Although at the beginning of the war with the Soviet Union in the Luftwaffe there were a significant number of dive bombers and fighter-bombers, work was underway in Germany to create armored attack aircraft. Such a machine to support their own and destroy enemy tanks developed by order of the Ministry aviation. According to the requirements drawn up by 1937, to reduce the affected area and save weight, the aircraft had to be single. It was proposed to increase survivability through the use of two air-cooled engines. The absence of a defensive firing point to protect the rear hemisphere should have been compensated by escort fighters.
The aircraft, designated Hs 129, first flew in May 1939. The level of security of this machine at the time of creation was not equal. The front of the cab was made of 12 mm armor, the floor was of the same thickness, the cabin walls had a thickness of 6 mm. The pilot was sitting in a chair with an armored seat and an armored headpiece. Transparent parts of the lamp from 75 mm bulletproof glass. The front part of the cab was guaranteed to withstand the shelling of the rifle-caliber armor-piercing bullets, and with a high degree of probability protected it from the fire of large-caliber machine guns. To reduce the mass of the armor, the cabin was designed very tight, its width at the level of the pilot’s shoulders was only 60 cm. Due to the tightness, it was necessary to abandon the installation in the cabin of a normal set of control devices. Due to the limited space on the instrument panel, engine control devices were placed on the inside of the engine nacelles. The collimator sight was placed in an armored casing in front of the windshield. The price for good security was a very bad view on the sides. About how to visually control the rear hemisphere, it was not at all.
The aircraft with a maximum take-off weight of 5000 kg was equipped with two French-made Gnome-Rһone 14M 04 / 05 air-cooled air-cooled engines with an 700 hp power. The maximum airspeed at low altitude without external suspensions was 350 km / h. Practical range - 550 km. Built-in weapons consisted of two X-NUMX-mm guns MG-20 / 151 and two X-NUMX-mm MG-20 machine guns. An external load with a total weight of up to 7,92 kg could be placed on the outdoor sling - including one 17 kg aerial bomb, or up to four 250 kg bombs or AB-250 bomb containers. Instead of a large-caliber bombs or fuel tank, the central hub usually placed a container with an 50-mm MK-24 cannon with ammunition on 30 shells, or a container with four MG-101 X-mmX machine guns. Various variants of interchangeable weapons made it possible to prepare an attack aircraft for combat mission, depending on the specific task.
Tests assault "Henschel" revealed a lot of flaws. The main complaints were cramped and poor visibility from the cab, insufficient thrust-to-weight ratio due to weak and unreliable engines and a small bomb load. In case of failure of one engine, the aircraft could not fly without a decrease in the remaining. It turned out that the Hs 129 was not able to dive with an angle of more than 30 °, in this case the load on the control stick at the time of withdrawal from the peak exceeded the physical capabilities of the pilot. The pilots, as a rule, tried not to exceed the dive angle 15 °. For large values, there was a chance that an airplane with bombs on the external load may simply not go up and crash into the ground. Good stability at low altitude made it possible to accurately fire at the chosen target, but it was impossible to quickly change the flight path.
As a result, the elimination of deficiencies took about two years. The first aircraft of the serial modification Hs-129B-1 began to arrive in the specially created assault connection Sch.G 1 in January 1942 of the year. The training of the crew took five months, during which three vehicles were broken. In May, 1942, the first German armored attack aircraft took part in hostilities on the Crimean peninsula. Here they were successful, the cockpit's armor successfully withstood shelling from a light rifle weaponsand the absence of Soviet fighters in the sky made it possible to act with impunity. Although combat missions were carried out fairly intensively, only two Hs-129 were lost from anti-aircraft fire in two weeks of fighting in the Crimea. However, in conditions of high dustiness of the air, the reliable operation of the “Gnome-Ronn” motors, which did not have air filters, was revealed. Dust also clogged the propeller sleeves, making it difficult to start the engines. A common occurrence was when the French engines did not give out full power, and often suddenly stopped or caught fire in the air. The vulnerability of retrofit but not covered with armor fuel and oil tanks was revealed.
