Military Review

Broken axle

27
The value of Stalingrad immediately went beyond the line of the Soviet-German and, in general, the European front of the Second World War. And not only because the battle took place almost on the border of two parts of the world.




Already at that time, military and political leaders of the allied countries, European and Asian, emphasized the influence of the 19 th Soviet counteroffensive launched on November 1942 on resistance to Japanese forces on most sectors of the extensive front - from the Chinese-Mongolian border to the coast of Australia. But in the USSR after 1956, this aspect of the battle of Stalingrad was hushed up. If only because after the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU (“That same Congress”), decisions were already being prepared to eliminate all Stalinist paraphernalia in the USSR and most of the socialist countries of Eastern Europe.

Mongolian Prime Minister and Defense Minister Marshal Khorloghiin Choibalsan repeatedly noted that it was the Red Army’s counteroffensive at Stalingrad that caused the suspension of Japanese forces in Central and South China: “Tokyo realized that Stalingrad is a qualitatively new stage on all fronts of World War II, and in favor of Germany and its allies. " Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek expressed a similar opinion at a meeting with Soviet diplomats and military advisers on the eve of the reception in honor of November NN at the USSR Embassy in Chongqing (temporary capital of China in 7 – 1938): . This will be an important factor in strengthening not only the Chinese front and rear, but also the entire Asian-Pacific theater of world war. ” Already from the beginning of the Stalingrad battle, Japan, according to the then Chinese leader, does not dare to disperse troops in Southeast Asia and in fact turned down plans for amphibious operations in the region of the Indian Ocean adjacent to the front.

Characterized by the refusal of the Japanese command at the end of November 1942 of the use of parts of the main striking force - the Kwantung Army, stationed in the north of Korea, in Northeast China and near the eastern sector of the Chinese-Mongolian border, on other parts of the Asia-Pacific front. This accelerated the victories of the Allied forces, obtained in December 1942 th - January 1943 th in battles in the eastern sector of the island of New Guinea and near the port city of Darwin, the North Australian citadel of the allied forces. This eliminated the threat of the capture of numerous Pacific islands of France by Japanese forces. This was noted by the heads of the administrations of New Caledonia, Polynesia, Futuna, New Hebrides. The Governor of the Dutch East Indies (Future Indonesia), General Hubertus van Mook, told 24 on November 1942 at a meeting of the Allied Command in Southeast Asia and the Pacific: if not on all sectors of the Asia-Pacific Front. In any case, Tokyo is not responding to the requests of Berlin for the demonstration of Japanese military force near the borders with the USSR or Mongolia. ” Van Mook turned out to be a visionary: all this had already taken place since the beginning of the Soviet counter-offensive at Stalingrad.

By the way, Moscow and Canberra established 10’s October 1942 diplomatic relations, and on the eve of this event, Herbert Evatt, then head of the Foreign Ministry of Australia and her representation in the intergovernmental council of the British Commonwealth, declared in parliament: They will certainly affect the Pacific theater of military operations. ” The role of the USSR and its army in world war, according to Evatt, is increasing every day and contributes to the success of the entire allied coalition in the Pacific. The minister called for increasing the volume of allied supplies to the USSR, despite the known difficulties for convoys to Russia from North America and the British Commonwealth.

A similar view was expressed by the Prime Ministers of Canada and New Zealand of that period - William Mackenzie King and Peter Fraser. Recall that in 1941 – 1945, the share of total deliveries from Australia, New Zealand and Canada in the total amount of USSR allied aid (under lend-lease and other programs, including humanitarian) exceeded 25 percent.

