Military Review

Aviation against tanks (part of 12)

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By the time Nazi Germany attacked the USSR, the Luftwaffe did not have well-armored attack aircraft comparable to Soviet IL-2, or specialized anti-tank aircraft. Within the framework of the concept of "Lightning War" to provide direct aviation support for the advancing units and to act on enemy communications was to be carried out by single-engine Bf 109E fighters, Bf 110 heavy fighters, Hs 123 attack aircraft and Ju 87 dive bombers. The enemy often used Ju 88 twin-engine dive bombers to strike at the front edge of Soviet defense.

By June 1941, the Bf 109E-4, E-7 and E-8 (“Emil”) modification fighters were no longer considered the most modern, and therefore they were mainly focused on performing drums. The conquest of air superiority and the escort of the bombers were to be occupied by Friedrichs - Bf.109F. However, such a division was largely conditional, although specialization did take place.


Bf 109


"Emil" was the first truly mass modification of the Bf 109 and in the middle of 1941, it was quite a combat capable fighter. Its maximum speed was 548 km / h. Bomb load could reach 250 kg. Built-in weapons consisted of two 7,92-mm machine guns and two 20-mm guns. However, the MG FF 20-mm guns mounted in the wing were not the height of perfection.

Aviation against tanks (part of 12)

20-mm gun MG FF


With a relatively low weight of -28 kg, the rate of fire was only 530 rds / min, the initial velocity of the armor-piercing projectile was about 600 m / s. The targeting range of the MG FF did not exceed 450 m, and armor penetration was insufficient even to fight lightly armored vehicles. Ammunition was limited as well - 60 shells per barrel. By all indications, except for the masses, the German 20-mm gun lost even to the most powerful Soviet ShVAK, and therefore in the second half of the war it gradually left the stage.


Aircraft MG FF in the wing of a fighter


The single Messerschmitts operating on the Soviet-German front had an 6-mm steel armor plate mounted behind the tank and covering the entire cross section of the fuselage, armored glass and the armored seat of the pilot's seat. But the use of a liquid cooling engine and the lack of body armor on the cabin sides made the Bf.109 vulnerable even when fired from weapons rifle caliber. Therefore, an additional 109 mm armor plates were installed on the Bf 4E-8 part, which protected the pilot from below and behind. When carrying out attacks, high flight speeds and small sizes of Messer helped to avoid defeat by anti-aircraft fire.



German pilots were well aware of the vulnerability of their cars, and therefore, with anti-aircraft resistance, they tried not to make repeated attacks. In the domestic memoir literature it is often said that the "Messers" in the initial period of the war terrorized the columns of refugees and the retreating Soviet troops. Often they managed to smash the train echelons. But the high speed of flight sharply reduced the accuracy of the bombing and made it difficult to aim when firing machine guns and cannons at ground targets.


Bf 109E-4 with 250-kg bomb flies to the bombing in the area of ​​Stalingrad


Anti-tank capabilities "Emil", despite a solid bomb load, were weak. After the failure of the blitzkrieg and the stabilization of the front line, the effectiveness of the Bf 109E as a fighter-bomber dropped sharply, and the losses, on the contrary, increased. Even with a fairly high speed of flight, the probability of getting a line from a large-bore machine gun, the DShK, sharply increased, and the Soviet infantry did not panic any longer and led concentrated fire from small arms at low-flying enemy aircraft. By the beginning of the 1943 of the year, the Bf.109E on the Eastern Front was practically gone, and the fighters of the Bf 109F and G modifications were massively used for strikes against ground targets.

History The combat use of heavy fighters Bf.110 on the Soviet-German front is in many ways similar to the combat career of Bf.109Е. After the Bf 110 fiasco as a fighter in the Battle of Britain, it was reclassified into attack aircraft. At the same time, the cockpit of the attack aircraft had 12 mm armor in front and 57 mm armored glass; the gunner was protected by 8 mm armor. On the side panels of the cabin used 35 mm bulletproof glass. The thickness of the bottom armor was 8-10 mm.


Bf 110D


The offensive weaponry of the Bf 110 was powerful enough: two MG FF 20-mm cannons with 180 shells per barrel and four MG-7,92 17-mm machine guns with 1000 rounds of ammunition. The tail covered the shooter with the MG 7,92 15-mm machine gun.



High-explosive bombs weighing up to 500 kg could be hung under the fuselage, 50 kg bombs were placed under the wing. The typical bomb load option was distributed as follows: 2 bombs for 500 kg and 4 for 50 kg. When finalizing the suspension units, the aircraft could even take 1000 kg bombs, while the weight of the combat load in the reloading variant could reach 2000 kg. In actions on areal poorly protected targets, 500 kg bomb containers AB 500, which were filled with 2 kg fragmentation bombs and opened after a discharge at a given height, turned out to be very effective.

Without a bomb load, at a height of 4000 m, the shock Bf 110F developed a speed of 560 km / h. The practical range was 1200 km. An attack aircraft with such characteristics could quite successfully act in the initial period of the war without fighter cover. Having got rid of the bombs, he had every chance to escape from the Soviet fighters. At the same time, attempts by Bf.110 pilots to conduct active air combat with single-engine fighters often ended in disastrous for them. The heavy twin-engine Messerschmitt with a take-off weight of 9000 kg was hopelessly lost to single-engine machines in terms of climb and maneuverability.



There is a case when a Soviet pilot on an I-153 in one air battle managed to shoot down two Bf 110. Having shot all the cartridges, the deputy commander of the squadron of the 127-IAP, senior politruk AS Danilov, with a ram attack, sent a third enemy plane to the ground.



However, with proper tactics, the use of Bf 110 was a very good attack aircraft and did not carry much loss. Durable and robust airframe design, body armor and two engines made the aircraft resistant to combat damage. In any case, it was difficult to shoot down an airplane with rifle weapons. The long range of the flight made it possible to operate at a distance of several hundred kilometers from the front line, and a significant bomb load hit the entire spectrum of targets, including armored vehicles.

Since the MG FF 20-mm cannons were considered too weak, variants with the 1941-mm MK 30 and MK 101 and even with the 108-mm BK 37 gun began to appear at the end of 3.7.


30 mm gun MK 101


The MK 30 101 mm aviation gun weighed 139 kg and had a rate of fire of 230-260 rounds / min., 500 g of a projectile containing 15 g of explosives fired from the barrel at a speed of 690 m / s at a distance of 300 m normal, could penetrate 25 mm armor plate. In mid-1942, the production of a lightweight armor-piercing projectile weighing 455 g with an initial speed of 760 m / s began, its armor penetration at the same distance increased to 32 mm. Around the same time, 355 g shell with a tungsten carbide core entered service. The initial velocity of the projectile exceeded 900 m / s. At a distance of 300 m, normal, according to German data, he pierced 75-80 mm of armor, and at an angle of 60 ° - 45-50 mm. The same armor-piercing shells were used in other German 30-mm aircraft guns. However, due to the chronic shortage of tungsten, carbide core shells did not produce much. Ordinary armor-piercing shells could with sufficient probability penetrate the armor of only light tanks, medium T-34 and heavy HF for them, as a rule, were invulnerable. However, the acronym damaging effect of carbide cores, even in the case of penetration of tank armor, was very modest. As a rule, everything ended up with a hole of small diameter forming in the armor, and the tungsten carbide core itself, after breaking, crumbled into powder.


Bf.110G-2 / R1 with 37-mm VK gun 3.7


37-mm gun VK 3.7 was created on the basis of anti-aircraft machine 3.7 cm FLAK 18. The 37-mm projectile weighed twice as much as the 30-mm, which made it possible to dramatically increase the thickness of the pierced armor. A long-barreled cannon with a high initial velocity of a carbide-core projectile promised to be even more effective in the fight against armored vehicles. Since the 3.7 VC was used for charging, the responsibility for reloading the gun was placed on the onboard shooter. But the introduction of 30 and 37-mm guns on the Bf 110 coincided with the withdrawal of the aircraft from the assault aircraft. In 1942, the Germans began to feel an acute shortage of night fighters in the air units that defended Germany from British bombers, and therefore the remaining Bf.110 was decided to reassign to solve air defense tasks.

