Military Review

Ax in the hands of the emperor. Battletrack Varangi. Part of 2

18. 10. 1081 was a battle with the Norman troops of Robert Guiscard with Dirrahii - unfortunate for Alexey I Komniev basil. The battle took place near Dirrahiya (Durazzo) - the capital of Byzantine Illyria.

Gregory Bakuriani led the left flank of the Byzantine army, Nikifor Melissin led the right flank, and the center was personally the emperor.

The main strike force of the Byzantine troops was the Varangian Guard - at this time it was mainly served by the Anglo-Saxons, who fled from their homeland after the Norman invasion. She was on the left flank, and in the upcoming battle she was assigned an active role. Varangis received orders to advance in front of the main line of troops, letting the archers go ahead. The archers, having fired at the enemy, should have moved beyond the Varangian line.

When the opposing armies got close, Robert Guiscard moved the cavalry to attack - but the archers forced the horsemen to retreat. Then the Normans struck the junction of the center and left flank of the Byzantines. And then the Varang infantry counterattacked - the Normans were crumpled and ran.

The Normans were in a difficult situation - the right flank of their army was defeated. And the Varangians, who were cut with huge axes, overturned the knightly cavalry of Count Amico - there was a battle episode rather rare for the Middle Ages. The Normans rushed to the sea.

But the warlike wife of Robert, Sishelgaita, saved the situation, stopped the flight of the Normans with curses and threats. Hearing the loud shouts of a woman running toward them with a long spear in her hand, the Normans returned to battle. Bohemond arrived to the rescue, previously with his archers on the left flank.

Guards axes were moved too fast forward, moving away from the main forces of the Byzantine army. Moreover, Robert perfectly understood that his most dangerous enemy was tired and could hardly breathe - after a quick movement for a considerable distance, taking into account the armor and weapons. And the tired Varang received a flank attack from the enemy shooters. Having upset the ranks of Varangs with a hail of arrows, the Normans attacked them with their heavy infantry and cavalry.

A Norman source recorded that "the British, who are called Varangs," delivered a lot of trouble to the enemy. But, having received a blow to the right flank, after a fierce battle covered with blood, Varang began to retreat.

During the battle and retreat, the Varangian Guard was killed almost at full strength. She was cut off from the main Byzantine forces - and she did not wait for help. Many guards fell from the arrows, many tried to escape in the temple of the Archangel Michael. Varygs stubbornly defended the church, and some even climbed to the roof. The Normans set fire to the church, and, after the roof collapsed, many Varangians died in the fire. But the survivors, running out of the conflagration, died in battle.

In the battle of Dyrrachia, the Varangian Guard, who possessed high motivation and fighting spirit, served as a shock. The main task of the heavy infantry - to become the basis of the combat order, giving it stability. Varanga, in fact, performed the shock task of heavy cavalry, but even in this non-standard situation, achieved brilliant success. She made a turning point in the battle - but the Byzantine command, due to the lack of reserves, could not use success - the mobile reserve, which could build on success and pursue the enemy, while the guard was clearing up, was absent. There was also no general reserve - in order to help out the battles surrounded by warangs and turn the scales in favor of the imperial weapon. The Byzantine command failed to use the tactical advantage presented by Varanga. The pace and time were missed - and the Byzantines could not withstand the onslaught of the enemy, especially after the death of Varangi. Failure with Dirrachii - the failure of the Byzantine command, and not the courageous varangus.

Among the tactical factors of the death of the Varangian Guard should be highlighted the fact that played the role of 15 th years earlier in the battle of Hastings. In the battle, the Anglo-Saxons (in 1081, in the Varangian Guard, there were also most of them) were also weakened by shooting the Norman archers - and then the enemy heavy cavalry rushed into action. When Dirrahii this, in fact, a mirror, the situation is also aggravated - archers shot the Varangian Guard in the flank. As we wrote earlier, the chain mail, which was the main armor in the period under review, did not provide reliable protection against arrows at the 50-meter (and closer) distance. Moreover, during the attack, the monolithic system (Varangus at Dirrahii, hozarlov at Hastings) was upset.

In this battle, the empire lost its warriors to 5000 (overwhelmingly varangi). The Norman losses are unknown, but sources point out that they were very significant.

But the victory at Dirrachia became for the Normans Pyrrhic - the Byzantines subsequently won the victory at Larisa, and then during the 4 years the Normans lost all the fruits of their success.

In 1085, the Varangas were in the imperial army, defeated by the Pechenegs under Silistria (Balkans).

