kg. During the tests, it turned out that for an aiming launch, when approaching the target, the attack aircraft was supposed to fly at a speed of about 490 km / h, otherwise the rocket grenade would go astray. But since the sighting range did not exceed 200 m, the aviation version of the anti-tank grenade launcher rejected.


A block of four anti-tank grenade launchers "Panzerschreck" under the wing of Fw-190F


In 1944, Czech specialists from Československá Zbrojovka Brno managed to create a fairly effective anti-tank R-HL “Panzerblitz 1” anti-tank aviation missile. Its design was based on the Soviet RS-82, and the 88-mm cumulative RPzB Gr.4322 2,1 kg cumulative warhead from the Panzerschreck RPG was used as a warhead. Penetration at a meeting angle 60 ° was 160 mm.



The rocket developed by the Czechs had characteristics close to the Soviet prototype, but the firing accuracy due to the rotation reported by the stabilizers mounted at an angle to the shell of the projectile was significantly higher than that of the PC-82. The velocity of the missile is up to 374 m / s. Weight - 7,24 kg.



On Fw-190F-8 / Pb1 attack planes equipped with girder-type guides, 12-16 missiles were suspended. During the tests, it was found that during a salvo launch from a distance of 300 meters, the 1 missile from 6 on average hits the target. Until February, the 1945 of the FN 115F-190 / Pb8 aircraft was built 1, their combat use began in October of the 1944 year.

In the autumn of 1944, the Luftwaffe received a very successful 55-mm NAR R4 / M "Orkan". Stabilization of the rocket after launch was carried out by folding feather stabilizers. NAR R4 / M was designed to fight allied long-range bombers.


55-mm HAP R4 / M


Thanks to good accuracy and speed of 525 m / s, the effective firing range reached 1200 m. At a distance of 1 km, a volley of 24 missiles fit into a circle with a diameter of 30 m. The missile suspension was carried out on beam-type guides.


Rails with 55-mm NAR R4 / M


In addition to the interceptor, NAR R4 / M has been used on the assault variants Fw-190. However, the relatively light fragmentation warhead of the 55-mm missile could not pose a threat to the T-34. In this connection, since December 1944, the assault units equipped with Fw-190F-8 began to receive NAR R4 / M-HL "Panzerblitz 2" weighing 5,37 kg. The anti-tank version of the missile had a cumulative 88-mm warhead RPzB Gr.4322. Due to the increased mass of 1 kg compared to the R4 / M mass of the rocket R4 / M-HL developed speed 370 m / s. Accurate firing range reduced to 1000 m.


NAR R4 / M-HL


Missiles of this type demonstrated high combat effectiveness. With a salvo launch from a distance of 300, m of twelve NAR 1-2 fit in a circle with a diameter of 7 m. In 1945, another version of this missile, known as the “Panzerblitz 3”, appeared with a smaller-sized warhead and increased flight speed. But, despite some success in creating anti-tank unguided missiles, they appeared too late. Under the conditions of the overwhelming superiority of Soviet aviation, few attack aircraft equipped with anti-tank unguided missiles could not have a noticeable effect on the course of hostilities.

To be continued ...

Based on:
http://www.airpages.ru/lw/fw190a1.shtml
http://vspomniv.ru/technics/125.htm
https://coollib.com/b/273131/read
http://www.lexikon-der-wehrmacht.de/Waffen/PDF/SD4HL.pdf
http://www.wunderwaffe.narod.ru/Magazine/AirWar/80/index.htm
http://www.airaces.ru/plane/voennye-samoljoty-germanii/fokke-vulf-fw-190.html
http://weaponland.ru/load/granatomet_raketenpanzerbuchse_rpzb_43_54_541_panzerschreck_ofenrohr/54-1-0-218
Kondratyev V. "The Flying Locomotive" of the firm "Henschel" // Aviamaster. 2000. No.6
Author:
Articles from this series:
Aviation against tanks (part of 1)
Aviation against tanks (part of 2)
Aviation against tanks (part of 3)
Aviation against tanks (part of 4)
Aviation against tanks (part of 5)
Aviation against tanks (part of 6)
Aviation against tanks (part of 7)
Aviation against tanks (part of 8)
Aviation against tanks (part of 9)
Aviation against tanks (part of 10)
Aviation against tanks (part of 11)
Aviation against tanks (part of 12)
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  1. Strashila
    Strashila 23 November 2017 07: 48
    +7
    The story goes in a circle ... if in the first half of the war of the USSR, when there was a shortage of bombers and attack aircraft, fighters were widely used for bombing, then in the final stage the Nazis adopted this experience.
    1. Bongo
      23 November 2017 08: 01
      +9
      Quote: Strashila
      The story goes in a circle ... if in the first half of the war of the USSR, when there was a shortage of bombers and attack aircraft, fighters were widely used for bombing, then in the final stage the Nazis adopted this experience.