Measures to improve the reliability of engines and some improvements in the fuel system implemented on the modification of Hs-129В-2. The release of this model began in May 1942. Taking into account the wishes of combat pilots on the Hs-129В-2 made improvements. Due to the installation of additional equipment and engine reservation, the maximum take-off weight of the Hs-129В-2 increased by 200 kg, and the flight range decreased to 680 km. Also changed the shape of the nose of the fuselage, thereby improving the view forward - down. Since December 1942, the aircraft was equipped with gasoline cabin heaters. A striking external difference between airplanes equipped with stoves was a large air intake hole in the forward fuselage.
After the combat debut in Crimea, “Hensheli” was transferred to Kharkov, where they took part in repelling the Soviet counteroffensive in May 1942. Here, the anti-aircraft cover and counter-attack of the fighters was much stronger, and the attack squadrons lost 7 Hs-129. At the same time, according to German data, with the help of 30-mm cannons MK-101, the pilots of "Hensheli" operating in the Voronezh and Kharkov region managed to knock out the 23 of the Soviet tank.
By the second half of 1942, relatively few squadrons, armed with Hs-129 with 30-mm guns, became a kind of "fire brigades" that the German command, with the threat of a breakthrough of Soviet tanks, moved from one front to another. So, November 19 1942, after approximately 250 Soviet tanks broke through the defenses of the Italian troops in the area between the Don and Volga rivers, six Hs 129B-1 were used against them. According to the photo machine guns, in two days of fighting, the Henschel pilots counted the destruction of 10 tanks. However, the combat sorties of armored tank destroyers on this sector of the front could not affect the course of the battles. By the middle of the 1943 of the year, there were five separate anti-tank squadrons Hs 129B-2 on the Eastern Front. To participate in the operation "Citadel" four of them to the beginning of June, focused on a separate airfield in Zaporozhye. At the same time, the staff of each squadron was increased from 12 to 16 aircraft. In total, by the start of the battle near Kursk, it was possible to prepare 68 "tank destroyers". Pilot attack aircraft who fought at Kursk from 5 to 11 in July, announced the destruction of at least 70 Soviet tanks.
As mentioned in a previous publication, conventional 30-mm armor-piercing shells were ineffective against “thirty-four”, and shells with a hard-alloy core were always lacking. In this regard, attempts were made to strengthen the anti-tank weapons Hs-129. By the beginning of the battles near Kursk, new suspended 30-mm MK 103 guns were introduced into the Henschel armament.
Equipment ammunition 30-mm gun MK 103 on Hs-129
Compared to the MK 101 cannon, the MK 103’s firing rate was twice as high and reached 400 rounds per minute, and the ammunition load reached the 100 projectiles. According to the complex of combat characteristics, this was probably the best German aircraft gun. It was distinguished by comparative simplicity of design and wide use of stamping and welding. The weight of the gun was 142 kg, and the weight of the cartridge box on 100 shells was 95 kg.
Although the use of 30-mm shells with a metal-ceramic core, known as Hartkernmunition (it is a hard-core ammunition), was limited, the Henschel pilots achieved some success in the fight against Soviet tanks. During the fighting, an optimal tactic was developed: the attack of the tank was made from the stern, while the pilot slowed down and swooped down on the target, firing from the cannon until the ammunition was completely used up. Thanks to this, the probability of hitting a tank increased, but during a combat sortie it was really possible to hit no more than one armored target. Some experienced pilots allegedly managed to achieve accuracy of shooting, in which 60% of shells hit the target. The timely commencement of the attack was of great importance; this required a great deal of experience, skill and intuition of the pilot, since during a gentle dive it was very difficult to correct the flight of a heavy machine.
