Military Review

TVD Second Patriotic. 1917 year. Part of 2

13
Galician theater



This theater in the summer of 1917 was of central importance in the campaign - and it was precisely the outcome of the summer offensive that depended largely on the fate of the summer offensive. The South-Western Front delivered the main attack.

During the Summer Offensive of his 4 army attacked: 11-I - at Lviv, 7-I - at Bobrki (from two sides covering the Austrian 2-th and the German Southern Army), 8-I - at Kalush and Bolekhuv (rejecting the Austrian 3- Army for the Stryi River), and the Special Bind Forced Army Group A. von Linzingen.

Having begun successfully, the Summer Offensive (see The last spurt. The June offensive of the South-Western Front 1917 r. 3. Offensive and its results) had negative results.


5 schema. The South-Western Front and the plans of the 1917 Summer Offensive. Strategic essay. H. 7


3. Attack in 1917

In the largest operation of the 1917 campaign, the enemy lost 82000 people, 121 guns and 403 machine guns, and the South-Western Front 18. 06. - 06. 07. - 58000 man, 257 guns and 546 machine guns.

TVD Second Patriotic. 1917 year. Part of 2

4. Death battalion of the 3 Caucasian Army Corps

The Galician TVD was also central during this campaign, both in terms of the amount of forces and assets involved and of strategic implications. The troops in the remaining theaters during the Summer Offensive performed auxiliary tasks.

Romanian theater


By the beginning of the campaign in this XDUMX theater unit, the Russian and 3 Romanian armies opposed the German 1, the Austrian 3 and the Bulgarian 1 armies.


6 schema. Romanian front. Strategic essay. H. 7

The July offensive of the Romanian 2 and Russian 4 armies of the Russian-Romanian front (see Salvation unlucky ally) on Mareshti was successful. The losses for July-August only cost the Germans 47000 people (without the Austrians and Bulgarians), and the total losses of the Russian-Romanian troops over 52000 people.

By the beginning of the 1917 campaign, the imperial headquarters clearly saw the promise of the Romanian theater, but the High Command in the post-revolutionary period overlooked the ever-increasing strategic importance of this theater (especially in July-August) and could not increase its strategic efforts in this very promising and successful in this period fighting, theater.

Caucasian and Persian theaters


Because of the harsh winter, the Caucasian army did not conduct active operations. In early March, the 1-th Caucasian Cavalry Corps, defeating the Persian enemy grouping, captured the city of Kermanshah and an important communication hub of Sinnah, after which it moved towards Euphrates towards the allies - the British. And in the middle of the same month, 1-I Caucasian Cossack and 3-I Kuban divisions, having passed over 400 km, met with allies in Iraq - at Kyzyl Rabat. Turkey lost Mesopotamia.

Scheduled for 1917, the actions of the troops of the Caucasian Army were to become a model of interaction with the allies. Thus, operations were originally planned in close cooperation with the British (expeditionary army of General F. S. Moda). The plan provided for a powerful blow to the Turkish troops (to prevent the transfer of enemy troops to the Balkans and Galicia), as well as offensive operations on the Mesopotamian front. The actions of N. N. Baratov's group led to the establishment of elbow interaction with the allies and the emergence of another inter-union front. It was planned to form the 2 Caucasian Army, headed by the aforementioned general, as part of the Caucasian Front - the direction was so important.

Thus, since March 1917, the British and Russian troops acted together. Preparations for the Mosul operation began - the 1-th Caucasian Cavalry and 7-th Caucasian Army Corps were to take part in it. The offensive, which was to be conducted in close cooperation with the British, was planned for June. But, given the progressive revolutionary collapse of the army, the operation was postponed - until the spring of 1918, the Mosul operation could well become the most vivid example of direct combat cooperation of large Entente contingents on the same theater (the British even took on the issue of supplying the left flank of the Russian assault force). After the conclusion of a truce with the German bloc in December of 1917, the fighting of the Caucasian army ceased completely.

Thus, in the course of the 1917 campaign, the Galician TVD performed a striking task, while the rest of the theater operations were auxiliary. The key trend was the shift of the strategic importance of theaters to the flanks of the Austro-German front, to the Romanian and Baltic-Belarusian theaters. However, the High Command of the Russian army, which was in a state of revolutionary personnel leapfrog, could not make out this important fact, which was one of the reasons for the sad military outcome of the campaign.