Now, few people remember about the German attack aircraft Hs 123, and in fact he actively fought until the second half of 1943, and even participated in the battles near Kursk. The archaic biplane, created in the middle of the 30, turned out to be very popular and the cars that survived the battles flew to full wear. Since the plane was considered obsolete by the end of the 30-x, only about 250 copies were built.


Hs Xnumha


For its time, the attack aircraft had very good data, with a normal take-off weight of 2215 kg the Henschel took the kg of bombs on the 200. The combat radius of action in this case was 240 km - quite enough for an aircraft of direct aviation support and for actions in the enemy’s rear area. In the case when it was necessary to work on the front edge of the enemy's defense, the bomb load could reach 450 kg (one 250 kg aerial bomb on the central suspension unit + four 50 kg under the wing). Built-in weapons - two machine gun rifle caliber.

Star-shaped nine-cylinder engine air cooling VMW 132D power HP 880 allowed to develop in horizontal flight at an altitude of 1200 m speed 341 km / h. It approximately corresponded to the maximum speed of the Soviet fighter I-15bis. This speed was a practical limit for an aircraft with non-retractable landing gear, but unlike the Soviet biplanes, the Hs 123 was built from duralumin, which made it more resilient to combat damage and increased glider life. In general, in the hands of experienced pilots assault "Henschel" was a very effective strike aircraft. Although the pilot was initially protected by armor only at the rear, the combat survivability of the biplane was so high that he earned a reputation as “not killed”. Compared to other direct support aircraft, the combat losses of the Hs 123 were significantly lower. So, during the Polish company, much more modern dive bomber Ju 87 lost about 11% of those participating in hostilities, while at the same time 2 Henschel from 36 who took part in the battles was shot down by enemy fire. The rather high combat survivability of the Hs 123 was explained not only by the all-metal construction, but in front of the pilot it covered the air-cooled engine, which kept the combat damage well. In addition, in the initial period of the war, when German aircraft dominated the battlefield, the anti-aircraft cover of the Soviet troops was frankly weak, and the main anti-aircraft in the front line were quadruple anti-aircraft installations based on the Maxim machine gun. An important advantage of assault biplanes was their ability to make combat missions from muddy ground airfields, which other German aircraft could not do.



Although with respect to other types of combat aircraft operating on the Soviet-German front, the Hs 123A was relatively small, infantry commanders of all levels noted good accuracy and effectiveness of their air strikes. Due to its low flight speed and excellent maneuverability at low altitudes, Henschel bombed very accurately. He could be equally successful in the role of attack and dive bomber. There have been many instances when the Henschel pilots managed to hit 50 kg with bombs in single tanks.

In connection with the fair criticism of weak offensive weapons, starting from the summer of 1941, on the Hs 123, containers with MG FF 20-mm guns were suspended — this certainly did not greatly increase the anti-tank potential of the vehicle, but it increased efficiency against trucks and locomotives.


Hs 123, shot down in November 1941, near Moscow


In the winter of 1941-1942. the remaining assault biplanes were overhauled and upgraded. In this case, the cockpit was protected by armor from the bottom and along the sides. Given the harsh winter conditions in Russia, the cabin was closed with a lantern and equipped with a heater. To compensate for the increased take-off weight, air-cooled engines BMW132K hp 960 hp were put on the upgraded attack aircraft. The MG 151 / 20 cannons were installed on a part of the machines in the wing. At the same time, the anti-tank capabilities of attack aircraft increased. 15-mm armor-piercing bullet of 72 g mass at a distance of 300 m along the normal penetrated 25 mm armor. A 52 g bullet with a hard-alloy core, fired at an initial speed of 1030 m / s, punched 40 mm armor under the same conditions. What is the real success of the "Henschel" with built-in guns is unknown, but given the fact that they were released a little, they could not have a particular impact on the course of the hostilities.

In 1942, the Hs 123 was used on the front even on a larger scale than a year ago. To increase their numbers at the front, the aircraft was withdrawn from flight schools and rear units. Moreover, the aircraft dumps were collected and restored suitable for further use Hensheli. A number of high ranks of the Luftwaffe called for the resumption of production of hopelessly outdated aircraft. All this, of course, did not come from a good life. Already in the winter of 1941, it became clear that the quick victory did not work, and the war in the East was delayed. At the same time, the Soviet Air Force and Air Defense recovered from the initial shock, the ground units and the military leaders of the Red Army gained some combat experience, and the Soviet industry began to rebuild on military tracks. In the Luftwaffe, on the contrary, there was a shortage of qualified pilots and aircraft. That is why it became so in demand easy to manage, unpretentious to maintain, durable and fairly effective attack aircraft Hs 123.

On the Soviet-German front, this aircraft actively fought until the second half of 1943. Good handling and high maneuverability allowed him, acting near the ground, to dodge the attacks of Soviet fighters. By the middle of the war, due to the increased power of the Soviet anti-aircraft artillery, the Henschel pilots tried not to go beyond the front line, their main goals were on the front lines. The inevitable loss and wear of the material part led to the fact that by the year 1944 in the first-line units of the Hs 123 attack aircraft there were no more. The small number of built Hs 123 is largely due to the fact that soon after the start of mass production of the Henschel, it was decided to adopt a more advanced diving bomber.

In the middle of the 30-x with increasing speed of flight of combat aircraft, it became clear that it was almost impossible to hit a point target with a horizontal flight with a single bomb. It was necessary either to repeatedly increase the bomb load, or to increase the number of bombers participating in the combat sortie. Both turned out to be too costly and difficult to implement in practice. The Germans closely followed the American experiments in creating a light dive bomber, and in the second half of 1933, the German Aviation Ministry announced a competition to develop its own dive-bomber. At the first stage of the competition it was supposed to create a relatively simple machine, on which one could get relevant experience and work out the combat techniques of using a diving bomber. The winner of the first stage of the competition was Henschel Flugzeug-Werke AG with its Hs 123. At the second stage, a combat aircraft with higher flight data and a maximum bomb load close to the 1000 kg should have entered service.

The winner of the second stage of the competition was announced by Junkers Ju 87. He made his first flight in the 1935 year - almost simultaneously with the Hs 123. It was a twin-engine monoplane with an “inverted gull” type wing and a non-retractable landing gear. Ju 87 is also known as Stuka - short for him. Sturzkampfflugzeug - dive bomber. Because of the non-retractable landing gear with large fairings, Soviet soldiers later called this plane a “laptier”.


Ju 87-1


But because of the large number of technical solutions that had not been applied before, the aircraft was delayed, and the first Ju 87А-1 began to arrive in combat squadrons in the spring of 1937. Compared with the biplane Hs 123, the aircraft looked much more advantageous. The pilot and the gunner, who defended the rear hemisphere, sat in a closed cockpit. To limit the dive speed on the wing, there were “air brakes” in the form of a grill that rotated dive to 90 °, and the pilot’s combat work was greatly facilitated by the “dive machine”, which, after dropping bombs, ensured the aircraft exit from a peak with constant overload. A special device for automatic electrics rearranged the elevator trimmer, and this achieved the desired effect, while the effort on the control stick did not exceed normal for horizontal flight. Subsequently, an altimeter was included in the automatic withdrawal scheme from the peak, which determined the time of withdrawal, even if the bomb dropped did not occur. If necessary, the pilot, making greater effort on the handle, could take control. The search for the target was facilitated by the presence of an observation window in the cabin floor. The dive angle at the target was 60-90 °. In order to make it easier for the pilot to control the dive angle relative to the horizon, a special graduated grid was applied on the glazing of the cockpit canopy.