To increase the antitank potential, the next step was the installation of an 129-mm X XUMUMX cannon with 2 ammunition shells on the Hs-3B-37 / R3.7 12-gun. However, the already low Henschel flight data after the suspension of 37-mm guns fell. The pilots noted the complicated piloting technique, great vibration and a strong diving moment when firing. Due to the low practical rate of fire, in one attack it was possible to make an 2-4 sighting shot. As a result, the large-scale construction of the Hs-129B-2 / R3 with the 37-mm VK gun 3.7 was refused. The 50-mm VK gun 5 had approximately the same practical rate of fire with a comparable weight, but it was not mounted on the Hs-129.
The 75-mm VK gun 7.5 became the most large-caliber weapon installed on the Henschel. In the autumn of 1943, they tried to use such an instrument on a Ju 88P-1 tank destroyer. But due to the low practical rate of fire, the effectiveness of shooting was low. However, this did not stop the designers of the company "Henschel." Based on the experience of using the 50-mm VK gun 5 in aviation, for 75-mm guns a similar pneumoelectric reloading mechanism was created with a radial magazine for 12 shells (according to other data from 16 shells). The mass of the gun with the mechanism for loading projectiles and ammunition was 705 kg. To reduce recoil the gun was supplied with a muzzle brake.
Layout of 75-mm guns VK 7.5 on the tank destroyer Hs 129B-3 / Wa
Naturally, there was no talk of a suspension yet on any aircraft with an 75-mm gun. From the built-in weapons saved a pair of 7,92-mm machine guns, which could be used for zeroing. Practical rate of fire VC 7.5 was 30 rds / min. During one attack, the pilot, using a telescopic sight ZFR 3В, could produce an 3-4 shot. In different sources, aircraft with 75-mm guns are referred to as Hs-129B-2 / R4 or Hs 129B-3 / Wa.
Tank destroyer Hs 129B-3 / Wa
To install the 75-mm guns on the Hs 129 attack aircraft, we had to use a bulky outboard gondola, which badly damaged the aerodynamics of the aircraft. Although the 75-mm gun VC 7.5, created on the basis of PaK-40L with manual loading, had excellent ballistics and could destroy any Soviet tanks, an increase in take-off weight and drag resistance had the most negative impact on flight data. The maximum flight speed decreased to 300 km / h, and after the shot it decreased to 250 km / h.
Among the pilots, the tank destroyer with the 75-mm gun was given the name Buchsenoffner (German can opener). According to German sources, the effectiveness of these vehicles against armored vehicles was high. Against the background of such statements, a very small number of attack aircraft equipped with 75-mm guns look very strange. Prior to the cessation of the production of all versions of Hs 129 in September 1944, they had time to build 25 units, several more machines were converted from Hs-129B-2.
According to German statistics, the entire German aircraft industry has released the 878 Hs-129. At the same time, on field airfields, in the best scenario, the number of combat-ready attack aircraft did not exceed 80 units. Naturally, given the scale of hostilities on the Soviet-German front and the number of Soviet armored vehicles, such a fleet of anti-tank aircraft could not have a noticeable effect on the course of hostilities. It must be admitted that the Hs-129 possessed good survivability against anti-aircraft guns of the 7,62 caliber and partly of the 12,7-mm. The plane could easily be repaired in the field and quickly repair combat damage. The pilots noted that with the forced landing "on the belly" due to the presence of armored capsules, there were good chances to survive. At the same time, in the absence of a fighter escort, the Hs-129 often suffered heavy losses. Armored "Henschel" was considered very easy prey from our fighters. The combat use of the Hs-129 continued until the beginning of the 1945 of the year, but by April there were almost no serviceable vehicles in the ranks. The Henschel pilots who survived in the Eastern Front meat grinder, for the most part, switched to the FW 190 assault variants
With the advent of the understanding that the war in the East was being delayed, the German command also realized the need to replace the existing fighter-bombers and dive-bombers. The increasing increase of Soviet anti-aircraft artillery and the increase in the number of new types of fighter aircraft led to an increase in losses in the Luftwaffe attack squadrons. At the front, a fairly robust, high-speed aircraft with powerful built-in armament and a decent bomb load was required, capable, if necessary, of standing up for itself in air combat. For this role, the FW 190 fighter with an air-cooled engine was quite suitable. The aircraft was created by Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau GmbH in 1939 and appeared on the Soviet-German front in September 1942.