In 1087 - 1091 Varangian Guard participated in the campaigns of Alexei Comnenus. Under the rule of this sovereign Varang, as in the epoch of Vasiliy the Bulgarians, they were in constant campaigns and battles. Especially distinguished varangs in the battles of Drista (Drastar) and Levinium - during the Pecheneg campaigns. The first one ended with a heavy defeat for the Byzantines, but in 1091, at Levinium, the Pechenegs were crushed and suffered huge losses. And in honor of the 29 day of April, the Byzantines even put down a song in which there were words that “because of one day, the Scythians did not have to see May”.

In 1097, the Warang participated in the Anatolian campaign of Alexey Komnin. Managed to win Nikea. Next year - participation in the Asia Minor campaign.

1118 - 1122 - campaigns of John II Comnenus against the Pechenegs and the Turks.

In 1122, the famous Eski-Zagra battle took place. The Pecheneg hordes crossed the Danube - and on one of the Thracian valleys they met with the imperial army led by the basil. The Pecheneg Horde managed to block, the enemy surrounded his camp with carts, carts covered with ox-skins - and only John II at the head of the heavy cavalry tried to attack, they were hiding behind this kind of “wahrenburg”.

The battle lasted a long time, but the Byzantines could not break into the enemy camp. Sensing the crisis of battle, the emperor turned to the Varangian Guard. And guardsmen armed with long shields and axes went ahead - and chopped not only enemy wagons, but also steppe predators hiding behind them. The Pecheneg camp was captured and the remains of the horde were captured.

Nikita Choniates noted that the enemy left the wagons like strong walls, and then went out because of them and counterattacked. Thus, the battle turned into a real assault on the walls, suddenly erected among an open field. And then John showed his subjects a pattern of wisdom - taking his Guards, armed with axes, rushed at the enemy. The fortification was destroyed - and the battle became hand-to-hand. The Pechenegs turned into inglorious flight and died by the thousands.

The information of the Byzantine chronicler is confirmed by the data of the Scandinavian sagas - in the latter it is said that the imperial troops could not break through the defense of the Pechenegs. The entourage advised the emperor to introduce into the battle "wine skins" - that is, guardsmen-warangs. To this, the emperor replied that he was not going to "waste his precious stones." But the commander of the Varangians, Torir Helsing, declared that his soldiers for the emperor would gladly throw themselves even into the fire.

The battle of Eski Zagra was not only a crushing defeat of the Pechenegs. This is one of the iconic victories of Varangi.

The Pecheneg raid was the last - with the Pecheneg danger John Comnenus ended forever. Moreover, the memorable day of this battle for many years was celebrated by the Byzantines as a holiday.

1137 g. - during the siege of Antioch, the varangas were in the army of John. In this and further campaigns of the emperor, often ending with the siege of cities, the Varangas often performed the functions of sappers.

In 1149, the units of Varangi participated in the defense of Greece against the invasion of the Normans of Roger II of Sicily.

1155 - 1156 - units of the Varangian Guard inflicted a series of defeats on the Normans (the crusaders of the Prince of Antioch, Rene de Chatillon) during the fighting in Cyprus, and then participated in the triumphal procession of the basil Manus I Comnenus in Antioch.

The prince of Antioch, René de Chatillon, attacked Cyprus - the Varangians were also in the garrison of the latter. The economic and strategic importance of the island for the empire was very great. Cyprus is the richest and largest island in the Eastern Mediterranean. In the course of the Byzantine-Arab wars (60-s of VII century), more than once passed from hand to hand, mostly for almost 300 years remaining in Arab hands. In 965-966 The Romans returned the island.

De Chatillon was a cruel man. So, when the Patriarch of Antioch refused to give money for the Cyprus campaign, Rene beat the patriarch and then pulled him onto the roof, smeared the wounds with honey and left the flies to be eaten. An experienced warrior, in the spring of 1156, Mr. de Chatillon landed in Byzantine Cyprus, and defeated the troops of the governor-nephew of the emperor. The soldiers robbed, killed old men and children, injured prisoners, raped women.

But after initial successes, de Chatillon was defeated by the troops of Manuel and captured. The imperial troops marched in a triumphal march along Antioch, and one of the first European brave men, captured by varangians, “the Frankish demon” with a noose around his neck, sprawled at the feet of the basilica, recognizing himself a vassal of Byzantium.

Rene de Chatillon (1124 - 1187) - participant of the 2 th crusade, French knight, prince of Antioch. Being defeated by the imperial army, pleaded vassal of John II Comnenus.