Revision of the importance of the Battle of Stalingrad for all fronts of the Second World War, judging by modern publications, is not expected in these countries. The Canadian “Vancouver Sun” 11 on November 2010 of the year noted: “Before this legendary battle, Hitler’s army was still coming. After it, there was nothing more than a retreat and a final defeat ... For almost the whole of the Battle of Stalingrad, the average life expectancy of the Soviet infantryman was one day. Hitler underestimated the strength of the will of the Russian people in their resistance to the invaders. "

The importance of Stalingrad was emphasized by the leaders of the countries of the Middle East and North Africa. Nuri Said, the Iraqi prime minister (in 30 – 50-x) at the beginning of December, 1942-th said in his parliament that “the outcome of the Stalingrad battle is predetermined by carefully planned actions of the Russian troops and their dedication. The Stalingrad victory can radically shake the positions of the Axis troops on all fronts of world war. ” Recall that Iraq was the most important overland corridor of supplies to the USSR of military technical and food aid, and for the Western allies it was the main oil producer (“Poorly Oiled Axis”), whose refined products were sent to the Soviet Union. 16 January 1943-th - on the eve of the defeat of Paulus - Baghdad entered the war against Germany, Italy and Japan.

And yet: by the end of November 1942, British, De Gaulle and Ethiopian formations completely eliminated the centers of resistance of Italian troops in its East African colonies (that is, in Eritrea and East Somalia). The emperor of Ethiopia and its commander, Haile Selassie, considered these victories to be connected with the Battle of Stalingrad. During his first visit to the USSR (June 30 - July 12, 1959), he visited Stalingrad, where, speaking at a reception in his honor, he said that the collapse of the aggressive bloc of Berlin and Rome accelerated in mid-November 1942, not only from allied victories in Egypt and the French Maghreb, but also in connection with the Soviet counteroffensive near Stalingrad. Therefore, “humanity has no moral right to forget about the innumerable victims of the peoples of the USSR in historical the battle of Stalingrad. "
A similar assessment was given by the King of Nepal, Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva. During the war years, this small country provided all possible economic assistance to the USSR and its Western allies (“Coffee for the front”). In June 1958, during the first visit to the USSR, the king asked to include a visit to Stalingrad in the program. Here, Shah Deva said: "In Nepal, they know about the heroic struggle of the Soviet peoples against fascism ... And Stalingrad will forever remain a great symbol of victory over the aggressors."

In a word, Stalingrad forever entered world history as an outpost of Victory on all fronts of World War II.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 18 November 2017 15: 11 New
    +2
    Well, yes, yes ... And the Germans here claim that all of the events listed in the article occurred after the victory at Midway Atoll because there was a radical change .. And the Americans, that the Battle of Stalingrad is a "myth" .. Thank you to the author ...
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 18 November 2017 15: 27 New
      +7
      You can also kick in us with kicks. As Queen Elizabeth said: “I don’t know such a hero city of Volgograd. I know the hero city of Stalingrad.”
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 18 November 2017 15: 29 New
        +2
        You can also kick in us with kicks.
        ... need ...
    2. Orel
      Orel 18 November 2017 15: 56 New
      +2
      Quote: parusnik
      But the Germans now claim that all of the events listed in the article occurred after the victory at Midway Atoll, because there a radical change occurred ..


      For Japan, of course, the key was the confrontation with the United States. For Germany with the USSR. Each had its own radical fracture. If you look in the complex, then Japan and Germany could begin to understand that they could not win the war. Against the United States, in the event of the defeat of the USSR, Japan might have some chances, but when Japan realized that there would be no defeat of the USSR, there was no longer any chance of victory in the world war. They already could not resist the United States, and then the USSR was on horseback. The defeat of the Japanese already, I think for a couple of years, counted. Therefore, by the way, we went over to the defense, although we still had the strength to advance. Apparently they hoped to win time and somehow reduce the war to at least a draw or a profitable world. Did not work out.
      1. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 18: 58 New
        +1
        In the event of the defeat of the USSR, England would automatically merge the War. And the United States would remain face to face with a pack of AIS.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 19 November 2017 12: 46 New
          +2
          "In the event of the defeat of the USSR, England would automatically merge the War" ////

          What kind of fantasy? England defeated the Luftwaffe in 1940, before the Second World War.
          And locked the German surface fleet off the coast of Germany.
          1. Luga
            Luga 19 November 2017 13: 46 New
            +3
            Quote: voyaka uh
            What kind of fantasy? England defeated the Luftwaffe in 1940, before the Second World War.

            Not crushed, not at all. I managed to fight back (with colossal work, over my territory) - yes, but there was no question of defeating it. Managed to defend YOUR sky and nothing more. Although at that moment, the achievement is certainly a landmark.
            Quote: voyaka uh
            And locked the German surface fleet off the coast of Germany.