Aircraft of the first modification did not really become fighting vehicles, although they had a chance to accept baptism of fire in Spain. On the Antonov the engine was too weak, and the propeller group was flawed. This limited the maximum speed to 320 km / h, reduced the bomb load and the ceiling. Nevertheless, in Spain, the viability of the concept of a diving bomber was confirmed, which gave impetus to the improvement of the Stuck. In the autumn of 1938, the Ju 87B-1 (Berta) began mass production with a Jumo 211А-1 liquid-cooled engine Xnumx hp with liquid cooling. With this motor, the maximum horizontal flight speed was 1000 km / h, and the bomb load 380 kg (in overload 500 kg). Significant changes were made to the equipment and weapons. In the cockpit installed more advanced instruments and sights. The tail defended the 750-mm MG 7,92 machine gun in a ball mount with increased shelling angles. The offensive weaponry was reinforced with a second 15-mm MG 7,92 machine gun. At the disposal of the pilot device appeared Abfanggerat, providing a safe dive bombing. After entering the pilot’s headphones in a headset dive, a frequent signal was heard. After the passage of a pre-set bomb drop height, the signal disappeared. Simultaneously with pressing the bomb reset button, trimmers were rearranged on the elevators, and the installation angle of the propeller blades was changed.



Compared with the "Anton" dive bomber modification "Bert" became full-fledged combat aircraft. In December, the 1939 of the year began the construction of the Ju 87В-2 with the Jumo-211Da engine with the HP 1200 power. with a new screw and other changes. The maximum speed of this modification increased to 390 km / h. And in the overload could be hung 1000 kg bomb.

For the first time, Stuki against tanks successfully operated in France in 1940, demonstrating good combat effectiveness. But basically they played the role of "air artillery", acting on the requests of the ground forces - they smashed the fortifications of the enemy, suppressed artillery positions, blocked the approach of reserves and the supply of supplies. I must say that Ju 87 fully corresponded to the views of the German generals on the strategy of conducting offensive operations. Dive-bombers with precise bombing strikes swept away the batteries of anti-tank guns, firing points and resistance units of the defending enemy on the way of tank "wedges". According to German data, in terms of fighting 1941-1942. German dive bomber and attack aircraft could destroy and disable up to 15% of the total number of targets on the battlefield.

By the middle of 1941, the Luftwaffe had a streamlined aircraft control system over the battlefield and interaction with ground forces. All of the shock German aircraft had high-quality, reliable radio stations, and the flight crew had good skills in using airborne radio for control and guidance on the battlefield. Aircraft operators who are in combat formations of the ground forces had practical experience in organizing aviation control over the battlefield and targeting ground targets. Directly to accommodate the aircraft gunners, special radio-equipped armored vehicles or command tanks were used. When enemy tanks were discovered, they were often subjected to a bombing attack, even before the German forces could attack.

"Stuck" was the ideal strike aircraft of the battlefield in the initial period of the war, when German aircraft dominated the air and the ground air defense of the Soviet forces was weak. But the German dive bombers turned out to be a very tasty target for Soviet fighters, even for the "old men" of the I-16 and I-153. In order to break away from the Ju 87 high-speed data fighters, it was not enough, and weak armament and insufficient maneuverability for conducting air combat did not allow to effectively defend themselves in air combat. In this regard, to accompany the dive bombers, we had to allocate additional fighters. But the loss of Ju 87 began to grow from anti-aircraft fire. With a shortage of specialized anti-aircraft weapons, the Soviet command paid great attention to the training of personnel of line infantry units for firing personal firearms at air targets. In the defense for light and heavy machine guns and anti-tank guns, special positions were equipped with home-made or semi-handicraft anti-aircraft guns, on which dedicated calculations were constantly on duty. This forced "self-activity" gave a certain effect. Taking into account the fact that the Ju 87 dive bomber did not have special armor, often one rifle bullet that hit the engine radiator, it was enough for the aircraft not to return to its airfield. Already in the autumn of 1941, German pilots noted an increase in losses from anti-aircraft fire when striking the leading edge. During intensive bombardment from the ground, pilots of dive bombers tried to increase the height of the bomb dropping and reduced the number of hits on the target, which of course could not but affect the effectiveness of air strikes. As the Red Army air forces saturate with new types of fighters and the anti-aircraft cover was reinforced, the effectiveness of the Laptezhnik actions dropped sharply, and the losses became unacceptable. Until a certain moment, the German aviation industry could make up for the loss of technology, but already in 1942, there was a shortage of experienced flight personnel.

At the same time, the command of the Luftwaffe was not ready to abandon a fairly effective dive bomber. Based on the experience of hostilities, a total modernization of the bomber was carried out. To enhance flight data on the Ju 87D (“Dora”), which entered the front at the start of the 1942 of the year, they installed a Jumo-211P engine with an 1500 hp power. The maximum speed at the same time was 400 km / h, and the bomb load in the overload variant increased to 1800 kg. To reduce vulnerability to anti-aircraft fire, local booking was strengthened, which was very different depending on the production series.


Ju 87D-5


So, on the Ju 87D-5 model, the total armor weight exceeded 200 kg. Bookings in addition to the cab were: gas tanks, oil and water radiators. This modification, which entered the army in the summer of 1943, had a pronounced assault specialization. The maximum bomb load was limited to 500 kg, instead of machine guns in the elongated wing, 20-mm MG 151 / 20 guns with ammunition from 180 shells per barrel appeared and the air brakes were dismantled. Containers with six MG-7,92 machine guns or two MG FF 81-mm guns could be additionally suspended on the external units under the wing. The reinforcement of defensive armament occurred due to the pairing of 20-mm caliber 81Z, designed for the defense of the rear hemisphere. However, in the face of the loss of air supremacy, the Stuki assault variants turned out to be unviable.

Within this cycle, the aircraft of the Ju 87G-1 and G-2 (“Gustav”) modifications are of the greatest interest. These machines are based on the Ju 87D-3 and D-5 and, as a rule, were converted from combat aircraft into field workshops. But part of the Ju 87G-2 anti-tank attack aircraft were new, they differed from the Ju 87G-1 modification with a larger wing span. Brake pads were absent on all machines. The main purpose of "Gustav" was the fight against Soviet tanks. For this attack aircraft armed with two long-barreled 37-mm guns VK 3.7, which had previously been used on aircraft Bf.110G-2 / R1. On a small part of the aircraft modified Ju 87G-2 preserved 20-mm wing guns MG151 / 20. But such airplanes were not popular among pilots because of the too noticeable drop in flight performance.


Ju 87G-1


The anti-tank variant “Stuki” with 37-mm guns turned out to be frankly controversial. On the one hand, long-barreled guns, low flight speed, good stability and the ability to attack armored targets from the least protected side made it possible to fight armored vehicles. On the other hand, in view of the increased frontal resistance of the guns and the separation of heavy loads on planes, the artillery version became more inert than the dive bombers, the speed decreased by 30-40 km / h.



The plane was no longer carrying bombs and could not swoop with large angles. The 37-mm VK gun 3.7 itself, weighing with a gun carriage and projectiles over 300 kg, was not very reliable, and the ammunition load did not exceed the 6 projectiles per gun.


Equipment ammunition 37-mm guns VK 3.7


However, the low rate of fire of the guns did not allow in one attack to shoot at the target all the ammunition. In view of the strong recoil when shooting and the placement of guns, the aiming was lost by the emerging dive moment and the strong buildup of the aircraft in the longitudinal plane. At the same time, keeping the line of sight on targets during firing and introducing amendments to the aiming was a very difficult task, accessible only to highly qualified pilots.