It is obvious that there was no possibility to implement strategic planning in the post-revolutionary conditions - and the decline in the combat capability of the Russian troops had a great influence on the course and results of the campaign. But even in a situation of loss of combat capability, the Russian army continued to hold significant enemy forces in its theaters. Moreover, add additional resources. Thus, it was only during the Summer Offensive that the enemy redeployed to the east to 13 German (of which 11 from the French front) and 3 Austrian (from the Italian front) divisions.

In 1917, on the Russian front, the enemy suffered the following general losses: the Germans before 350000 (with 900000 on other fronts), and the Austrians around 150000 (with 316000 on other fronts) people. The total loss of Russian troops - up to 400000 people. During the campaign, Russian troops captured serious trophies - 120000 prisoners (up to 100000 Austrians and more 20000 Germans), 200 guns and up to 500 machine guns.

Bringing the brunt of the war in the most difficult years, Russia was left without a laurel winner. But even though 3 March 1918, only 8 months before the Entente ended the war, after the signing of the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty between the RSFSR and the Central Powers, it left the war, the theater of the former Eastern Front continued to hold a large number of German-Austrian troops.

Only the Germans kept here very large forces - even during the period of momentous and heavy battles in France in the spring-summer of 1918 (50 infantry divisions). These former theaters of the former Russian front rendered invaluable and last aid to the former allies. These divisions did not have enough E. von Ludendorff in the last spurt of the Kaiser army to Paris - and their absence at the key moment on the French front was a fatal circumstance for the enemy and his last strategic mistake.
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  1. XII Legion
    XII Legion 21 November 2017 06: 45 New
    17
    By the beginning of the 1917 campaign, the imperial Headquarters clearly saw the prospects of the Romanian theater, but the High Command in the post-revolutionary period overlooked the ever-growing strategic importance of this theater and was unable to build up strategic efforts in this theater, which was extremely promising and successful in this period of hostilities.

    How important it is to have strategic foresight and calculate such moments.
    An indicative and interesting characteristic of a theater of operations in 14-17 years, in the aggregate of operations included in them
    Thank you!
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 21 November 2017 07: 14 New
    +6
    which was one of the reasons for the sad military outcome of the campaign.

    I do not quite agree: yes, the offensive did not bring the planned results, but there was no defeat, moreover, successes were achieved in Romania and on the Caucasian front.
    Given that Russia was only part of the Entente’s general war with the Central Powers and the main front was in the West, it fulfilled its mission: the German troops were riveted, the hands of the allies in the West were untied.
    In addition, Russia is the only one of the allies that ended the war, no matter what, on the territory of the occupier in Austria-Hungary.
    1. XII Legion
      XII Legion 21 November 2017 07: 30 New
      17
      I do not quite agree: yes, the attack did not bring the planned results, but there was no defeat

      Of course there was no defeat. A negative result is the loss of results of the offensive of the Southwest Front in 1916. At the beginning, tactical success - and then a rollback to the state border.
      successes were achieved in Romania and on the Caucasian front

      You are absolutely right, and the article says about them.
      Given that Russia was only part of the Entente’s general war with the Central Powers and the main front was in the West, it fulfilled its mission: the Germans were riveted, the hands of the allies in the West were untied

      Definitely
      The article says
      even in a situation of loss of combat capability, the Russian army continued to retain significant enemy forces on its theater of operations. Moreover - to delay additional resources.

      And it even influenced the breakdown of the German Offensive of 1918 in France.
      The Germans alone held very large forces here - even during the fateful and difficult battles in France in the spring and summer of 1918 (50 infantry divisions). By this, the former theater of the former Russian Front rendered invaluable and last help to the former allies. These divisions were not enough for E. von Ludendorff in the last leap of the Kaiser army to Paris