            Not exactly the same. The Germans operated relatively freely from bases in Norway. And, if I remember correctly, it was precisely on 1942 that the maximum losses of the English merchant fleet from German submarines fell, losses that were not made up by English shipyards and if it were not for the fraternal assistance of the United States by merchant ships, the United Kingdom would have to fly a white flag and look for with Hitler of the world.
            If you imagine that at this time the USSR came out of the war and the Germans freed up a couple of hundred divisions and a couple of thousand aircraft for final settlements with the British, then the situation of Britain really seems hopeless. In any case, the invasion would have been inevitable, and the islands, most likely, could have been considered lost, the government would have been forced to work in exile from some Halifax.
            So, not “fantasy”, as it seems to me, but a very real scenario (with a number of assumptions, of course smile ).
            1. Town Hall
              Town Hall 19 November 2017 14: 28 New
              +1
              Quote: Luga
              If you imagine that at this time the USSR came out of the war and the Germans freed up a couple of hundred divisions and a couple of thousand aircraft for final settlements with the British, then the situation of Britain really seems hopeless.



              And what did these couple of hundreds of divisions of Great Britain threaten? Germany and the USSR were allies in the summer of 40 at that moment, supplying Germany with the necessary supplies.

              without the fleet, these hundreds of divisions did not play any role.
            2. antivirus
              antivirus 19 November 2017 17: 51 New
              0
              Shaved would have gone to Canada.
              but lose the islands, after Stalingrad - like two fingers about ..
          2. Settlement Oparyshev
            Settlement Oparyshev 19 November 2017 16: 18 New
            +1
            In the event of the defeat of the USSR, and even before the massive use of radars against submarines, Germany could well put up a tight blockade of the island.
            There was no artillery on the Island, from the word at all.
            1. Town Hall
              Town Hall 19 November 2017 16: 31 New
              +2
              Quote: pp to Oparyshev
              In the event of the defeat of the USSR, and even before the massive use of radars against submarines, Germany could well put up a tight blockade of the island.
              There was no artillery on the Island, from the word at all.



              The sea blockade, as well as the landing, were impossible both in reality and in theory because of the weakness of the German fleet compared to the English one. And the war with the USSR did not change the situation in this respect
              1. Settlement Oparyshev
                Settlement Oparyshev 19 November 2017 17: 05 New
                +1
                Leave the blond beasties at least one chance in the form of a Feat to make England. That was then in full bloom. + Various FAUs. Linkor would skip Hitler from skerries. French trophies, camouflage from peaceful ships. DRG from submarines. Landing from gliders.
                It’s very difficult to write all that to “0”
                1. Town Hall
                  Town Hall 19 November 2017 17: 17 New
                  +2
                  Read what forces and means the USA and England needed to land and, even more difficult, to supply the army in 1944 to Normandy, and compare with what the Germans had. They could not even stop the allies ...
                  1. Settlement Oparyshev
                    Settlement Oparyshev 19 November 2017 17: 41 New
                    +2
                    The Germans were strong warriors, and by the year 42, they were the strongest in the World, and the British and especially the USA were much weaker. Therefore, the Allies needed a huge superiority in strength.
                    1. verner1967
                      verner1967 19 November 2017 20: 19 New
                      0
                      Quote: pp to Oparyshev
                      Therefore, the Allies needed a huge advantage in power.

                      Sorry, they needed an advantage in the 44th, when the Germans were not the same. And if by the 43rd, God forbid, of course, Stalingrad had fallen, firstly the war would not have ended, and secondly, and if it had ended (so, hypothetically), then it would have been unimportant that huge forces had to be held on east. So it did not shine on them in the west.
                      1. Town Hall
                        Town Hall 19 November 2017 21: 19 New
                        +1
                        Quote: verner1967
                        And if by the 43rd, God forbid, of course, Stalingrad had fallen, firstly the war would not have ended, and secondly, and if it had ended (so, hypothetically), then it would have been unimportant to hold huge forces on east. So it did not shine on them in the west.