The most famous pilot flying on the anti-tank version of Stuck was Hans-Ulrich Rudel, who, according to German statistics, made 2530 combat missions in less than four years. Nazi propaganda attributed to him the destruction of 519 Soviet tanks, four armored trains, 800 vehicles and locomotives, the sinking of the Marat battleship, cruiser, destroyer, 70 small ships. Rudel allegedly bombed 150 positions of howitzer, anti-tank and anti-aircraft batteries, destroyed several bridges and pillboxes, shot down Soviet fighter planes and 7 attack aircraft Il-2 in air combat. At the same time, he himself was hit by anti-aircraft fire 2 times, at the same time he made forced landings several times. He was captured by Soviet soldiers, but fled. He was wounded five times, two of them hard, continued to make combat missions after the amputation of his right leg below the knee.

At the very beginning of his flight career, Rudel did not shine with special flight talents, and at one time the command was even going to remove him from flying due to poor training. But later, thanks largely to his luck, he managed to stand out among the pilots of the dive bombers. Although Rudel remained a convinced Nazi until the end of his life, he was surprisingly lucky in war. Where his comrades perished, this damn lucky pilot managed to survive. At the same time, Rudel himself repeatedly demonstrated examples of personal courage. It is known that he almost died when he tried to take out the crew of the wounded Junkers who had made an emergency landing on the territory occupied by Soviet troops. Having picked up a combat experience, the Stuki pilot began to demonstrate high combat results. Although he was persistently offered more modern types of combat aircraft, Rudel for a long time preferred to fly at a slow Ju 87G. It was on the attack aircraft with 37-mm guns Rudel achieved the most impressive results. Acting at low altitude, the pilot purposefully fought with Soviet tanks. His favorite tactical technique was the T-34 attack from the stern.


Hans-Ulrich Rudel demonstrates his method of attacking Soviet tanks on a T-34 model

Regarding Rudel’s combat scores on the Internet, many copies were broken. For the sake of justice, it is worth recognizing that many Russian historians consider Rudel’s achievements to be greatly overestimated, as, indeed, the combat accounts of most German asses. But even if Rudel destroyed at least one-fifth of the tanks for which he claims - this would certainly be an outstanding result. Rudel's phenomenon also lies in the fact that other German pilots who were flying on attack planes and dive bombers didn’t even come close to getting close to its results.



After 1943, the Ju 87, due to its vulnerability, became quite rare on the Soviet-German front, although its combat use continued until the spring of the 1945 year.

On the battlefield, in addition to specialized attack aircraft and dive bombers, "work" was repeatedly noted from low altitudes and from the flying flight of the twin-engined bomber Ju 88 and He 111, which bombarded and bombed the battle formations of the Soviet units. This took place in the initial period of the war, the year the Luftwaffe planes almost smoothly ironed our front edge and near rear. However, the Germans were forced to return to a similar practice in the final period of the war. It did not help to stop the offensive outburst of the Soviet troops, but the losses in the German bombers turned out to be very significant. For strikes against Soviet troops, even heavy night fighters Ju 88C were used, which were built on the basis of the Ju 88А-5 bomber.


Heavy fighter Ju 88C-6


Heavy fighters Ju 88C had a frontal armored glass and armored nose. Armament on different versions could vary greatly. Offensive armament usually consisted of several 20-mm guns and 7,92-mm machine guns. On the external nodes there was a possibility of suspension up to 1500 kg of bombs. The maximum ground speed was 490 km / h. Practical range - 1900 km.

At the end of 1941, the Wehrmacht command expressed a desire to get an anti-tank aircraft with a powerful weapon capable of destroying enemy medium and heavy tanks with a single shot. The work went slowly, and the first batch of 18 Ju 88P-1 with 75-mm gun XK NUMX VK under the cab and enhanced armor was transferred to the troops in the fall of 7.5 year. The aircraft installed a version of the anti-tank gun PaK 1943 with a barrel length in 40 calibers adapted for use in aviation. A semi-automatic horizontal wedge tool reloaded manually. In the 46-mm aircraft cannon could use the entire range of ammunition, applicable in anti-tank guns. To reduce recoil gun equipped with a muzzle brake. The rate of fire of the 75-mm gun was not high, during the attack the pilot managed to make no more than 75 shots. The gun and the large-sized fairing greatly increased the drag of the Ju 2Р-88 and made the aircraft very difficult to drive and vulnerable to fighters. The maximum ground speed dropped to 1 km / h.


Ju 88P-1


The combat tests of the Ju 88P-1 took place on the central sector of the Eastern Front. Apparently, they were not very successful, in any case, information about the combat successes of tank destroyers with 75-mm guns could not be found.

The low combat effectiveness of heavy attack aircraft with a 75-mm cannon is due to their great vulnerability, excessive recoil and low rate of fire of the gun. To increase the practical rate of fire, the development of an electropneumatic automated mechanism for discharging shells from a radial magazine was carried out. The practical rate of fire of an instrument with an automatic loader was 30 rds / min. There was at least one twin-engine Junkers with an 75-mm automatic cannon. Subsequently, the installation of the 7.5 VK guns on the Ju 88 assault variants was refused, preferring to replace them with less powerful, but not so heavy and cumbersome 37-mm VK 3.7 and 50-mm VK 5. Guns of smaller caliber had a higher rate of fire and not so devastating impact. They were more suitable for use in aviation, although they were not ideal.


Ju 88Р-2


Following the Ju 88P-1, the “eighty-eighths” appeared, armed with two 37-mm X-guns. The first to be tested in June 3.7 of the year was the Ju 1943Р-88. However, representatives of the Luftwaffe did not accept the level of cockpit security. The next version with enhanced armored protection was designated Ju 2Р-88. The plane was tested, but whether this option was built serially unknown.

One aircraft with 37-mm guns was converted to install 50-mm guns XK 5. The Aviation 50-mm automatic cannon was created by reworking a KwK 60 tanked 39 semi-automatic tank gun with a vertical wedge gate.


50-mm aircraft gun VK 5.


The gun was powered from a closed metal tape on an 21 projectile. Sending projectile was carried out using an electropneumatic mechanism. Because of this, the rate of fire was 40-45 rds / min. With a good practical rate of fire and reliability, the entire artillery system was very heavy and weighed about 540 kg. The gun had a high armor penetration. At a distance of 500 meters, an armor-piercing projectile with a mass of 2040 g, ejected from the barrel at a speed of 835 m / s, pierced 60 mm armor at an 60 ° meeting angle. A shell with a hard-core 900 g mass and an initial speed of 1189 m / s under the same conditions could penetrate 95 mm armor. Thus, an attack aircraft, armed with a 50-mm gun, could theoretically fight medium tanks, attacking them from any direction, and the heavy tanks were vulnerable to firing from the stern and aboard.

At the beginning of 1944, deliveries of the Ju 88Р-4 heavy attack aircraft began with the 50-mm gun. Different sources indicate different numbers of built instances: from 32 to 40 machines. Perhaps we are also talking about experienced and aircraft refitted from other modifications. Part of the "eighty-eighths" was also armed with R4 / M-HL Panzerblitz 2 missiles with a cumulative warhead.

Due to the small number of Ju 88Ps built, it is difficult to estimate their combat effectiveness. Machines with heavy artillery weapons could act effectively in the initial period of the war, but then the main tasks of destroying ground targets were successfully solved by dive bombers and fighter-bombers. After the Germans lost air supremacy and the multiple growth of the power of the Soviet tank armies, heavy attack aircraft operating during the day over the battlefield were doomed to catastrophic losses. However, the Ju 88 was not the only multi-engine Luftwaffe aircraft on which it was supposed to mount guns with a caliber larger than 37-mm. So, 50 and 75-mm guns were supposed to arm a heavy attack aircraft, which was created on the basis of the long-range bomber He 177.