08. 07. 1167 Varangian units participated in the battle of Sirmium, when the Byzantine imperial army defeated the troops of the Hungarian kingdom. The Byzantine building center was made up of Imperial Guards regiments (Varanga — the basis of combat order), a detachment of Lombard mercenaries, 500 heavy Serbian infantrymen and Wallachian cavalry. At the crucial moment of the battle, the Varang counterattack brought victory to the Byzantine weapons. 800 Magyars (including 5 princes - Zhupanov) were captured.

1172 - participation in the sea voyage against the Venetians.

11. 09. 1176 - the battle of Miriokephalus. The army of Manuel - the last great Comnenus - was surrounded by the Turks on a mountain road and suddenly attacked. Surrounded by and terrible carnage, which took away the color of the imperial army (including the klebanofor disappeared from the army lists since then), the guard took the brunt of the attack. The sacrifice of the best fighters allowed the troops and the emperor to escape. The Byzantine Empire moves to a strategic defense.

Ax in the hands of the emperor. Battletrack Varangi. Part of 2

Manuel I Comnenus (28. 11. 1118 - 24. 09. 1180) - the emperor of Byzantium, the last Great Comnenus. With the help of an ambitious foreign and military policy, he sought to restore the status and glory of the empire. Fought in southern Italy. Joining forces with the Kingdom of Jerusalem, he made a trip to Fatimid Egypt. Manuel provided a protectorate of the empire over the Middle Eastern countries of the Crusaders and the Hungarian kingdom, and guaranteed security on the eastern and western borders of the empire. At the end of the reign, the emperor's successes in the east were compromised by the defeat at Miriokfale. Saved in this battle by his guard

In 1179, the Waranga participated in the victorious battle of Claudiopolis.

In 1203, the crusaders made their first attempt (through the Golden Horn) to enter Constantinople. But they could not overcome the resistance of the Vikings and the Pisans. Varangi was responsible for the defense of the section of the fortress wall and the tower. 17. 07. crusaders destroyed the dam, but were discarded.

During the storming of Constantinople, Varang was the most efficient part of the Byzantine army. The source mentions an episode when the Varangian Guards captured several knights, delivering them to Emperor Alexei III Angel. The resilience of the imperial Varangus led to the fact that several quarters remained in the hands of the imperial troops - and negotiations began.

After the fall of the capital, the Varangians served the empires in exile - the Nicene (1205 - 1261), as well as the Epirus despotatu. The glory of the Varangian Guard was so significant that even the Latin emperor of Constantinople acquired a regiment of the Vikings.

In the battles of the 1 th half of the XIII century. Varang promoted the unification of the empire and the rise to power of the Paleologos dynasty.

In 1205, sources note the fact that the Varangian unit was in the service of the Nicene Empire.

1233 - participation in the campaigns of John III against the Latin Empire. Capture Thessaloniki.

In 1264 - 1265 the battle took place at Makriplag (defeat from the Franks) and the defense of the city of Ainos (from the invasion of the Bulgarians - also unsuccessfully).

During the rule of the Paleologue dynasty, the units of Varangi are deployed in strategically important strongholds and regions of the state - on the Anatolian coast, in Thrace, even in Kherson in the Crimea.

Prior to 1272, Emperor Michael VIII actively used the Varangian Guard in his campaigns to collect land in Asia Minor and the Balkans.

Mikhail VIII Palaeologus (1224 / 1225 - 11. 12. 1282) - Emperor of Byzantium from 1261 (Emperor Nikaia from 1259), founder of the Palaeologian dynasty. In 1261, he conquered Constantinople from the Crusaders, reviving the Byzantine Empire. Miniature

Michael Varang VIII. From the collection of drawings Vinkuizhena.

From the 2 th half of the XIII century. Varang gradually becomes the palace guard - and the role of the latter is limited to the protection of the monarch and participation in ceremonies. The units of the Varangian Guard do not participate in military campaigns - having transferred this function to the Catalan Guard. This is due both to a decrease in the participation of emperors in hostilities, and a decline in the military activity of the empire, and economic problems (the latter turned the powerful warhead into a small palace unit). But in the June letter 1402, the emperor John VII informed the English king Henry IV that the "English" soldiers were actively involved in the defense of Constantinople against the Turks.