      And Russia at the time of leaving the war continued to operate on the territory of Austria-Hungary, Romania, Turkey and Persia.
      The Russian front completed its task good
      hi drinks
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 21 November 2017 07: 37 New
    +6
    But even on March 3, 1918, only 8 months before the victorious end of the war by the Entente, after the signing of the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty between the RSFSR and the Central Powers, it withdrew from the war
    ... February 9, 1918 between the Ukrainian People’s Republic and the Central Powers in Brest-Litovsk. The sovereignty of the UNR was recognized as the Central Powers. In exchange for this, the UNR pledged not to join alliances against the Central Powers and to supply the Central Powers with food and raw materials. The troops of the Central Powers were introduced into Ukraine, which was done in February-April 1918 ...
  4. soldier
    soldier 21 November 2017 08: 24 New
    19
    The July offensive of the Romanian 2nd and Russian 4th armies of the Russian-Romanian front on Maresti was successful

    This is one of the most successful campaign operations. Excellent operational result, excellent interaction between the armed forces.
    After all, even
    Losses for July-August cost the Germans only 47000 people (without the Austrians and Bulgarians), and the total losses of the Russian-Romanian troops - over 52000 people.

    it is impressive
    Losses during the offensive at the stage of positional war have less attacking than the defender! (to 47 thousand Germans it is necessary to add Austrians and Bulgarians).
    But Kerensky, frightened by the fall of Tarnopol, stopped the successful operation.
    And in August, the Romanian infantry attacked, and Russian artillery supported it.
  5. BRONEVIK
    BRONEVIK 21 November 2017 08: 54 New
    20
    2 armies unfolded on the Caucasian front
    Russians are in Mesopotamia and Iraq.
    One should only dream about it ...
    So on all fronts, Russia fought worthy
    Honor and Glory of the Russian Army PMV
  6. Lieutenant Teterin
    Lieutenant Teterin 21 November 2017 10: 01 New
    16
    A wonderful and informative article! The reasoned evidence is especially valuable that, even under conditions of revolutionary disintegration, the Russian army was capable of inflicting considerable losses on the enemy and remained a force with which the Central Powers had to reckon. The author - my sincere gratitude for the work done!
  7. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 21 November 2017 12: 19 New
    17
    Interesting finished cycle hi
    good
  8. nPuBaTuP
    nPuBaTuP 22 November 2017 03: 24 New
    0
    Since when did the First World War turn into the Second World War (WWII) ...?
    1. nPuBaTuP
      nPuBaTuP 22 November 2017 03: 25 New
      0
      there is a feeling that there is a zamoulenie somehow ....
      1. Rotmistr
        Rotmistr 22 November 2017 06: 18 New
        17
        Since when did the First World War turn into the Second World War

        Despite the fact that this issue has been repeatedly discussed in the comments to earlier articles in the series.
        With stubbornness worthy of better use
        He continues to exaggerate
        People who can read only TITLES
  9. alatanas
    alatanas 23 November 2017 16: 05 New
    0
    Is something written too little about the Romanian front (Zayonchevsky and later Sakharov)?


    Military operations on the Northern (for Bulgaria) front from August of the 1916 year to the 1918 year
    1. alatanas
      alatanas 23 November 2017 16: 14 New
      0
      On the 17 of August the 1916 of Romania signs an agreement with ANTANTA. 27-th begins mobilization and declares war on Austria-Hungary. In Bulgaria, the 3 Army is being formed under the command of the gene. Stefan Toshev. On the 1 of September Bulgaria declares war on Romania. 2-th 1-th cavalry division under the command of the gene. Ivan Kolev advances in Dobrogea liberating the town of Tervel. On the 4-th, the city of Dobrich was liberated, on the 6-th - Balchik and Kavarna. On the 7 th, Tutrakan (fortress and fortification fortified area) was taken, 8 th - Silistra, 14 th - Mangalia, 22 th Kyustendzh (Seg. Constanta), 22 th Medzhidiya (Medjid), 25 th Chernova Voda, 26- Go Khirsovo. On the 18 of December, Babadag was taken, on the 22 of December, Tulcha, and later Sulin. Thus, the troops occupy the Danube River Delta. Machin was released on January 1, and Isakcha was released on 7. This ends the liberation of Dobrudge from the Romanians by the Bulgarian 3 Army within the 4 months with the help of one German brigade and 2 Turkish divisions (invited by the Germans to participate).
      On the 19th, Bucharest was taken (from Svishtov’s side), the king and the government flee to Yash (Iasi) and Romania leaves the war, signing the Bufteisky and Bucharest peace treaties with the countries of the AGREEMENT.