Fw 190 fighters turned out to be a difficult enemy in an air battle, at the same time, a rather tenacious star-shaped air-cooled engine provided protection for the pilot in front, and powerful armament made him a good attack aircraft. The first modification specially adapted for strikes against ground targets was the FW-190A-3 / U3. On this machine, the canopy of the cockpit canopy was made of bulletproof glass 50 mm thick. Under the fuselage they installed a bomb rack for the suspension of one 500-kg or 250-kg, or four 50-kg bombs. The built-in armament consisted of two MG 17 rifle caliber machine guns in the fuselage and two MG 151 / 20 guns in the wing.
The next massive shock modification Fw 190A-4 / U3 had an engine of increased power BMW 801D-2 and armor protection with a total weight of 138 kg. The pilot was covered with an armor frame with a thickness of 8 mm and a sliding 13,5 mm armored headpiece. The cabin was also protected from behind by an additional armored barrier. To protect the oil cooler, two armor rings were installed on the front of the engine hood. However, due to the increased anti-aircraft cover of the Soviet troops on the Fw 190A-5 / U3 modification, the weight of the armor was reduced to 310 kg. The 5-6 mm thick armor sheets were protected on the sides and bottom of the pilot's cabin, and the lower part of the engine.
In connection with the emergence of a large number of modifications to Fw 190 to avoid confusion, the Technical Department of the Ministry of Aviation introduced in April 1943 a new system of designations. For attack aircraft introduced the index "F", the index "G" got fighter-bombers. Accordingly, Fw 190A-4 / U3 received the designation Fw 190F-1, and Fw 190A-5 / U3 was renamed Fw 190F-2.
On the shock versions of the Fw 190, the 14-cylinder engine of the BMW-801 air-cooled versions C and D was mainly installed. During production, the engine was constantly improved, the power it developed increased from 1560 to 1700 l. with. In May, the 1943 of the year went to the Fw 190F-3 series with a BMW 801D-2 engine with a power 1700 hp. Thanks to a more powerful engine and refined aerodynamics, the maximum speed of the aircraft compared to the previous modification increased by 20 km / h.
Fw 190F-3 with a maximum take-off weight of 4925 kg had a range of 530 km. The flight speed with one 250 kg bomb was 585 km / h. After dropping the bomb load, the plane could reach speed in a horizontal flight of 630 km / h. Thus, the attack aircraft, having bombed off in 1943, had every chance of breaking away from the Soviet fighters.
With good security and good flight data, the first Fw 190 assault modifications were inferior in accuracy to the bombing of the Ju-87 dive bombers, and the 20-mm guns could only fight with lightly armored vehicles. In this regard, the question arose of enhancing the shock potential of the “Focke-Wolf”.
On the next serial modification of the Fw 190F-8 attack aircraft, created on the basis of the Fw 190А-8 fighter, machine guns of rifle caliber replaced the 13-mm MG 131. In the overload version, the bomb load reached 700 kg. Instead of bombs on the wing nodes of the Fw 190F-8 / R3 modification, two 30-mm MK 103 cannons with 32 rounds of ammunition were suspended on the barrel.