To be continued
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 23 November 2017 08: 10
    The Varangian Guard died almost in full force.
    ..One of those times when the guard dies, but does not give up ...
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 23 November 2017 08: 49
    In the medieval confrontation between infantry and cavalry, Varanga emerged victorious - having overthrown the Norman knightly cavalry under Dirrachia.
    And when Eski-Zagra did what the rest of the army could not.
    Therefore, the elite
    Thank you!
  3. Karen
    Karen 23 November 2017 09: 06
    Somehow I’ll ask historians about the forgotten ... After centuries of mutual intransigence between the Armenians and Greeks, accusing each other of betrayal, it was clear that only the alliance between us would be able to rectify the situation .. but the train of history has already left ... Sultan Konii suggested our king of Cilicia to come to terms with the fact that such an alliance would never happen, and suggested organizing a trip for him to Byzantium in order to personally see how everything was hopeless there.
  4. Seal
    Seal 23 November 2017 10: 39
    In 1122, the famous battle of Eski - Zagra took place. The Pecheneg hordes crossed the Danube - and on one of the Thracian valleys they met with the imperial army led by Vasileus.

    Where did the "hordes" come from if, according to the traditional version of the story, on April 29, 1091, there was a bloody battle in which the "Pechenegs" were completely defeated and cut out by the Polovtsy?
    “One could see,” says Anna Komnina, “an extraordinary sight: a whole nation, considered not tens of thousands, but exceeding any number, with wives and children completely died that day". This battle resonated in the then composed Byzantine song:
    "Because of one day, the Scythians (as Anna Komnina calls the Pechenegs) did not see May."
    After which, in fact, according to TI, the Polovtsy became the dominant force in the Black Sea region. And the remains of the Pechenegs skerried from them in the Danube.
    1. Curious
      Curious 23 November 2017 11: 57
      If you look at the five-volume “History of the Byzantine Empire” by Fedor Ivanovich Uspensky or “Byzantium and the Pechenegs” V.G. Vasilevsky, then there on this occasion it is said that after the battle of Levunion by 1121 the Pechenegs were able to regain their strength. A new horde of Pechenegs crossed the Danube and moved to Macedonia and Thrace. In the winter of 1121/1122, Emperor John II Komnin (1118–1143) began to gather troops, while at the same time negotiating with the nomads. Since the Pechenegs did not have a single leader, the emperor's envoys were sent to the tribal leaders. However, the generosity of the Byzantines did not bring results and the emperor decided to attack, inflicting a crushing defeat on the nomads under Beroe. After that, the Pechenegs remained quite numerous and were settled throughout the empire; detachments from the Pechenegs were created in the Byzantine army. In memory of this victory, John II established a special holiday, which was celebrated at least until the end of the XII century.
      D.A. Rasovsky, connected the Byzantine-Pecheneg war of John Komnin with the expulsion of the Berendey, Torques and Pechenegs from Russia by the Kiev prince Vladimir Monomakh, noting that “it is otherwise difficult to imagine that the fragments of the Pechenegs could still roam freely on the left side of the Danube, where the Polovtsy already ruled at that time "
      Mikhail Vadimovich Bibikov also believes that in the Vera War the Byzantines were opposed by the united Oguz-Pecheneg army.
  5. soldier
    soldier 23 November 2017 10: 56
    The battle route of the Varangian Guard reflects the bursts of activity of the Byzantine Empire, the glory of the Byzantine weapons.
    In the era of recovery, no one could resist - neither Arabs, nor Hungarians, nor Pechenegs.
    good hi
  6. Seal
    Seal 23 November 2017 14: 29
    Quote: Curious
    If you look at the five-volume “History of the Byzantine Empire” by Fedor Ivanovich Uspensky or “Byzantium and the Pechenegs” V.G. Vasilevsky, then there on this occasion it is said that after the battle of Levunion by 1121 the Pechenegs were able to regain their strength.

    If you look, it will be clear that the comrades were just trying to somehow explain where the new "Pecheneg horde" came from. It goes without saying that the simplest explanation: "regained their strength." Without explanation, due to what "restored". Although all historical experience, for example, the development of North America by Europeans shows that the Indian tribes, having lost half or more strength, have never "regained their strength."
    Well, or it should be recognized that Anna Komnina greatly exaggerated the loss of the Pechenegs on April 29, 1091. And the "ancient Byzantines" sang completely out of nowhere that "because of one day the Scythians did not see May."
    Or maybe on April 29, 1091 there were Scythians? Oh yes, this cannot be the same, the official version of the story believes that the Scythians have long been gone at all. hi