      Partly you are right, but it is worth considering that for the attacks on ground targets, in the second half of the VM, the Germans used specially built fighter bombers and armored attack aircraft based on the Fw-190.
      1. avt
        avt 23 November 2017 10: 19
        +3
        Quote: Bongo
        You are partly right

        With a fright?
        Quote: svp67
        Not really. Since the "assault version" of the FV-190 is far from a fighter. In general, the FV-190 is a significant breakthrough in the development of tactical aircraft, since it became a flying platform, on which it was already possible to “hook” everything to solve a specific problem.

        Actually, in general, there is nothing to add.
    2. svp67
      svp67 23 November 2017 10: 14
      +5
      Quote: Strashila
      attack aircraft widely used fighters for bombing, in the final stage the Nazis adopted this experience.

      Not really. Since the "assault version" of the FV-190 is far from a fighter. In general, the FV-190 is a significant breakthrough in the development of tactical aircraft, since it became a flying platform, on which it was already possible to “hook” everything to solve a specific problem.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 23 November 2017 08: 54
    +9
    However, in conditions of high dustiness of the air, the unreliable operation of the Gnome-Ronn engines, which did not have air filters, was revealed. Dust also clogged the propeller hubs, making it difficult to start engines. A common occurrence was when French engines did not give out full power, and often suddenly stopped or caught fire in the air.
    Sergei. Thank. In combat use, HE-129 learned a lot.
    Dust has always been an enemy of CPG. For an hour of operation without an air filter in dusty conditions, the CPG of any engine becomes unusable. This is not the fault of the French who created the engine, but of the Germans who created the motor installation (engine, filters, fuel lines, oil coolers.) Gnom-Ron engines worked quite reliably on French and our planes. The main consumer of engines Gnom-Ron in the USSR, aircraft DB-3 and IL-4 Ilyushin.
    Problems with carbide were not only among the Germans, but also in other countries. The main problem was the sintering of the cemented carbide. In the USSR, this problem was solved only after the Second World War in Kiev, the Institute of Superhard Materials. “In Moscow, only one sintering lasts three weeks,” I explained.
    Well, our sintering lasts 22 hours, so don't worry about that, ”Chaika assured. Two days later, I made sure the chief engineer was not bragging. In Moscow, after sintering, I usually received 30% of calibers with cracks, that is, marriage. Therefore, even now, counting on marriage, I cut more rings than necessary, but the sintering was performed perfectly: not a single piece of marriage! "Danilov." Life is a search. "
    1. Bongo
      23 November 2017 09: 03
      +5
      Hi, Nikolay!
      Quote: Amurets
      Hard alloy problems were not only among Germans, but also in other countries.

      But no one except Germany during the years of the VM tried to use carbide core shells in aviation.
      However, anti-tank shells in our anti-tank artillery were quite rare. And for their loss or ineffective use, the anti-tank gun commander could even go to the tribunal.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 23 November 2017 09: 22
        +5
        Hey. Sergei. In the USSR, even the cartridges for PTR of Simonov and Degtyarev BS-41 were in short supply and all because of the difficulties in obtaining the RE-8 alloy. And the fact that hard-core piercing shells could go to the tribunal, I also read.
        “The experience in the production of cermet hard alloys based on tungsten carbide and iron group metals showed that when mixing tungsten carbide powder with cobalt it is not enough to evenly distribute them in the mixture, but cobalt must be clad (applied) to the surface of tungsten carbide grains. This was confirmed by experience in the production of hard alloy Re8 brand, where cobalt is displaced from solutions of its salts with zinc in the presence of tungsten carbide powder as at crystallization centers and a hard alloy is obtained with a viscosity which is impossible with mechanical mixing of tungsten carbide and cobalt. "
        http://www.findpatent.ru/patent/6/62572.html
        © FindPatent.ru - patent search, 2012-2017
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 23 November 2017 12: 04
          +5
          Quote: Amurets
          Hey. Sergei. In the USSR, even the cartridges for PTR of Simonov and Degtyarev BS-41 were in short supply and all because of the difficulties in obtaining the RE-8 alloy.

          SW Ulanov cited a scan of a document from the beginning of 1942, which stated that by 26 PTR there were 100 BS-41 rounds. belay
          Quote: Amurets
          And the fact that hard-core piercing shells could go to the tribunal, I also read.