The plane, which received the designation He 177 A-3 / R5, was used to fight Soviet tanks and suppress Soviet air defense at Stalingrad, during an operation to unlock Field Marshal Paulus, surrounded by the 6 Army. In this version, the 5 He 177 A-3 bombers were retooled. But the surrounded 6-I army surrendered before the installation of heavy weapons was completed and the aircraft returned to their original form.

To be continued ...

Based on:
http://grafiq.ru/junkers-ju-87d-stuka/
http://www.soldiering.ru/avia/airplane/ww2/battle-plane.php
http://www.airwar.ru/weapon/guns/mk101.html
http://www.achtungpanzer.com/gen9.htm
https://www.aviarmor.net/aww2/aircraft/germany/he177.htm
Start-Verlag, Bad Zwischenahn. Luftwaffe im Focus
Author:
Articles from this series:
Aviation against tanks (part of 1)
Aviation against tanks (part of 2)
Aviation against tanks (part of 3)
Aviation against tanks (part of 4)
Aviation against tanks (part of 5)
Aviation against tanks (part of 6)
Aviation against tanks (part of 7)
Aviation against tanks (part of 8)
Aviation against tanks (part of 9)
Aviation against tanks (part of 10)
Aviation against tanks (part of 11)
76 comments
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  1. polpot
    polpot 20 November 2017 15: 42 New
    +9
    Thank you very interestingly written
  2. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter 20 November 2017 15: 51 New
    +9
    Sergei! You another reptile for the article good drinks !
    To bookmarks!
    1. Bongo
      20 November 2017 15: 59 New
      +7
      Quote: Stroporez
      Sergei! You another reptile for the article

      Thank you! drinks
      There is one jamb that I discovered just now. request Let's see if anyone will notice? what
      1. KKND
        KKND 20 November 2017 16: 07 New
        +1
        Quote: Bongo
        This took place in the initial period of the war, year Luftwaffe aircraft almost smoothly ironed our leading edge and near rear

        If you are talking about this typo, then this is IMHO nonsense.
        1. Bongo
          20 November 2017 16: 10 New
          +8
          Quote: KKND
          If you are talking about this typo, then this is IMHO nonsense.

          No Cyril, there is a serious mistake in the description of the weapons of the Yu-88. PaK 40L was manually recharged, not VK 7.5. A typo due to the fact that Olya had no time to check this time.
          1. KKND
            KKND 20 November 2017 16: 14 New
            +3
            Quote: Bongo
            No Cyril, there is a serious mistake in the description of weapons of the Yu-88.

            Well then, let the more knowledgeable people correct, I’m more specialized in the modern armament of the Cold War period.
            1. Bongo
              20 November 2017 16: 16 New
              +5
              Quote: KKND
              Well then, let the more knowledgeable people correct, I’m more specialized in the modern armament of the Cold War period.

              Your time will soon come.
      2. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter 20 November 2017 17: 30 New
        15
        Quote: Bongo
        There is one jamb that I discovered just now. request Let's see if anyone will notice?

        Sergey, it seems to me that this is nonsense, since there is a rare expert, for a "letter-by-letter" analysis of the weapons of rare batches of the U-88. Moreover, regular bombers were redone for attack aircraft.
        Allow two stories:
        My cousin, during the war years, fought in an assault on aviation and, in his words:
        "At the end of 1943, they were going to attack the railway station.
        Approaching the front line due to low cloudiness, I had to jump out just above the clouds and at the same moment we took away the group of Yu-88, going almost the opposite direction, I order the attack, we slightly turn it over from all the trunks, the first pair scattered into pieces, the third smoked and with a decline went down, and we rushed, almost through the ranks! "I ask, where were the escort fighters?
        “So they’re so low and at such speeds as we didn’t fly, and they went much higher and higher either with“ scissors ”or“ circles ”and often lost us either against the background of the earth or due to the same cloudiness. Then, when went to the station bombed, we go on the second round, we dive to the target, I’m on the trigger, tra-ta-ta and silence ....., I realized that it was empty ... It’s good that we flew with three links! for not fulfilling a combat mission! Although the distribution was already terrible, nobody even hinted at the "Junkers", then. Only a week later he called up the regiment, smiling broadly on the shoulder, he said fighters, well done. I decided to give us a bottle of "cups", the weather was bad, they didn’t fly for about a week and a half, and a month later they received Red Star for this flight.
        That’s the story, I’m sorry I was young, and I would have recorded it all under a tape recorder .... And on the 86th, exactly on the 41st anniversary of the Victory, he was gone ..., didn’t live up to my call.
        And here is the second one:
        I have a good friend, Sasha Gukin, who collected models of airplanes since he was little, so he has about two hundred models, moreover, in the color of the colors of parts, regiments and with all the pendants ..!
        Here it is ozbudi at night and ask: what were Il -2 or the same Yu-88, minted better than any wiki laughing A fan, in a good sense of the word, is almost 60 to him, but he is building everything.
        So, Sergey, I have a love of aviation since childhood, it’s a pity I didn’t happen .. drinks
      3. shuravi
        shuravi 20 November 2017 18: 37 New
        +5
        Is he alone there? Example.
        The plane no longer carried bombs and could not dive with large angles. The 37-mm VK 3.7 gun itself, weighing more than 300 kg with a carriage and shells, was not very reliable, and the ammunition did not exceed 6 shells per gun.


        In fact, in addition to 6 chargers, there were 8 charging stores (in the photo, at least 7 shells are clearly visible)


        As well as dual stores on 12 shells.

        In addition, the author does not know that the most important problem was parallax:


        Which was partially solved by the reduction of trunks:



        But it is clear that such a solution required a very accurate determination of the distance to the target.
        1. KKND
          KKND 20 November 2017 19: 19 New
          +6
          See the people, we taught the troll to write meaningful comments, progress however.
          Quote: shuravi
          In addition, the author does not know that the most important problem was parallax:

          Moreover, here the parallax and the fact that the distance between the trunks of "Stuck" was greater than the width of the T-34, I did not understand, apparently our uv. the troll of shuravi decided to mow the clever one.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 20 November 2017 21: 22 New
            +3
            Therefore, the invention of the Germans with the installation of two guns under the wings of the Yu-87 with the aim of very accurately shooting at tanks is obviously unconvincing. Moreover, the guns were 5 m apart, and the width of our tanks was 3 m, that is, the axis of the barrel of the guns on this Yu-87 needed to be brought together somewhere 400-500 m in front of the plane so that the guns fired at one point, but then point the plane at the tank and open fire had to be exactly from this distance. And this, you know, doesn’t always work out at the training ground.

            Shuravi just a little more technically put it ...
            1. KKND
              KKND 20 November 2017 21: 36 New
              +4
              Quote: hohol95
              Shuravi just a little more technically put it ...

              You know, I’m not familiar with the work of Yuri Mukhin, but Shuravi, seriously, wants to use the parallax method in determining the distance to the target? Yes, even on an airplane and not on armored vehicles?
              And did you believe him? Do you have a brain? Let someone point me to prism surveillance devices or at least something at a 5 meter distance (next to the guns) and other equipment in the cockpit.
              I am ready to apologize if I am wrong and using the parallax method determined the distance to the target on this particular aircraft model.
              Or his message is just an attempt to be smart (unsuccessful).
              But something tells me that I won’t have to apologize laughing
              1. KKND
                KKND 20 November 2017 21: 47 New
                +3
                Quote: KKND
                You know, I’m not familiar with the work of Yuri Mukhin,

                I read a little and only strengthened my opinion. Shuravi "heard the ringing but does not know where he is"
              2. saigon
                saigon 9 August 2018 11: 31 New
                0
                Parallax, it’s not a little about reducing guns at a certain point
                Well, about the fact that the guns are reduced to one point at a certain distance from the plane, this is true. And here the distance to the target was determined by eye, and on the ground the battle, smoke, dust pillars that greatly contributes to the accuracy of eye detection.
                So things with guns of 3.7 cm did not fly long for tanks chasing
            2. KKND
              KKND 20 November 2017 21: 59 New
              +2
              Quote: hohol95
              Shuravi just a little more technically put it ...