    D.A. Rasovsky, connected the Byzantine-Pecheneg war of John Komnin with the expulsion of the Berendey, Torques and Pechenegs from Russia by the Kiev prince Vladimir Monomakh, noting that “it is otherwise difficult to imagine that the fragments of the Pechenegs could still roam freely on the left side of the Danube, where the Polovtsy already ruled at that time "

    Well yes. Agreed with the Polovtsy. They opened a corridor through their land towards the Danube, through which Vladimir Monomakh "expelled the Berendey, Torques and Pechenegs from Russia." Although where did the Pechenegs come from in Russia at that time - the official history is silent. For according to it, the Polovtsy in Russia appeared back in 1055. It is believed that this year the Polovtsian khan Bolush with a horde entered the boundaries of the Pereyaslav principality and was met by the Pereyaslav squad with Prince Vsevolod Yaroslavovich at the head. The meeting was peaceful - exchanging gifts, the parties dispersed within themselves. At that time, the Polovtsy were not yet looking for a military confrontation with the Russian principalities, as they continued to fight in the steppe with representatives of local steppe peoples. But after a short time the situation changed: in 1061, Vsevolod Yaroslavich was defeated by the khan Iskal, Pereyaslav land was ruined. In September 1068, the Polovtsy defeated the Yaroslavich army in the battle on the Alta River and ravaged the border lands. After this, the military campaigns of the Polovtsy on Russian lands (often in alliance with one of the Russian princes) acquired a regular character. In the battle with the Polovtsy on Nezhatina Niva in 1078, Izyaslav Yaroslavich of Kiev died.
    How did the Polovtsian enemies-Pechenegs survive "in Russia" here ???
    1. Curious
      Curious 24 November 2017 00: 02
      If you didn’t rush to blame everything and everyone, and carefully read the books of these authors, you would find answers to all your questions. You can’t quote the book in the comment format. There are studies on Anna Komnin, and how you can understand her message.
      But if "Neither at home, nor at school, Nowhere, nobody - Stubborn Thomas did not believe anything," read Mikhalkov.
      1. Seal
        Seal 24 November 2017 15: 39
        Oh, how I like those teachers who smartly advise something to "read" laughing
        Like people I would not be so sure of my comments if I had not read all those whom all kinds of advisers advise me to read in my youth. hi
        And by the way, why don't you advise me to read the works of Tsydenov this time? crying

        But you certainly need to read the "Penguin Island" by Anatole France. This is my friendly advice to you. Believe me, there are a lot of writers, which are much more interesting than S. Mikhalkov.
        No, I understand that you are still at that age (not calendar, but by state of mind and overall development), when you are primarily interested in works for children. Like the type of Mikhaylov you mentioned or the author of this cycle about the varanga.
        But still try to contact A. France.

        But if you are drawn to poetry, I can still recommend reading our famous poet A.S. Pushkin. And he has an interesting study on the topic of domestic history. Or maybe you yourself know which one? True, it was not written in poetic form, but nevertheless clearly and even beautifully.
        1. Curious
          Curious 24 November 2017 15: 41
          Your comment indicates that my hit the target. Thanks for the tips. Good luck.
    BRONEVIK 23 November 2017 16: 08
    An outstanding Russian Byzantine scholar, academician Vasilievsky, who studied a huge array of Byzantine and other sources, (Proceedings of V. G. Vasilievsky. T. 1. St. Petersburg, 1908) gives comprehensive answers to: 1) the Pecheneg question - "Byzantium and Pechenegs" ( 1048-1094) - S. 1 - 174; 2) about the Varangian Guard - “Varyago-Russian and Varyago-English squad in Constantinople of 11 - 12 centuries”. - S. 176 - 377. and 3) on the Varangian-Rus - "On the Varangian-Rus." C 378-401.
    A new horde of Pechenegs crossed the Danube and moved to Macedonia and Thrace. In the winter of 1121/1122, Emperor John II Komnin (1118–1143) began to gather troops, while at the same time negotiating with the nomads. Since the Pechenegs did not have a single leader, the emperor's envoys were sent to the tribal leaders. However, the generosity of the Byzantines did not bring results and the emperor decided to attack, inflicting a crushing defeat on the nomads under Beroe. After that, the Pechenegs remained quite numerous and were settled throughout the empire; detachments from the Pechenegs were created in the Byzantine army. In memory of this victory, John II established a special holiday, which was celebrated at least until the end of the XII century.