          Again, Ulanov and Shein had documents on the development of sub-caliber shells in the USSR. Before the war and the first six months of the war, three institutes fought for two years on the problem of “how can we make a subcaliber without tungsten”. Not shmogli. ©
          To carry out an experimental check on shells made of non-defective materials.
          Manufactured prototypes 45 mm. and 76 mm. armor-piercing armor-piercing shells modeled on the Komissan company were tested at Sofrinsky Artillery range with the following results:
          1. Due to the large reduction in weight, a significant gain was achieved in the initial speed: for 45 mm. anti-tank guns - up to 1010 mtr / sec. and for the 76 mm regimental gun arr. 27 g. - up to 550 mtr / sec.
          2. However, such an increase in the initial velocity did not increase armor penetration: for example, 45 mm. gun at a distance of 200 mtr. did not pierce 50 mm. stove (a dent was obtained);
          3. The explanation for this phenomenon should be sought in the fact that the core should be made of a special alloysimilar to that used by the Germans (about 75% tungsten, 2% cobalt and 4% carbon), otherwise it, being made even of high-carbon tool steel with a vanadium additive, it crumbles to the smallest pieces upon impact with the armor.
          At the same time, some employees of the UVNA and Artcom GAU began to insistently demand the reproduction of German shells, the cores of which are made of the above alloy. NII_24 objected to this, arguing that:
          1) we do not have tungsten reserves and therefore, even if favorable results are obtained, such shells will not have further practical introduction into production;
          2) the manufacture of such cores can only be carried out on grinding wheels, i.e. on equipment that is available in a few factories.
          However, in spite of this, the UAA GAU KA in its letter of 19 / IX-41 again raises the issue of manufacturing sub-caliber shells, citing the fact that the 3rd Department of the GAU KAA has an agreement with the Institute of Hard Alloys to produce the required amounts of alloy similar to that used in German samples.
          Our employee of the metal laboratory was also at this institute, where he was also told that, generally speaking, such an alloy can be made. However, V. Ya. at the same time explained at what price the alloy would be obtained. And the price is as follows. To produce just one core for a 76 mm projectile requires such an amount of alloy that will deprive at the same time 30 aircraft industry machines it will be victorious for the entire service life of these cutters!
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 23 November 2017 10: 57
        +1
        Quote: Bongo
        But no one except Germany during the years of the VM tried to use carbide core shells in aviation.

        Yes. Forgot to add. Hard alloys such as VK and TK were widely used in industry for the manufacture of tools.
  3. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 23 November 2017 08: 58
    10
    Informative article. Special thanks to the author for covering the issue of the creative work of the Czechs on the Nazi Reich; after the war, the Czechs for some reason preferred not to recall this.
    1. novel66
      novel66 23 November 2017 09: 59
      +8
      verily, it even warped somehow. they are bastards!
      1. andrewkor
        andrewkor 24 November 2017 11: 57
        +2
        You still don’t know all the scales of military production! The German Ural is no less!
    2. iouris
      iouris 30 November 2017 17: 04
      +1
      Quote: Aviator_
      about the creative work of the Czechs on the Nazi Reich, after the war, the Czechs for some reason preferred not to recall this

      It was the Russians who preferred not to recall this. I think, mainly because the Czechs also worked creatively for the USSR Armed Forces. It is unlikely that the Nazis would be able to provide themselves so quickly with weapons without the annexation of Czechoslovakia, so the beginning of the Second World War should be moved no later than the date when Chamberlain announced that he had brought peace to the people of Great Britain. And Churchill noted that Britain received shame and war.
  4. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter 23 November 2017 09: 11
    +7
    Greetings Sergey! Thanks again! good
    Again I discovered a lot of interesting and new things.
    By Henkel, as from a clean slate read.
    And the Czechs were completely surprised, to their shame, did not know that they were engaged in the construction and release of rockets! This is the question of those debaters who claim that not all of Europe worked for Germany.
    In general, Bongo burns not childish. drinks Class!
    Threat. Sergey, you have already selected materials for a separate book.
    Have you thought about this?
    1. Bongo
      23 November 2017 09: 19
      +8
      Quote: Stroporez
      Greetings Sergey! Thanks again!

      drinks
      Quote: Stroporez
      In general, Bongo burns not childish.

      I try to write about things that I myself would be interested to read about.
      Quote: Stroporez
      Sergey, you have already selected materials for a separate book.
      Have you thought about this?

      By and large, I'm an amateur, and I write mainly for my own pleasure and with the goal of at least slightly improving the technical educational level of VO readers. Unfortunately, over the past few years it has fallen dramatically, and the fact that the same people comment on technical content publications testifies to this.
      As for the book, I have already been advised repeatedly. Thanks, of course it’s very nice, but it’s practically impossible. How can this be realized while living in the Far East? Yes, and paper books are now buying very poorly, in general, more trouble than return. And what is published on the network, you can forget about it. Today, this article will appear on numerous sites, often the "authors" will be different.
      1. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter 23 November 2017 09: 28
        +3
        Quote: Bongo
        How can this be realized while living in the Far East?

        Sergey, if you wish, everything is possible! There was such a project, “History of Aviation,” first they sold the album as a folder, and then for a couple of years, similar articles in A4 format. In the stalls of the Union print queues stood. Although I assure you that the articles were so-so at the level of schoolchildren starting to get involved.
        Just think ...
        Already now, under the impressions of your articles, I began to re-read my little library on aviation, to refresh my memory, so to speak. If I dig something new, I will definitely inform you. By the way there are books that you simply can’t find on the internet.
        1. Bongo
          23 November 2017 09: 32
          +3
          Quote: Stroporez
          Sergey, if you wish, everything is possible!what .
          How to do this from Komsomolsk? And where to get the money for the circulation, and how then to sell it?
          Quote: Stroporez
          There was such a project, “History of Aviation,” first they sold the album, in the form of a folder, and then for a couple of years, similar articles in the A4 format.
          I would be ashamed and not interested in writing this. request
          Quote: Stroporez
          If I dig something new, I will definitely inform you. By the way, there are books that you simply can’t find on the internet.