              Quote: shuravi
              In addition, the author does not know that the most important problem was parallax:

              Which was partially solved by the reduction of trunks:

              Determining the distance is solved by reducing the trunks? belay
              Uff, it’s already burnt which our layman trusting wassat
              1. KKND
                KKND 20 November 2017 22: 03 New
                +3
                Quote: KKND
                Determining the distance is solved by reducing the trunks?

                Although this makes sense: you shoot, hit with 2 shells at one point on the tank, which means that the parallax is correct, not hit, not true.
                I’ll go play a computer game, otherwise it will become bad.
              2. DimerVladimer
                DimerVladimer 22 November 2017 16: 20 New
                +2
                Quote: KKND
                Determining the distance is solved by reducing the trunks?
                Uff, it’s already burnt which our layman trusting


                And not only for attack aircraft, but also for fighters.
                For example, for Hurricanes practiced flattening trunks.
                The pilot could ask the gunsmith to reduce the aiming point for the wing machine guns / guns to a certain distance.
                I have repeatedly found references to this in the memoirs of pilots.
              3. shuravi
                shuravi 24 November 2017 11: 01 New
                -2
                No, you are stupid because of ignorance. Therefore, you confuse parallax and firing distance. But you are excusable. laughing
                1. saigon
                  saigon 9 August 2018 11: 43 New
                  0
                  Excuse me, Vladimir, but you are trying to explain rather complicated things with simple words and here is the result ..
          2. Lopatov
            Lopatov 20 November 2017 22: 56 New
            +8
            Quote: KKND
            And here parallax

            In this particular case, parallax is the angle at the target between the axis of the barrel channel (s) and the line of sight of the sight (sights)
            So what he wrote correctly.
            There is such a problem, including in artillery
            1. KKND
              KKND 20 November 2017 23: 06 New
              +3
              Quote: Spade
              In this particular case, parallax is the angle at the target between the axis of the barrel channel (s) and the line of sight of the sight (sights)

              How was he going to calculate the distance to the target to set the angle of the axis of the bore? There were no laser rangefinders, and optical means for determining range were not for aircraft.
              Lopatov, maybe I don’t know what, but it seems that he doesn’t really understand what he is writing about.
              1. Lopatov
                Lopatov 21 November 2017 00: 13 New
                +9
                Quote: KKND
                How was he going to calculate the distance to the target to set the angle of the axis of the bore?

                No way. They simply reduce the axis of the barrel channels at a certain, fixed range. In aviation. Well, in artillery they tend to parallelism.

                Well, the range is on the eye. Or, having linear dimensions, angular. Although with experience again it turns out by eye, the pilot’s brain in the machine estimates what the angular dimensions of the target should be at the assigned range.

                And as for the "accurately determine" - it is said with great bust. In fact, the permissible error is very large.

                I’m just lazy to count. Rather, look for numbers.
              2. shuravi
                shuravi 24 November 2017 10: 06 New
                -1
                Boy, yes, in the same way as now they determine in many cases. According to the angular dimensions of the target. laughing
                You see, on the reticle there are special marks, thousandths are called.

          3. shuravi
            shuravi 24 November 2017 09: 45 New
            -1
            Boy, once again, the troll is here you and your kind.
            I have uploaded my data more than once.
            http://artofwar.ru/l/lisowoj_w_i/
          4. shuravi
            shuravi 24 November 2017 10: 00 New
            -1
            Baby, if you don’t understand, ask. laughing
            Parallax, this is the distance between the line of sight of the sight and the axis of the weapon.
            In the case of the installation of weapons on the wing, it is too large for the use of a number of weapons, in particular SPV.
            Therefore, when cold sighting perform the so-called information trunks. Did not know? laughing
        2. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 21 November 2017 01: 27 New
          +4
          Quote: shuravi
          In fact, in addition to 6 chargers, there were 8 charging stores (in the photo, at least 7 shells are clearly visible)

          Only in your imagination, although it is possible double vision.

          In the hands of Fritz 6 (six) shells.
          1. EvgNik
            EvgNik 21 November 2017 06: 39 New
            +4
            Olya, welcome Sergey too. Do not waste time and nerves on a bruised one. His shell bounced off his head, impenetrable.
          2. shuravi
            shuravi 24 November 2017 09: 47 New
            -1
            For those who do not immediately understand. There were stores on 6, on 8 and dual on 12. Is it hard to understand? Or buy glasses. )
        3. maximghost
          maximghost 21 November 2017 03: 55 New
          +5
          But it is clear that such a solution required a very accurate determination of the distance to the target.

          In fact, great accuracy was not required.
          If you set the information at about 300 meters, you can more or less effectively hit the target (the distance between the shells is less than the width of the target) from 150-450 m, and if you also take into account that the target is always located at an angle, then these frames will expand somewhat.
      4. venik
        venik 20 November 2017 20: 55 New
        +2
        Quote: Bongo
        There is one jamb that I discovered just now. request Let's see if anyone will notice?

        ===========
        There is also "not one? But ... (counted 2) but ....." I am silent in a rag "....." We will wait and see! "(Who will" detect ") .....
        And THANKS for the article (excellent, however, "as usual" ...) - "good!" (+ !!!!)
        1. demiurg
          demiurg 21 November 2017 07: 55 New
          +4
          I will stop the argument. On the cannon thing a machine gun was installed, if I remember correctly in the left wing, the horizontal and vertical information of which was set at 400 meters like. For about 500-600 meters, they began to beat with tracers, at the same time making the latest amendments to the sight. At the moment when the bullets began to come close to the target, they opened fire.
          What is not a laser range finder? laughing
          1. Lopatov
            Lopatov 21 November 2017 08: 34 New
            +6
            Quote: demiurg
            What is not a laser range finder?

            Sighting barrel. The solution is used to this day, for example, in American grenade launchers.
            In general, it was needed rather for a rough assessment of the shooting conditions and to control the lead on a moving target than as a range finder.
            With a range simpler, you can simply apply 6 scratches on the windshield, for the frontal, lateral and oblique position of the target. As soon as the tank "got into the envelope" - open fire
          2. shuravi
            shuravi 24 November 2017 10: 35 New
            0
            A similar solution is applicable when working on CC. NC firing is carried out at long ranges and a rifle caliber machine gun is not suitable.
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 20 November 2017 15: 58 New
    +4
    Sergei. Thank. The news was a description of the combat use in the version of the attack aircraft He-123. And the Me-110 left unkind memories in the north of the USSR. On the peninsulas Sredny and Rybachy and near Murmansk. Thank. Interesting.
  4. KKND
    KKND 20 November 2017 16: 24 New
    +4
    Well, I think, if you managed to put 75mm guns, why not put recoilless large-caliber guns on planes? Missiles, like, better and lighter? But the barrel can be rifled.
    Please clarify.
    1. Bongo
      20 November 2017 16: 30 New
      10
      Quote: KKND
      Well, I think, if you managed to put 75mm guns, why not put recoilless large-caliber guns on planes? Missiles, like, better and lighter? But the barrel can be rifled.

      No recoil was found anywhere on production aircraft. The initial velocity of the projectile in the recoilless gun is low. For this reason, using an armor-piercing projectile is pointless. And in the rifled barrel due to rotation there is "combing" of the cumulative jet and armor penetration decreases significantly. In addition, it is not so easy to find a place for recoilless guns on an airplane. As a result, problems with them are more than good. Although the Su-25T planned to install such a gun in caliber 45-mm.
      1. KKND
        KKND 20 November 2017 16: 43 New
        +1
        Quote: Bongo
        The initial velocity of the projectile in the recoilless gun is low.