    Absolutely sure
    We once spoke about transcription (Beroya - Eska-Zagra).
    But the fact is very famous
  8. alatanas
    alatanas 23 November 2017 16: 43
    Battle of Eski - Zagra

    Invalid name. In antiquity, this is Augusta Trajan, later Irynopol, then Beroe or Boruy - the center of the Zagore region. In the XI - XII centuries Vereya (Boruy) and after the conquest of Bulgaria by the Turks, after the 1430 year, it was called the Eski Zagra by the Turks.
      BRONEVIK 23 November 2017 16: 51
      We once spoke about transcription (Beroya - Eska-Zagra).

      And I wrote this SPECIALLY for you.
      The very first time they said - is it not enough? If another transcription of the name in the beginning has already passed, it is clear that it will remain in the future.
      1. alatanas
        alatanas 23 November 2017 17: 34
        Sorry if I offended, but wrote as a comment on the article and then I already read your comment.
        1. BRONEVIK
          BRONEVIK 23 November 2017 17: 49
          No, what are you, what insults.
          For the rest of my life I realized that Eski Zagra is Vereya (Boruy) hi
          Really - there is nothing to remember Turkish names wink
          1. alatanas
            alatanas 23 November 2017 18: 10
            Now Stara Zagora. drinks
  9. Seal
    Seal 23 November 2017 17: 52
    This fresco is a “portrait” of Michael VIII Paleologue (13th century AD).

    But these are (below) antique "ancient Greek" and "ancient Roman" works of painting.
    Women playing dice, master from Athens, supposedly a copy of the polychromatic thing of Zeus

    Hermaphrodite and Silenus from the House of Vettius in Pompeii

    Either Sappho, or someone else from this series. In general, something "ancient Greek."

    From a series of Fayum portraits of ancient times. It seems a certain Alina.

    No one has any questions?
    Does everything ("progress" in art) seem normal to everyone?
  10. sivuch
    sivuch 24 November 2017 10: 40
    Rene Chatillon looks very picturesque - with a brutal face, a fluttering cloak and 15th-century armor
  11. algonquin
    algonquin 25 November 2017 17: 23
    Is this all from Oleinikov's opus?

    Firstly, it is still unclear exactly who the "Varangians" are - Scandinavians or just a squad / guard of the emperor
    2. secondly, the number is clearly exaggerated. You only saw the number on Wikipedia that Prince Vladimir sent 6 Varangians from Kiev without paying for a campaign against the Pechenegs, and if you follow the link to Vladimir, it says that he sent just an army of 000 people. on the occasion of the wedding.

    and now open Gurevich:
    The demographic boom in Scandinavia began in the 113th century; in the 13th century, the Norwegian population was about 400. All together - young and old, and aunts and uncles.
    Sweden - 500 people. Denmark about 000 million
    in the 10th century, when the prince of Kiev "gave" 6 soldiers, in the Swedish capital city of Birka (a large shopping center) on the way from the Varangians to the Greeks, from 000 to 1 people lived permanently. in the days of fairs, the population from the entire region - Estonians, Karelians, Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, etc. increased only to 000 people.

    During the period of settlement from 880 to 930, Iceland left 20 to 000 thousand people.
    That is, not only did the Norwegians populate the islands, were hired to England, Ireland and to each other, so they also farted to Byzantium!
    Well, not in thousands!
    Incidentally, the “seeker of happiness in Grekland” from Sweden was considered “missing” and his property was without delay of 3 years, as the Norwegians or Icelanders were immediately transferred to the heirs.
    because I still had to get there.
    First they got "from the Vikings to the Greeks." How many ships can you send to collect 6 Varangian warriors?
    The average logskip had an army command of about 55-60-70 people, which means that at least 1 thousand should be sent, which is unlikely, I repeat, this population is the capital of the capital, we need to equip about 15 ships!
    Offhand, somewhere I read in sagas that the richest king could equip with the strength of 6 ships. This is a purchase-construction-equipment and a recruited team + provisions and other things.
    I have never met in any saga that someone sent somewhere as many as 15 ships.

    Further, Prince Vladimir sent 6 people on the occasion of his marriage.
    And here are the counts on the squad of the Kiev princes being squeezed out:

    In 1093, the great Kiev prince Svyatopolk decided to march against the Polovtsy at the head of a detachment of 700 soldiers. These forces were clearly not enough to fight them. “Meaningful verbs,” the chronicler remarks, “if only eight thousand would have added them, there are some good ones.” According to some researchers, an indication of the chronicler on 8 thousand soldiers testify that such an army could put up Svyatopolk if necessary
    В In 1015, according to Nestor’s report about Boris and Gleb, 8 thousand soldiers took part in the campaign against the Pechenegs along with Prince Boris Vladimirovich. This figure, as Academician M.N. Tikhomirov, indicative of Kiev, where one Prince's squad totaled several hundred people.
    Let's start with the annals about the number of Kiev soldiers who participated in various battles. This figure usually fluctuates between 700 and 10000 person. According to the calculations of academician M.N. Tikhomirov, the ratio of the population of the city and "his" professional "troops can be expressed as six to one. Since Novgorod exhibited 3 ... 5 thousand soldiers in the XII ... XIII centuries, its population was 20 ... 30 thousand people. If we took the same ratio and suggested that Kiev in the XII ... XIII centuries could put up an army of 10 thousand, then its population should have been estimated at 60 thousand people.