          Thank you, I will be grateful! hi
          1. Sling cutter
            Sling cutter 23 November 2017 09: 43
            +4
            Quote: Bongo
            I would be ashamed and not interested in writing this.

            So I’m talking about this and that your articles are orders of magnitude higher and more substantial.
            And by the way, I prefer to collect literature on traditionally paper media, there are many of these from our generation.
            At the weekend I’ll take care of my literature and Gukin will tinkle with him the whole apartment is forced.
            I remember seeing him in a German edition, in which the colors of the planes and their modifications in the German Luftwaffe units were actually presented.
            Here is also a topic for articles ..
          2. novel66
            novel66 23 November 2017 10: 00
            +6
            Well, at least for their own, in electronic form?
            1. Bongo
              23 November 2017 10: 02
              +3
              Quote: novel xnumx
              Well, at least for their own, in electronic form?

              Roman, what's the problem reformatting yourself?
              1. novel66
                novel66 23 November 2017 10: 12
                +7
                Well, no. I will try when the whole series comes out. Thank you once again, I’m a fan of aviation in general, and shock for me is the top one.
        2. Dedall
          Dedall 23 November 2017 23: 39
          +1
          I want to note that those albums were very expensive. For example, I never bought a single one and I think that they were needed mainly by modelers because of the example of painting airplanes at the last U-turn. And so, in those days, in the absence of the Internet, they were very informative.
      2. avt
        avt 23 November 2017 11: 43
        +8
        Quote: Bongo
        By and large, I'm an amateur, and I write mainly for my own pleasure and with the goal of at least slightly improving the technical educational level of VO readers.

        I was familiar with one ex-employee, Nines, "he somehow went into one private security company and he got a hosyuk - ,, Only professionals work for us!" , and that - ,, Yes? But I’m an amateur, I served 25 years - I loved my job. " bully
        Quote: Bongo
        The goal is to at least slightly increase the technical educational level of VO readers.

        Actually it turns out good
        Quote: Bongo
        Unfortunately, over the past few years, he fell a lot,

        request And how exactly did you want, with the collapse of technical education in the 90s ?? You can make a humanities engineer without any problems easily and naturally in a short time. And you still need 5-6 years from the humanities if you even remember the multiplication table by memory. bully
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 23 November 2017 12: 36
          +3
          Quote: avt
          from humanities the same 5-6 years is necessary if at least the multiplication table by memory remembers.

          Not everyone, some, even though they were shooting, couldn’t simply hammer a nail or change a light bulb.
          1. DimerVladimer
            DimerVladimer 23 November 2017 15: 39
            +8
            Quote: Amurets
            Not from everyone, some, even though they were shooting, couldn’t simply hammer a nail or change a light bulb


            That's for sure - out of 100 graduates of a technical university, hardly 1 more or less understands what is being discussed at the interview.
            We recently met with the dean of the automotive department of a university - when asked whether there are sensible guys in design bureaus for designing tracked platforms, he waved his hand ... In his opinion, over the past 15 years, the student has degraded, "they don’t burn at school," they formally sit out lectures, no one he doesn’t seek to get knowledge wider than the framework of the educational process - there is some kind of hopelessness.
            So there is no one to develop interesting topics.
        2. unknown
          unknown 25 November 2017 01: 04
          0
          Life does not confirm this. For example, mathematicians were the first to defend themselves (Ph.D., D.Sc.), and later, the most recent philosophers were the humanities. The best humanities managers.
          It’s like with proverbs: “In a healthy body, a healthy mind ... RARE GOOD LUCK”. So with techies.
      3. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 23 November 2017 15: 30
        +6
        Quote: Bongo
        As for the book, I have already been advised repeatedly. Thanks, of course it’s very nice, but it’s practically impossible. How can this be realized while living in the Far East? Yes, and paper books are now buying very poorly, in general, more trouble than return. And what is published on the network, you can forget about it. Today, this article will appear on numerous sites, often the "authors" will be different.


        But you have collected disparate material from several sources into a “picture” that many readers may have known separately, but now you have clearly seen in the dynamics the development of air anti-tank weapons.
        Thank you very much.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 23 November 2017 23: 43
          +1
          Quote: DimerVladimer
          But you have collected disparate material from several sources into a “picture” that many readers may have known separately, but now you have clearly seen in the dynamics the development of air anti-tank weapons.