        As far as I heard, low speed at the same propellant charge as for a conventional gun, with an 8x magnification (where only the place for such shells in an airplane to take recourse ) charge speeds are compared.
        Quote: Bongo
        And in the rifled barrel due to rotation there is "combing" of the cumulative jet and armor penetration decreases significantly.

        What interests me is high-speed armor-piercing.
        Quote: Bongo
        As a result, problems with them are more than good. Although it was planned to install such a 25-mm caliber gun on the Su-45T.

        There, as I understand it, the "dynamo-reactive" principle was like in RPG-7.
        Quote: Bongo
        For this reason, using an armor-piercing projectile is pointless.

        Not everything is so simple and simple KVM.
      2. venik
        venik 21 November 2017 08: 47 New
        +2
        Quote: Bongo
        Although it was planned to install such a 25-mm caliber gun on the Su-45T.

        ============
        In fact, experiments with the suspension of recoilless guns were carried out in the USSR even before the war (if I am not mistaken, in the years 38-39). However, this idea was abandoned in favor of the PCs!
        1. novel66
          novel66 21 November 2017 13: 59 New
          +8
          drp did not go then because of the great insecurity, so. tested ....
    2. Curious
      Curious 20 November 2017 17: 00 New
      +9
      "I, I think, if they managed to put 75mm guns, why not put recoilless guns of large caliber on planes?"

      In early 1939, to combat warships, the idea came up of equipping anti-ship aircraft with a single-shot recoilless gun, the shell of which, if hit, would be guaranteed to destroy the transport or destroyer, and inflict significant damage even to the cruiser or battleship.
      The terms of reference of the project, which received the designation Sondergerät SG 104 (literally "special device") or abbreviated Gerät 104 provided for a projectile mass of 700 kg, which determined the caliber - 355,6 mm (according to other sources 365 mm). Apparently aware of the fantastic nature of the project, the developers later assigned it the corresponding name - "Munchausen."

      As the carrier of this miracle weapon, the Dornier Do 217 bomber was supposed, at that time in the earlier versions it was still diving. A huge 12-meter rifled gun barrel was located on the external suspension under the fuselage of the aircraft. 700 kg of projectile was loaded into the barrel, the length of which was 1.2 meters, containing 35 kg of explosive, then 70 kg of accelerating charge of smoke powder and the whole system was closed by 700 kg of a counterweight located on the breech. According to the developers’s idea, during the shot, the charge accelerated the projectile to an initial speed of 280 m / s, and the counterbalance flying out of the breech in the opposite direction compensated for the return. The mass of the loaded gun was 4237 kg.
      Ground tests continued until mid-1941, during which 104 shots were fired from three manufactured SG 14 guns.
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 21 November 2017 08: 36 New
        0
        Behind the recoil there should be a space for the emission of gases, and the effectiveness of the recoil does not inspire.
    3. Lopatov
      Lopatov 20 November 2017 17: 50 New
      14
      Strictly speaking, the tube guides of rockets are recoilless guns with an unloaded barrel 8)))
      1. KKND
        KKND 20 November 2017 17: 55 New
        +7
        Quote: Spade
        Strictly speaking, the tube guides of rockets are recoilless guns with an unloaded barrel 8)))

        Here Lopatov came and broke my "wunderwaffe." recourse
        And I had already designed a recoilless gun with tape power and armor-piercing shells.
        Hey, Shovels, maybe we’ll come out, we’ll figure it out like men angry
        Welcome. drinks
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 20 November 2017 18: 37 New
          +7
          Welcome.
          Quote: KKND
          And I had already designed a recoilless gun with tape power and armor-piercing shells.

          This raises the question of weight. In this weight it’s easier, for example, to use a gun with a preliminary roll of the barrel, read about Kondakov’s guns
        2. Lopatov
          Lopatov 20 November 2017 19: 00 New
          +7
          By the way, here is a ganship with two 105 mm XM204:
    4. hohol95
      hohol95 20 November 2017 21: 13 New
      +6

      There were attempts ... FRIEND Kurchevsky ... But alas ...
      1. Lopatov
        Lopatov 20 November 2017 21: 55 New
        +6
        Quote: hohol95
        There were attempts ... FRIEND Kurchevsky ... But alas ...

        340 meters per second initial ... This is clearly not an "armor-piercing"
        In the case mentioned in Article Bk 7.5, the initial armor-piercing caliber is 732 m / s and 933 m / s subcaliber
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 20 November 2017 22: 30 New
          +7
          When Kurchatov was pushing through his "miracle guns" tanks could not boast of at least 30 mm of armor! Yes, and armor-piercing shells in the ammunition was not. But I do not think that the fragmentation grenade was not capable of penetrating armor of 8 - 10 mm with a direct hit! But definitely "THE IDEA WAS A DEAD" -
          APK-4 guns were made according to the scheme of the automatic guns of Kurchevsky. The rifled barrel, the length of the barrel without nozzle and stock 19 gauges. Gun weight 75 kg. Estimated rate of fire 30-40 rounds / min. In the superbarrel store, 6 unitary shots were placed, in addition, another shot was placed in the barrel.

          For the APK-4 cannon, new special shells were created, among which were fragmentation grenades, conventional (bullet) shrapnel and core shrapnel of the Rosenberg system. In 1935, APK-4 was assigned the index 342, and it was included in the name of the ammunition, so shrapnel was called Sh-342. The weight of the shells ranged from 3,07 to 3,92 kg. The shells were equipped with a remote tube, most often a converted 22-second field tube. But the installation of the tube was carried out only on the ground. In fact, it was not a remote handset, but a self-liquidator. Thus, to effectively hit the target, it was necessary to shoot so that the projectile was close to the target, for example, after 6 seconds. Naturally, the pilot could not calculate the exact moment of the shot.
    5. maximghost
      maximghost 21 November 2017 04: 00 New
      +1
      http://авиару.рф/aviamuseum/dvigateli-i-vooruzhen
      ie / aviatsionnoe-vooruzhenie / sssr / aviatsionnye-pus
      hki / aviatsionnye-dinamo-reaktivnye-pushki-kurchev
      skogo /
      We tried to do this in the 30s. The idea didn’t take off.
  5. Curious
    Curious 20 November 2017 16: 48 New
    +4
    But what about Hs.129?
    1. Bongo
      20 November 2017 17: 02 New
      +8
      Quote: Curious
      But what about Hs.129?

      Wait for "Aviation Against Tanks (Part 13)." It is physically impossible to fit everything in one publication. hi
      1. EvgNik
        EvgNik 21 November 2017 06: 46 New
        +4
        Sergey, hi, it’s physically impossible, Shuravi could but does not want to descend from his heights to us mortals.
        Thank you for the article.
        And ignore this tipus.
        1. Bongo
          21 November 2017 06: 49 New
          +3
          Quote: EvgNik
          Sergey, hi, it’s physically impossible, Shuravi could but does not want to descend from his heights to us mortals.

          Hi Eugene! Long time no talk!
          Quote: EvgNik
          And ignore this tipus.

          As they say in the East: the dog barks, and the caravan goes on. wink
  6. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 20 November 2017 19: 48 New
    +4
    I follow your cycle with interest. Thanks for the work.
    Please recommend a guide to screw aircraft, with color, detailed illustrations in three projections, or at least as in the title of the article.
    1. Bongo
      21 November 2017 01: 18 New
      +4
      Good Allied Aircraft of World War II by Chris Chant.

      There is a Russian-language analogue. Airplanes of the Second World War.