    That is, the entire army of Kiev consisted of 10-000 people, and then here, he took and gave half.

    Estimation of the number of Pechenegs - according to Pletneva - 1: 5 or 1: 6, the number of about 500 000
    The population of Russia in the 11th century is about 1 million.
    Gumilev L.N. He claims that most of the time the Rusics got along peacefully with the Pechenegs, he counts the number of campaigns to the north against the Chud, Ests and Karelians and compares with the number of campaigns to the south, against the steppes - about the same result.
    That is, the chronicles record mainly the “negative experience” of interaction, as well as the sagas - nothing interesting happened that year. The shortest and most boring saga from Hemskrings is about Olav Bond. He did not fight practically.

    And now to the ax in the hands of the emperor.
    Is that such a metaphor?
    Which emperor is Byzantine? Instead of all powers and other scepters, did he carry the ax?
    What is the meaning of the phrase?

    Campaigns against the Pechenegs.
    Now, if you think with your brains: the homeland of the Scandinavians, fjords and skerries. This means a farm of 20-30 people, a mountain valley, a forest, rocks and again mountains. What nafig archery and cavalry attack skills?
    And if you go into the Byzantine Army section, we see that the army included the same Pechenegs, Bulgarians, and Saracens ...
    Do you seriously think that the Viking knows in which month horses-horses foals, where the grass has not yet grown and where the herds are driven away from any horseflies or in a drought?

    and yet, about the passion for exaggeration

    Well, name a specific source about 235 ships on which as many as 5 people sailed in 000?
    Where did they come from? I have never seen such a thing in the History of England that 235 ships sailed away, nor the history of Norway.
    But according to the same annals In the 800s, Paris besieged a Viking army of 400 Normans!
    This is the entire population of Norway, along with crippled, small and female

    and before there were such tales that almost 60 ships were fighting at the Battle of Havrsfjord.
    The length of the Havrsfjord is 9 km, the width I do not know, but on average 3 km.
    Sizes of warships:

    about 45-50 meters, Roskilde-6 is the longest of the dracars found. 36 meters, width - 3.50m. This is the 39th can ship by the number of pairs of oars. Onboard 78 rowers or about 100 warriors. Gokstad Rook - 23.80m long and 5.10m wide. 16 pairs of oars. Crew - 60-70 people.

    Longship Range - from 13 pairs of oars (13 cans) to 39 pairs (Roskilde-6). Those. from 35 to 100 people. But according to scientists, most of the drakkars that were used in the Viking era as part of the armies are 20-25 cans. Those. 55 - 70 people.
    Now let’s estimate how many ships can enter the space of 3 km for at least 5 - and so that later they can unleash and swim back.
    Well, let's estimate how much the king pulls, let's say 6-7 ships + 1-2 can lead to a rich jarl / bond, and from the fylks.
    here it’s still necessary to calculate how many warriors a country / region can put up at all, given that it is necessary to leave the people for protection / guard, fishing, harvesting feed, then people who are in litigation / matchmaking, set sail for service in England, and trade somewhere else something etc.
    take the ratio 1: 6
    400 Norwegians, and of these, “eligible for appeal” is something around 000, this is a leidag, a militia.
    Which the king could not always collect, and from them every year as many as 1 or 000 people were sent only to Byzantium?
    Despite the fact that Ireland, Denlo in England, Faroe Islands, Orkney and Iceland are practically nearby, but they are not always able to successfully sail there

    links: demography of Kiev

    ship sizes

    the population of Norway is Gurevich. The history of the ancient Germans.
    1. kipage
      kipage 25 November 2017 17: 55
      Crazy ravings
      Damn cho on all topics
      400 Norwegians, and of these, “eligible for appeal” is something around 000