Fw 190F-8 with 30-mm MK 103 guns
The use of 30-mm guns increased the anti-tank potential, but due to the increase in drag, the maximum speed now did not exceed 600 km / h. In addition, the weight of each gun MK 103 with ammunition approached the 200 kg, and their placement on the wing made the plane "thoughtful" when performing maneuvers. In addition, for effective shooting at the tanks it was necessary to have a high flight qualification. The best option was to attack the tank from the stern, at an angle of about 30-40 °. That is, not too hollow, but not cool to easily get out of the peak after the attack. Taking into account the fact that the plane quickly accelerated on a dive and sank heavily when leaving it, it was necessary to carefully control the height and speed of flight. Accurate data on the number of built Fw 190F-8 / R3 could not be found, but, apparently, there were not too many of them.
At the beginning of serial production, the Fw 190F-8 attack aircraft had the same booking scheme as the Fw 190F-3. But the aircraft, over-heavy armor, hopelessly lost in aerial combat to Soviet fighters. The only technique that allowed out of the battle was a dive, but this required a reserve of height. Subsequently, the attack aircraft reservation was reduced to a minimum, thus increasing flight data. Another new feature introduced in the second half of 1944 was the extended cockpit light. Due to this, it was possible to improve the forward and downward visibility, which was very important when attacking ground targets.
The latest serial modification was the Fw 190F-9 with a forced BMW 801TS engine with an 2000 horsepower capable of developing 685 km / h in horizontal flight. Armament attack aircraft remained at Fw 190F-8. Externally, the aircraft differed increased cockpit lantern. Due to the acute shortage of duralumin, on the part of the machines the tail unit, flaps and ailerons were wooden.
On the basis of the Fw 190 fighter, Fw 190G fighter-bombers were also produced. They were intended to deliver bombing strikes at a distance of up to 600 km, that is, outside the combat radius of the Fw 190F attack aircraft. In order to increase the flight range, the planes were not additionally booked, machine guns were dismantled for them, and the ammunition load of two 20-mm guns was reduced to 150 projectiles per barrel.
Fw 190G-3 with 300-liter tanks and 500 kg bomb
Discharged fuel tanks were suspended under the wing. Since the Fw 190G-8 modification aircraft could take 1000 kg bombs, the aircraft landing gear was strengthened. Although fighter-bombers did not have special weapons and were not armored, they were often attracted to attack Soviet tanks. In this case, the bombs were dropped from a gentle dive with a volley, after which they drove off at maximum speed with a decrease.
With more than a bomb load compared to ground attack aircraft, for the home of Fw 190G fighter-bombers, long-length runways were required. However, a common shortcoming of all the shock modifications of the Fw 190 was the high demands on the runways, according to this criterion, the Foke-Wulf was much inferior to the Ju 87 dive bomber.
In total, during the war years, about 20 000 Fw 190 of all modifications was built, about half of them are percussion variants. An interesting trend was observed, fighters were mainly involved on the Western Front and in Germany’s air defense, and most of the Foke-Wulfs were firing on the Eastern Front.
But the “Fokker” with standard weapons did not manage to become a full-fledged tank destroyer. The accuracy of the Fw 190 bombing could not be compared with the dive bomber Ju 87, and by the power of artillery weapons, with the exception of the few Fw 190F-8 / R3, it was inferior to Hs-129B-2. In this regard, in Germany at the final stage of the war feverish searches were conducted for a truly effective anti-tank weapons. Since the description of all experimental samples will take too much time, let us dwell on the aviation means of destruction that were used in the hostilities.
Contrary to popular belief, the Luftwaffe had cumulative bombs. In 1942, the 4 kg of the cumulative SD 4-HL bomb with armor penetration 60 mm at an angle of meeting with the armor 60 ° passed tests.
Cumulative SD bomb X XUMUM-HL
The SD 4-HL cumulative aerial bomb was created on the basis of the SD-4 fragmentation cluster bomb, it had a length of 315 and a diameter of 90 mm. In the inheritance from the fragmentation bomb, the cumulative received a cast-iron body, which gave a large number of fragments. The SD bomb 4-HL was loaded with 340 g with a charge of TNT-hexogen alloy. The undermining of the charge was quite a heaped up instantaneous piezoelectric fuse.