      But these books are not without flaws and on tops. If you want more details, then you need to dig about each aircraft yourself. hi
      1. Razvedka_Boem
        Razvedka_Boem 21 November 2017 06: 22 New
        +1
        Thank you I’ll definitely take a look, although as you rightly noted, most Western authors have it at the top ..
        In turn, for those who wanted to leaf through, read something, I can recommend



        Posted by Jim Winchester

        as well as
  7. venik
    venik 20 November 2017 20: 17 New
    +4
    Good evening, Sergey! Article - HOW USUALLY (+) !!! There was no time to analyze! Right now, "read it" and ..... am .... (Squid !!!) ...
    Well, do not blame me !!!
  8. venik
    venik 20 November 2017 21: 15 New
    +7
    ".... Domestic memoirs often say that" Messers "in the initial period of the war terrorized columns of refugees and retreating Soviet troops ......"
    =================
    A grandmother with two daughters (my aunt and mother) was attacked in July 1941 (when evacuating from Orel) .... Grandmother, of course, couldn’t "identify" the German plane - they all "looked alike" to her .. But my mother (candidate of physical sciences and the wife of a military pilot) was distinguished by a phenomenal visual memory ... When, as a boy, he showed a photo from the book Yu-87 - "hesitated" - "that one had no wheels ..." But Me-109 "identified IMMEDIATELY !!!": It was THIS who chased after us and shot from "machine guns" !!! .....
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion 21 November 2017 08: 31 New
      +3
      Ju-87 simply did not know how to race with a machine gun. “Thin” is recognized really easily.
      1. Dooplet11
        Dooplet11 21 November 2017 16: 59 New
        +3
        Why did Mr. Junkers Stuck put machine guns in the wings? For ballast? ;) Stukas knew how to chase a machine gun. Despite the fact that the "Slim" is recognized, indeed, easily. Like Stuck. hi
        1. EvilLion
          EvilLion 22 November 2017 08: 55 New
          0
          Ju-87, did not have time to rush with machine guns, and a meeting with fighters in this mode is likely and sad for a low-speed boat.
          1. Dooplet11
            Dooplet11 22 November 2017 09: 33 New
            +3
            Well, in 41, with the overwhelming dominance of the Luftwaffe in the air, the question of time and counteraction of the Red Army Air Force fighters was not so significant. And “he just didn’t know how” - it didn’t at all “had no time and was dangerous”. You already decide. wink
  9. prodi
    prodi 20 November 2017 21: 19 New
    +3
    it’s even strange how then it could not be clear in attack and bomber aircraft on a single-engine scheme - well, nonsense: neither reliability, nor maneuver, nor the position of weapons.
  10. iouris
    iouris 21 November 2017 00: 22 New
    +2
    Good review, thanks. But there is no analysis and conclusions. As for Rudel, it is unnatural that a mediocre pilot, a dumb man, showed such results in combat work. There is a clear contradiction. The luck factor should not be exaggerated. But the propaganda factor should not be underestimated. Most likely, the statistics should be divided by the number "pi" squared.
    1. Bongo
      21 November 2017 04: 54 New
      +6
      Quote: iouris
      Good review, thanks. But there is no analysis and conclusions.

      There will be another part about German anti-tank aircraft ... hi
      Quote: iouris
      As for Rudel, it is unnatural that a mediocre pilot, a dumb man, showed such results in combat work.

      It is hard to say what kind of pilot he was at the end of his flight career. But Rudel was definitely not a coward, about a small mind, then you are absolutely right. Until his death in 1982, he remained a staunch Nazi. As for his real combat successes, we will never know, even if Rudel destroyed the 1 / 10 tanks belonging to him, then this is a very high result.
      1. Zweihander
        Zweihander 21 November 2017 05: 30 New
        +2
        yeah, he claimed that at any moment he was ready to go east again for living space, a sick man.
      2. Lopatov
        Lopatov 21 November 2017 08: 54 New
        11
        Quote: Bongo
        Until his death in 1982, he remained a staunch Nazi.

        "Dumb and faithful" (c) The best subordinate is impossible and wish for 8)))

        But there was rather freedom for the psychiatrist, old Freud would have jumped to the ceiling if he had got such an object for research. In childhood, his sisters were frustrating him, at the dawn of a military career, colleagues. So he became an adrenaline junkie, proving his courage to the whole world. And even after the war did not calm down. The body required another dose. What else can I call it post-war mountaineering and skiing, given the prosthesis? Moreover, the same skis are not amateur “roller coasters”, but the South American Championship.
        Well, his ostentatious Nazism, apparently also an occasion to receive another dose, and not persistent life beliefs. Some pre-Internet version of trolling for self-affirmation.
  11. EvilLion
    EvilLion 21 November 2017 08: 29 New
    +5
    The Rudel simply recorded the results of the entire squadron, that’s the whole phenomenon.

    It is easily enough verified that among thousands and tens of thousands of pilots the increase in the number of frags is more or less uniform. For the Red Army Air Force there is not only Kozhedud with Pokryshkin, but also dozens of pilots who have been shot down for 30. And even after Hartmann and Bakhorn there are a lot of people who have ascribed to themselves or actually scored in hundreds of sorties for 200 shot down. There can be no difference between the first and second several times.

    And only the strudel is so unique, although that prevented the Germans from increasing the number of similar anti-tank squadrons, if the strudel shows such results, it means that a certain percentage of other pilots will be able, especially if you understand why the strudel is better than others. That the strudel was physically very strong and pulled out of a dive at a lower height, well, gaining pitching is not a problem. There would be pilots not with 500, so with at least a hundred tanks destroyed on the account. But they are not, which means that there is no particular super-efficiency against the tanks of a particular pilot and the Ju-87 in general, there simply was no place to be.

    At the same time, of course, the appearance of an anti-tank aviation formation quite expectedly led to a noticeable increase in losses of armored vehicles from air attacks.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 21 November 2017 15: 25 New
      +6
      "The Rudel just recorded the results of the entire squadron," ///

      Rudel in his own squadron could not stand. He was asocial dumb
      type, was not friends with anyone, laughed at him for the eyes. Comrades despised "for weakness."
      Therefore, no one wrote down their results on it.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 21 November 2017 16: 42 New
        +2
        Rudel himself explains this by saying that he wasn’t loved anywhere because instead of drinking drinks at night with his friends, he drank a glass of milk and went in for sports. Fans of Rudel take this explanation at face value, and I would like to note that Hitler did not drink alcohol either, but if someone didn’t like him in Germany, then this is by no means for that. The reason is different - Rudel was dumb, but extremely ambitious. The German fighter pilot G. Rahl, in captivity with the British, lived in the same room with Rudel and expressed his impression as follows:
      2. EvilLion
        EvilLion 22 November 2017 09: 02 New
        0
        A combat pilot Hans, especially if he did not return from the next flight, no one asked. Goebbels' Office wanted it and made a propaganda star out of one pilot, who had more sorties.

        laughed at him for his eyes


        Will you laugh at someone who does his work ten times better than the rest? Especially if your survival depends on this work. Something I doubt, even if he goes to the rocking chair instead of drinking with you.
  12. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 21 November 2017 12: 15 New
    19
    Interesting article good hi
  13. novel66
    novel66 21 November 2017 14: 03 New
    +8
    a wonderful series - it would be a separate volume, but on fb2, I would definitely download it to my reader!
  14. Vadim Sh.
    Vadim Sh. 27 November 2017 19: 06 New
    +1
    Very informative article, thanks.
  15. andrey-ivanov
    andrey-ivanov 3 February 2018 16: 59 New
    +2
    Quote: hohol95
    I am ready to apologize if I am wrong and using the parallax method determined the distance to the target on this particular aircraft model.

    In general, the parallax point in this case is the point of convergence of the tracks when firing from on-board weapons. In the air forces of Great Britain and the USA, all single-engine fighters (with the exception of the "Aero Cobra") had a winged arrangement of machine gun and cannon weapons. For example, on Hellket fighters, the parallax point was 200 yards away along the axis of the sight.
  16. D-Master
    D-Master 26 February 2018 15: 27 New
    +1
    Thanks very much. Chatted about Rudel, but I read about Yu-88 with 50 mm guns for the first time in my life.