      Opus algonquin laughing
      1. algonquin
        algonquin 25 November 2017 18: 17
        pull yourself back
        1. kipage
          kipage 25 November 2017 18: 22
          Uncle Slava
          At the very (most), after all, not a single link
          Some empty empty speculation and thoughtful reasoning
          Oh yes, Vicki ...
          Word - wassat Wiki
          1. algonquin
            algonquin 25 November 2017 18: 35
            links: demography of Kiev
            ship sizes
            the population of Norway is Gurevich. The history of the ancient Germans.
            1. algonquin
              algonquin 25 November 2017 18: 36
              open your eyes uncle, go blow a beer
              1. kipage
                kipage 25 November 2017 18: 40
                Yes I saw your internet.
                And here are links to SOURCES (with sheets / pages) - netuti.
                However, maybe someone is interested.
            2. kipage
              kipage 25 November 2017 18: 43
              It won’t be worse laughing
  12. algonquin
    algonquin 25 November 2017 18: 16
    More about 235 ships of the British:

    After Knud had 1016 warships in 16, including the 120-row main ship. Successor of Hardecnud, EDuard Confessor, reduced the size of the fleet, giving 14 ships - total 2 left

    The future king of England of Norman descent William I, who landed in 1066 and defeated Harold II at the Battle of Hastings, actually stopped using the fleet, sending him only once in 1072 to Scotland. By the beginning of the XNUMXth century the British stopped making sea trips. Only in 1141, King Henry II Plantagenet assembled a fleet for a campaign in Ireland; also 167 ships sailed from Dartmouth to fight for Lisbon against the Moors. In 1190, a fleet was also assembled for the Third Crusade.

  13. algonquin
    algonquin 25 November 2017 18: 34
    ratio 1: 6 is used to determine the military composition of Kievan Rus and nomadin who live in communities.
    А in Scandinavia - farm agriculture, that is - 20-30 people and within a radius of ..kmso i still reduced / increased the ratio, because out of 6 people it’s too much to take one for Norway,
    in addition, the so-called "domestic slavery" and freedmen and others were present in Scandinavia. "servants", 2 households. "Most likely they were domestic workers who were not called up for militia
  14. algonquin
    algonquin 25 November 2017 20: 38
    LEYDANG, Ledung, Leding - 1) a nationwide militia, which the king convened at the time of danger or when attacking another state. The population was supposed to be in the militia armed and with food; each combat-ready and personally free bond had a shield and military weapons. In the X century. in Norway, the Leydang consisted of disparate militias that brought local leaders under the banner of the king — the Hersirs. They convened the Leydang - each in their own area, in accordance with the rules that prevailed there, regardless of state power .//// Organization of the Leydang in the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries. well known for descriptions in the forensics and Landslov. The service in the royal fleet was universal and extended in the event of an enemy attack on Norway, not only free but even freedmen and slaves. Only clergymen, royal armannes, seriously ill and completely impoverished bonds were freed from its performance .... Such a service was a heavy duty and took a lot of time from the peasants, so the bonds tried their best to avoid it, for which they were subjected to severe fines. In the XII-XIII centuries. the Leydang system finally became obsolete, and the state began to partially rely on the professional knightly army. The people's militia was replaced by an annual tax that received the same name.

    SHIPBOARDS, shiplag, sheppslag - coastal parts of Norway, Sweden and Denmark, whose inhabitants together equipped warships and displayed their crews. In addition, funds were paid from the population of ship districts to pay shipbuilders and to equip ships with everything necessary. According to Fagrskine, division into ship districts in Norway was first made by King Hakon Dobry shortly after its accession, that is, approximately in the late 40s . X century He established how many ships and what size the population of each coastal fylka was supposed to exhibit. According to the "Goulatting Laws", the total number of ships that the king demanded from all over the country is 310 with the number of benches on each 20 or 25. 109 ships were to be set up from all the Tründelag fühls, 126 from Westland, and 60 from Vick. The number of crews, according to E. Herzberg, in the XII century. equaled approximately 27 thousand people.

    MANNGORD - tAt the estates, they put one person in the Leydang for the fleet, while others, if necessary, watched his farm. Sometimes two people went to the militia. Unmarried men served primarily, but if they were lacking, then the owners were obliged to go, in the estates of which there were assistants. However, a need for an even larger number of people could arise, and then the owners who did not have assistants should also go to the fleet. In a later edition of the "Laws of Ghouling" a new norm was established, according to which he should serve in the navy every seventh person.
    via / Landslov / 3defence.htm
  15. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 27 November 2017 20: 53
    A wonderful and very informative article. To the author - my gratitude for the work done!