SD 4-HL in section
Compared to the Soviet PTN 2,5-1,5, it was a much more expensive and difficult to manufacture product. Unlike PTAB, loaded into the internal bomb compartments, IL-2 and small bombs cassettes, the German SD 4-HL was used only from 250 and 500 kg bombs that opened in the air, the height of which was exposed before the sortie. According to the reference data, the 250 kg cumulative submunition was placed in the 44 kg cassette, and the 500 was placed in the 118 kg cassette.
Cassette bomb AB-500 equipped with SD-4
Compared with the Soviet PTAB, which, as a rule, were dropped from a horizontal flight, from a height of no more than 100 m and formed a continuous defeat band of 15х75 m, bomber cassettes with SD 4-HL were dropped from a specific object. At the same time, it was necessary to monitor the height of the bomb cassette compartment very precisely, since the accuracy of the bombing and the dispersion of cumulative bombs directly depended on this. The experience of combat use of cassettes has demonstrated that they are quite difficult to use. The optimum opening height was considered to be at which an ellipse of 50-55 m long was formed on the ground. With a smaller SD 4-HL scatter, the target might not be covered, and with a larger tank it could be between the gaps. In addition, it was noted that up to 10% of cumulative bombs because of the unreliable operation of the fuses did not work or the bombs had time to split before the explosion, hitting the armor. As a rule, one 500 kg with a bomb cassette on the battlefield managed to cover a maximum of the 1-2 tank. In practice, the Hs-129 pilots preferred to use 30-mm guns against armored vehicles, as they were easier to use.
Cassette bomb AB-250 on the suspension Fw-190
Although the AB-250 and AB-500 cluster bombs, equipped with SD 4-HL cumulative ammunition, remained in service until the end of the war, they were used occasionally in combat. This was due to both the complexity of use and the longer preparation for combat sortie compared to other German types of bombs. In addition, the combat effectiveness of the SD 4-HL could not but affect their greater weight compared to PTAB 2,5-1,5, whereby one carrier took a smaller number of anti-tank bombs.
In the second half of the war, unguided rockets were considered as anti-tank weapons in the Luftwaffe. Although the Red Army Air Force RS-82 and RS-132 were actively used on ground targets from the first days of the war, until the 1943, no samples of such weapons were adopted in Germany.
The first model of an aviation rocket armament was the 210-mm missile, known as Wfr. Gr. 21 "Doedel" (Wurframmen Granate 21) or BR 21 (Bordrakete 21). This munition was developed on the basis of a reactive mine from a five-barrel 210-mm jet towed mortar Nb.W.42 (21cm Nebelwerfer 42). The launch of an aviation rocket was carried out from a tube-type guide, 1,3 m long. The guides were fixed in slots for outboard fuel tanks. Like tanks, they could be dropped in flight. Stabilization of the projectile on the trajectory occurred due to rotation. For this, there were 22 inclined nozzles in its bottom.
Equipment Wfr. Gr. 21 launcher on Fw-190
210-mm NAR weighed 112,6 kg, of which 41 kg accounted for fragmentation warhead containing more than 10 kg of TNT-hexogen alloy. With a maximum speed of 320 m / s, the target launch range did not exceed 1200 meters. The original Wfr rocket. Gr. 21 was designed to shoot at the dense formation of heavy bombers. As a rule, the Bf-109 and Fw-190 fighters took one Wfr launcher under the wing. Gr. 21. Attempts have also been made to use 210-mm missiles from Hs-129 attack aircraft. But large-caliber missiles proved to be unsuitable for hitting point moving targets. They gave too much dispersion, and the number of missiles on board was limited.
Also unsuccessful was the use of high-explosive jet mines against tanks 280-mm Wfr.Gr.28, the combat part of which contained 45,4 kg of explosives. Launchers in the form of a welded metal frame in an amount of from two to four were suspended under the wing of the Fw-190F-8 attack aircraft.