          Not only for anti-tank weapons. From the collected individual pieces collected paintings on many topics. Thanks for this to the author. You definitely noticed that.
  5. venik
    venik 23 November 2017 09: 41
    +2
    Good day, Sergey!
    I liked the article (like the previous ones).
    Well, as usual, "its 5 cents":
    "...... After dropping the bomb load, the plane could reach a speed of 630 km / h in horizontal flight. Thus, the attack aircraft, having bombed in 1943, had every chance of breaking away from Soviet fighters ...."
    ---
    A bold assertion, of course, especially since at low altitudes its speed was still lower .... But higher (well, by that time (1943), La-5 (F and FN), whose speed was A little higher. Although, of course, 630 - at that time it was "oh-hoo!" and the chances were of course ... But this is so ("by the way").
    One more question:
    ".... The missile developed by the Czechs had characteristics close to the Soviet prototype, but the firing accuracy due to the rotation reported by the stabilizers installed at an angle to the shell of the projectile was significantly higher than that of the RS-82. ...."
    -------
    Here it is very interesting: after all, the RS-82 - exactly the same flight stabilization system !!! Due to what then "accuracy is higher" ??? Interest Ask!!!
    We look forward to continuing!
    1. Bongo
      23 November 2017 09: 55
      +5
      Good evening!
      Quote: venik
      A bold assertion of course, especially since at low altitudes its speed was still lower .... But higher (well, by that time (1943 year) La-5 (Ф and ФН), whose speed was a little higher.

      La 5F maximum speed at altitude - 600 km / h. La-5FN- 648 km / h. But do not forget that all modifications of Fw 190 perfectly dive. So the chances of getting out of the battle were ...
      Quote: venik
      Here it is very interesting: after all, the PC-82 has exactly the same in-flight stabilization system !!! Due to what then "accuracy is higher" ??? Interest Ask!!!

      Good question! good
      The German shell had a different fuel composition and, apparently, the manufacturing tolerances were much smaller. EMNIP in our country, stabilization by rotation on late-release shells was achieved due to oblique nozzles.
      Perhaps it will be interesting for you:
      Soviet aircraft missiles during the war (clickable) hi
      1. venik
        venik 23 November 2017 15: 59
        +5
        Quote: Bongo
        The German shell had a different fuel composition and, apparently, the manufacturing tolerances were much smaller.

        ========
        That's it, about it and thought! There was such a "thought" .... Indeed, by design, same!
        By the way: the "Czech" weapons of the "Wehrmacht" used very high reputation! The reason is simple - the "Czechs" did not use (or almost did not use) the "slave labor of prisoners of war" - they did everything themselves ... Well, HOW can I explain them today "position" in relation to Russia ??? Who can EXPLAIN?
        PS And then we met ours in Czechoslovakia - BETTERthan anywhere else ".....
        1. garri-lin
          garri-lin 24 November 2017 20: 12
          +3
          And there is such a breed of people. Both ours and yours are called. How is it in the "Wedding in the Robin"? Skidovy portki power is changing.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 23 November 2017 11: 14
      +9
      Quote: venik
      Here it is very interesting: after all, the PC-82 has exactly the same in-flight stabilization system !!! Due to what then "accuracy is higher" ??? Interest Ask!!!

      Due to the accuracy of manufacture and how they handled the shells of the PC .. Complaints about the manufacture can be found on the internet, but how they were handled is a rather rare evidence. P. Mikhailov. "10 hours of air:"
      Usually the crew proceeded to unload without waiting for the owners of the cargo - every minute was precious! This time we looked with apprehension at the mysterious "fish", waiting for the guard mortars to approach. The hour is not even, you knock with something - remember your name!
      To our great surprise, the soldiers who came to the rescue did not intend to stand on ceremony at all: they threw shells through the airplane door with a kick.
      - And what will they do? - the mortars grinned, noticing our surprise. - They are not charged ...
      And, pointing to a wooden box lying in the corner of the cabin, the foreman added:
      - But with this "gift" you need to be more careful: fuses for the whole batch of shells - there!
      Only then I realized what could cost the crew ignorance of the latest weapons. The shells were laid carefully, like babies. And the box - this hellish car - was hastily shoved into the fuselage. Gee! ..
      1. venik
        venik 23 November 2017 20: 05
        +5
        Quote: Amurets
        To our great surprise, the soldiers who came to the rescue did not intend to stand on ceremony at all: they threw shells through the airplane door with a kick.

        ==========
        Yeah! .... Uncle, the late, in 1942 served as a "gunner" in the artillery regiment. On the Kalinin Front. Was like that!
        He told me: “They drove to the frontline on the Willis ... And then -“ artillery strike ”... Shiganuli in the ditch ....“ Lie down ”.... When the artillery attack ended - they“ crawled out ”... And here MOM...... On the opposite side of the track - HUGE stacks of rockets for Katyusha ... 150 meters so 30 x 5 ..... "How many were there ??? ... They were stacked ....". Uncle (the joker was) - said: "As I saw it - SO and sat on the" XNUMXth point "..... And if only one shell "there"please .... Damn ... For half a kilometer everything would have smashed .... And how we did not notice this" warehouse "???" ... Exactly - "out of fear - and on the hedgehog" land. " .. ".
    3. Lopatov
      Lopatov 23 November 2017 14: 54
      +7
      Quote: venik
      Here it is very interesting: after all, the PC-82 has exactly the same in-flight stabilization system !!! Due to what then "accuracy is higher" ??? Interest Ask!!!