280-mm mine under the wing Fw-190F-8
After launch, a heavy reactive mine gave a strong drawdown, which had to be taken into account when aiming. The suspension of a bulky launcher with a mine had a negative effect on the flight data of the attack aircraft. When starting from a distance of less than 300 meters, there was a real danger of running into one’s own fragments.
In the first half of 1944, the enemy attempted to introduce into the armament of anti-tank attack aircraft 88-mm RPzB.54 / 1 "Panzerschreck" grenade launchers. Under the wing of the aircraft housed a block of four launchers with a total weight of about 40 kg. During the tests, it turned out that for an aiming launch, when approaching the target, the attack aircraft was supposed to fly at a speed of about 490 km / h, otherwise the rocket grenade would go astray. But since the sighting range did not exceed 200 m, the aviation version of the anti-tank grenade launcher rejected.
A block of four anti-tank grenade launchers "Panzerschreck" under the wing of Fw-190F
In 1944, Czech specialists from Československá Zbrojovka Brno managed to create a fairly effective anti-tank R-HL “Panzerblitz 1” anti-tank aviation missile. Its design was based on the Soviet RS-82, and the 88-mm cumulative RPzB Gr.4322 2,1 kg cumulative warhead from the Panzerschreck RPG was used as a warhead. Penetration at a meeting angle 60 ° was 160 mm.
The rocket developed by the Czechs had characteristics close to the Soviet prototype, but the firing accuracy due to the rotation reported by the stabilizers mounted at an angle to the shell of the projectile was significantly higher than that of the PC-82. The velocity of the missile is up to 374 m / s. Weight - 7,24 kg.
On Fw-190F-8 / Pb1 attack planes equipped with girder-type guides, 12-16 missiles were suspended. During the tests, it was found that during a salvo launch from a distance of 300 meters, the 1 missile from 6 on average hits the target. Until February, the 1945 of the FN 115F-190 / Pb8 aircraft was built 1, their combat use began in October of the 1944 year.
In the autumn of 1944, the Luftwaffe received a very successful 55-mm NAR R4 / M "Orkan". Stabilization of the rocket after launch was carried out by folding feather stabilizers. NAR R4 / M was designed to fight allied long-range bombers.
55-mm HAP R4 / M
Thanks to good accuracy and speed of 525 m / s, the effective firing range reached 1200 m. At a distance of 1 km, a volley of 24 missiles fit into a circle with a diameter of 30 m. The missile suspension was carried out on beam-type guides.
Rails with 55-mm NAR R4 / M
In addition to the interceptor, NAR R4 / M has been used on the assault variants Fw-190. However, the relatively light fragmentation warhead of the 55-mm missile could not pose a threat to the T-34. In this connection, since December 1944, the assault units equipped with Fw-190F-8 began to receive NAR R4 / M-HL "Panzerblitz 2" weighing 5,37 kg. The anti-tank version of the missile had a cumulative 88-mm warhead RPzB Gr.4322. Due to the increased mass of 1 kg compared to the R4 / M mass of the rocket R4 / M-HL developed speed 370 m / s. Accurate firing range reduced to 1000 m.
NAR R4 / M-HL
Missiles of this type demonstrated high combat effectiveness. With a salvo launch from a distance of 300, m of twelve NAR 1-2 fit in a circle with a diameter of 7 m. In 1945, another version of this missile, known as the “Panzerblitz 3”, appeared with a smaller-sized warhead and increased flight speed. But, despite some success in creating anti-tank unguided missiles, they appeared too late. Under the conditions of the overwhelming superiority of Soviet aviation, few attack aircraft equipped with anti-tank unguided missiles could not have a noticeable effect on the course of hostilities.
To be continued ...
Kondratyev V. "The Flying Locomotive" of the firm "Henschel" // Aviamaster. 2000. No.6