      Probably thanks to its engines. Better quality of production of powder checkers of engines - less dispersion at the initial speed. In addition, a better nozzle design gives less “dispersion” in the thrust eccentricity. Although the rotation compensates for it, it again gives a dispersion in speed.
      Well, in the direction, it is possible that their engine accelerated the rocket more slowly, which with an equal plumage area should give less dispersion due to the neglect of the effect of the wind on the outboard. Such active PCs deviate in the direction from which the wind blows.
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 23 November 2017 15: 44
        +6
        Quote: Spade
        Probably thanks to its engines. Better quality of production of powder checkers of engines - less dispersion at the initial speed. In addition, a better nozzle design gives less “dispersion” in the thrust eccentricity. Although the rotation compensates for it, it again gives a dispersion in speed.
        Well, in the direction, it is possible that their engine accelerated the rocket more slowly, which with an equal plumage area should give less dispersion due to the neglect of the effect of the wind on the outboard. Such active PCs deviate in the direction from which the wind blows.



        Rotation, reduces dispersion. Since the smallest fraction of a millimeter deviation from the geometry of the chassis or stabilizers of the PC leads to a departure from the trajectory, rotation compensates for deviations.
        And the Czechs' performance was probably higher - you are right.
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 23 November 2017 16: 24
          +5
          Quote: DimerVladimer
          Rotation, reduces dispersion.

          Not really. Rotation does not compensate for everything.
          Just imagine a breakdown.

          The real thrust vector, with eccentricity, can be decomposed into its “axial” and perpendicular “axial” components. Rotation can fight the latter. That is, causing PC deviation to the side. But the axial component is reduced, which means that the velocity of the projectile will be less
          1. DimerVladimer
            DimerVladimer 23 November 2017 16: 37
            +6
            Quote: Spade
            The real thrust vector, with eccentricity, can be decomposed into its “axial” and perpendicular “axial” components. Rotation can fight the latter. That is, causing PC deviation to the side. But the axial component is reduced, which means that the velocity of the projectile will be less


            I agree, in this case, the projectile flies along the path of the volumetric spiral.
            Back in grades 9-10, experimenting with reduced missiles like the ATGM Baby, he achieved the greatest range without stabilization, but due to the eccentricity of the thrust — the expansion was monstrous — it was difficult to achieve nozzle symmetry.
            By the way, at that time I was experimenting with composite TTs, with varying degrees of metallization - what were the times :))
      2. venik
        venik 23 November 2017 16: 11
        +4
        Quote: Spade
        Probably thanks to its engines. Better quality of production of powder checkers of engines - less dispersion at the initial speed. In addition, a better nozzle design gives less “dispersion” in the thrust eccentricity. Although the rotation compensates for it, it again gives a dispersion in speed.

        =====
        Therefore, and "QUESTION"asked !!! The question is" not in the stabilization system "(Czech" replica "- was almost identical - SOVIET !, and IN QUALITY !!!
        ABSOLUTELY CLEAR - YES! In conditions That Wars, our grandmothers, mothers, fathers and uncles - DID EVERYTHING What could! AND MUCH MORE!!!
        BUT! The reason for the "worst accuracy" is covered, not in "design flaws"..... but in OPPORTUNITIES "Industry !!!!!
        And what was MADE - this - MEMORY!
        MEMORY of how they did "IMPOSSIBLE"!!!!!!!!
      3. venik
        venik 23 November 2017 20: 09
        +3
        Quote: Spade
        Well, in the direction, it is possible that their engine accelerated the rocket more slowly, which with an equal plumage area should give less scatter due to the neglect of the action of the wind

        =========
        Well, I do not! It is unlikely! And as for the "quality and" dressing "" - here it is Yes! It’s impossible not to agree! "Czechs" - Were able!!!
    4. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 23 November 2017 16: 26
      +5
      Quote: venik
      A bold assertion, of course, especially since at low altitudes its speed was still lower .... But higher (well, by that time (1943), La-5 (F and FN), whose speed was A little higher. Although, of course, 630 - at that time it was "oh-hoo!" and the chances were of course ... But this is so ("by the way").


      With a speed difference of 10-20 km / h and at the same level, so that the La-5FN catches up with the FW-190F, you must already sit at 6 and no further than a distance of 1000 m - then there is some chance of approaching the effective fire distance.
      That is, if the F-190F was practiced at one go, especially with a dive towards its positions, then it is very unlikely to be intercepted - ideal, but not very effective: hit-run.

      Quote: venik
      Here it is very interesting: after all, the PC-82 has exactly the same in-flight stabilization system !!! Due to what then "accuracy is higher" ??? Interest Ask!!!


      The rotation compensates for geometry errors in the manufacture and uneven combustion of the fuel checker (This has already been written by respected Lopatov).
      RS-82.
      Initially, stabilization by rotation in flight (gyroscopic) was chosen for RS. At the same time, 20-30% of the charge energy was spent on communicating rotational motion to the missiles, which markedly reduced the flight range, while the accuracy remained unsatisfactory, which is difficult to explain. Therefore, it was decided to return to the plumage shells. Experimentally, the optimal plumage sizes were established - 200 mm for the RS-82 and 300 mm for the RS-132. At a flight range of 5-6 km, these shells showed quite satisfactory accuracy. Created in 1942 by the engineers of the Czech Zbroevka enterprise on the basis of the RS-82, its own rocket had a hybrid stabilization system: the surfaces of the stabilizers had a small (1,5 degree) twist. The rotation of the projectile around its axis was slow and insufficient to stabilize the rotation, but in this way the destabilizing effect of the uneven burning of the powder charge (traction eccentricity) was eliminated.
      1. venik
        venik 23 November 2017 18: 30
        +5
        "Quote: venik"
        Well, Glory to God (azm esi "atheist! More precisely -" agnostic "!!!"), failed guys "stir up !!!!
        Thanks to Sergey, "DimerVladimer" and ALL OTHER!!!
        The most unpleasant is when "no reaction" !!!! am
        Urrrr-aaaaa !!!
    5. unknown
      unknown 25 November 2017 01: 07
      +2
      The data on the speeds of our aircraft is very high. La-5FN - maximum 634, and La-7 - 656 km / h.
      And the Germans are understated. Last A9-703 km / h
  6. andrewkor
    andrewkor 23 November 2017 10: 23
    +5
    Many thanks to the Author, I discovered a lot of new things for myself! In reality, it turns out that the American and British fighters and attack aircraft were more effective than the German ones. IL-2 is put out of brackets because of its uniqueness!
  7. sivuch
    sivuch 23 November 2017 10: 26
    +5
    Sergey, it’s inaccurate about the creation of Henschelles. First of all, it was worth saying that the program initially had a low priority and was not so shaky or swirling. Secondly, the presence of air-cooled engines was not specified and on the HS-129A there were just water-cooled Arguses. Only the use of low power engines (400-700ls) was required, since it was assumed that more powerful ones would be required for more important programs. And the free Gnome-Ron Mars was found in France only later. By the way, in North Africa they worked even worse than in the Donetsk steppes
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 23 November 2017 11: 16
      0
      Quote: sivuch
      By the way, in North Africa they worked even worse than in the Donetsk steppes.

      Engines or airplanes?
      1. sivuch
        sivuch 23 November 2017 11: 22
        +4
        Engines High sand content in the air. And as a result - the state of the aircraft themselves
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 23 November 2017 11: 28
          +4
          Quote: sivuch
          Engines High sand content in the air.

          Thanks for the clarification. For the lack of an air filter, you had to pay with the reliability of the engines. Why did I ask for clarification? Sandstorms and quartz dust do not add reliability to weapons and articulated joints.
    2. venik
      venik 23 November 2017 18: 32
      +3
      Quote: sivuch
      Sergey, it’s inaccurate about the creation of Henschelles. First of all, it was worth saying that the program initially had a low priority and went unsteadily

      =====
      Well, he said about "this" !!!
      ---------------------------------------------
      And with the rest - difficult will not agree!
    3. venik
      venik 23 November 2017 20: 17
      +3
      Quote: sivuch
      Sergey, it’s inaccurate about the creation of Henschelles. First of all, it was worth saying that the program initially had a low priority and was not so shaky or swirling.

      ========
      Z-dr-al-te !!! Well, if you read the article carefully, then "there" just about this "speech and went" !!!
      As if the Germans did not praise Henscheli ... But in 4 years they built only 800 (or so!) Pieces ...... But what about the fact that "he" was one of the "the most confused"Luftwaffe" aircraft - MENTIONED too !!!
  8. igordok
    igordok 23 November 2017 14: 12
    +2
    In the first half of the 1944, the enemy attempted to introduce the RPzB.88 / 54 "Panzerschreck" grenade launchers into the armament of the anti-tank attack aircraft.


    In this form, more recognizable.
    1. Bongo
      23 November 2017 14: 24
      +5
      Quote: igordok
      In this form, more recognizable.

      Sorry, but you are mistaken. No. In your photo is a one-time Panzerfaust.

      I did not mention it in the publication, since it was not used in aviation. With a direct shot range of about 50 meters, the use of serial combat aircraft was excluded.
    2. iouris
      iouris 30 November 2017 17: 07
      +1
      This "attempt" can be considered unsuccessful and a sign that resources are already sorely lacking.
  9. prodi
    prodi 23 November 2017 14: 12
    0
    Quote: Amurets

    Dust has always been an enemy of CPG. For an hour of operation without an air filter in dusty conditions, the CPG of any engine becomes unusable.
    "

    Well, do not be so dramatic. According to personal experience, about a month in the conditions of St. Petersburg, in the summer (on the ground!), Before he clearly loses in characteristics
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 24 November 2017 00: 04
      +3
      Quote: prodi
      According to personal experience, about a month in the conditions of St. Petersburg, in the summer (on the ground!), Before he clearly loses in characteristics

      I don’t know what roads are in St. Petersburg, but in the Far East there is little asphalt and the engine’s CPG without air filters is very quickly driven into rubbish, with both ours: KAMAZ and YaMZ of all modifications, and Japanese Mitsubishi 6DS-20 or 8DS-61 or Chinese Cummins. Moreover, do not be skeptical about this, Chinese cars have reliable engines. I deliberately took the engine of trucks and timber trucks, because caring for them is usually worse than for personal cars.
  10. Curious
    Curious 23 November 2017 14: 48
    +5
    Perhaps if Henschel’s rivals in the competition for the creation of the Schlachtfluggstoig were more insistent, then by the beginning of the war the Luftwaffe would have a completely different attack aircraft. Vedb originally sent the terms of reference for the development of the “Schlachtflugsug” to four aircraft manufacturers: Hamburger Flygstsoigbau (hereinafter “Blom und Foss”), Focke-Wulf, Gotha and Henschel.
    The company “Gotha” refused to participate in the competition, but “Blom und Voss” designed a very original car.

    Blohm & Voss BV-141 is a single-engine asymmetric aircraft with a wing-mounted gondola, separate from the fuselage. Because of its, to put it mildly, unusual, and also because the company did not fulfill the condition to equip the attack aircraft with two engines, the project was not seriously considered.
    1. Curious
      Curious 23 November 2017 14: 55
      +6
      But the “Focke-Wulf” approached the competition thoroughly.

      Taking as a basis the two-beam reconnaissance and spotter FW-189 (later known as the "frame"), the company's engineers replaced it with a large well-glazed cabin with a tiny armored "capsule", which hardly accommodated the pilot and the gunner-radio operator. The developers were convinced that the concept of a single-seat attack aircraft was erroneous and that a shooting point to protect the tail was needed on such a machine.
      The modified prototype was designated Fw 189V1b. The view from the pilot's seat was unsatisfactory, and the shooter did not see the attacking fighter even at the tail of his plane! As a result, Fw 189V1 b was returned to the factory for improvements. The cockpit’s glazing area was increased, and the shooter's sight was replaced with an embrasure, which improved the backward view, but the side view remained unsatisfactory. After making changes, the Fw 189V1ta was tested with competitors Hs 129V2 and V3. These flights showed that the very compact single-seat “Henschel” aircraft was a smaller target for air defense, but his view from the pilot’s workplace was even worse than that of the 189th Focke-Wulf, and if the handling of the Fw 189V1b was poor, then at Hs 129 she was completely disgusting. As a result, the Technical Department recognized the winner of the Hs 129, but the story of the Fw 189 assault variant did not end there. At the end of 1942, a kind of “ersatz-attack aircraft” Fw189A-4 appeared, released in small quantities. This machine retained the scout's glazed nacelle, but the MG17 wing machine guns were replaced by two 20 mm MG FF cannons. In addition, engines, fuel tanks and partly the cockpit were covered with thin armor from below.
      1. Lopatov
        Lopatov 23 November 2017 15: 11
        +7
        Quote: Curious
        The view from the pilot's seat was unsatisfactory, and the shooter did not see the attacking fighter even at the tail of his plane! As a result, Fw 189V1 b was returned to the factory for improvements. The cockpit’s glazing area was increased, and the shooter's sight was replaced with an embrasure, which improved the backward view, but the side view remained unsatisfactory.

        It was necessary to raise the cockpit, making a wing in the form of an already worked out "reverse gull". then at least for the shooter the review in the upper hemisphere would be better.
  11. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 23 November 2017 16: 14
    +4
    Continued about the allies (Hawker Typhoon Fairey "Battle" Westland "Lysander" de Havilland "Mosquito" B-26 Marauder and their weapons, etc.) - wait?
    From the axis countries, one could at least briefly mention some support aircraft, such as: Breda Ba.65 Breda Ba.88 Lince Tachikawa Ki-36 (type 98) Mitsubishi Ki-51 (type 99) Mitsubishi Ki-30 (type 97) .
  12. polpot
    polpot 23 November 2017 19: 52
    +1
    Thanks for the article, all German throwings confirm only one thing, the tank is the best way to fight a tank, spend so much money for very modest results and this is the notorious German rationalism
    1. iouris
      iouris 30 November 2017 17: 11
      0
      Quote: polpot
      the best way to fight a tank is a tank

      I think you are wrong. Tanks, as a rule, should not be encountered in a dueling situation, which means that anti-tank weapons must destroy enemy tanks ahead of schedule. And this is not aviation.
  13. Ice
    Ice 23 November 2017 23: 28
    +3
    Quote: Bongo
    How to do this from Komsomolsk? And where to get the money for the circulation, and how then to sell it?

    Just write about what you like, let the publisher do the rest, print, sell.
    Of course, you need an editor.
    And of course this is a huge work, which needs to have enough time.
    But if there is time ...

    Here in the tanks there is Kolomiyets, in the fleet of Mironov, in the artillery Shirokorad.
    And in aviation and air defense, I can't seem to remember anyone :) the place is vacant :)
  14. iouris
    iouris 30 November 2017 17: 14
    0
    I am constantly tormented by vague suspicions that the Su-25 is an advanced version of the Ne-129. However, magnetometers were even installed on the latter to detect tanks (just in case, I put (!)).