                        It is not even important how many divisions were released after a hypothetical victory over the USSR. For the war against England and especially the United States, it was not divisions that were needed. And aircraft carriers, cruisers, submarines, a huge transport fleet, strategic aviation.

                        That is, all that Germany did not have (with the exception of submarines) and the creation of which (even taking into account the resource base of the hypothetically defeated USSR) required many years, moreover, years of peace, without bombing of the allies and without counteraction of their fleets.
      2. Town Hall
        Town Hall 19 November 2017 12: 50 New
        0
        Quote: Orel
        Against the United States, in the event of the defeat of the USSR, Japan might have some chances,



        What are some chances that Japan might have against the USA?
        1. Orel
          Orel 19 November 2017 13: 34 New
          +1
          Quote: Town Hall
          What are some chances that Japan might have against the USA?


          Fight against all axis countries only with the support of weakened England. This alignment would be difficult even for America. Although here the question of nuclear weapons arises. Whoever first mastered it and applied it in those conditions, even if the USSR was defeated, could count on winning the war.
          1. Town Hall
            Town Hall 19 November 2017 14: 34 New
            +1
            Quote: Orel
            Quote: Town Hall
            What are some chances that Japan might have against the USA?


            Fight against all axis countries only with the support of weakened England. This alignment would be difficult even for America. Although here the question of nuclear weapons arises. Whoever first mastered it and applied it in those conditions, even if the USSR was defeated, could count on winning the war.



            Let's take it one by one. Alone against Japan, the United States fought and won.

            As for Germany, Germany could not do anything much weaker than the USA, England, which was 40 km from Europe. It had allies in the USSR (summer of the 40th).

            What could Germany Germany face in such a situation?


            As for the atomic one, I agree. The Americans did it by the 45th. Besides them no one could have been by that year. And this is not an opinion but a fact. Because it was so.
            1. antivirus
              antivirus 19 November 2017 18: 07 New
              0
              with much weaker England than the United States. which was 40 km from Europe. It was in the allies of the USSR (summer of the 40th).

              - Is the USSR supplier of raw materials an ally? brains are turned on Midway!
              Cornwall could have taken. BUT THE GERMAN CODES were READ AND SECRETLY DROP - ZERO CHANCE
              and in complete silence two landings in different corners of England - like Pearl Harbor COULD RISK.
              STALINGRAD - THIS IS THE KEY TO THE CAUCASUS AND CASCOASCOIA! - SINGLE ABOUT IRAQ'S OIL AND TRAVEL TO INDIA. The Turks climb + Afghanistan and Iran "bullish."
              !!!!!!!!! other thing is that access to the Volga (the defeat of Stalingrad) did not solve these problems immediately (1-2 months) - then you need to walk 500 km.
              And to Voronezh and Astrakhan, and Orenburg.
              shorter than "chatting - don’t toss bags"
  2. VIN34
    VIN34 18 November 2017 15: 59 New
    +1
    Yes. Yes. Somehow I met a German at work, he asked where I came from. I told him from Volgograd. He asked several times, where is it in Russia? Well, I could not stand it even on his forehead, StalinGraad ... He already choked ... After that he began to talk very gently. So remember ...
    1. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 19: 02 New
      0
      Menyailov described and showed the psychological aspects of the Battle of Stalingrad. At once, much becomes clear. And why the counterattack began when the Volga became covered with sludge and the supply of the Troops became impossible. And how everything turned upside down when ours were defending, and then the Nazis began to defend themselves and ours attacked.
      interesting Battle, it still has a lot of unknown.
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 18 November 2017 22: 27 New
        0
        sludge and on the Don - against the Germans to supply the North Caucasus and Stalingrad + the ground for heavy equipment was frozen.
        the offensive stopped in February (?) - the Caucasus and the Kuban were not cut off, they did not take Rostov-Don, when the tributaries of the Don spilled.
        LATER STARTED THE ATTACK? - when they could, then they went on the offensive
        1. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 19 November 2017 08: 26 New
          0
          Really the Germans didn’t make the crossing across the Don, withstanding the sludge? Yes, and in the rear you can work without fear of direct shelling and bombing, as it was in Stalingrad.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 19 November 2017 07: 49 New
    +3
    The Japanese command rejected at the end of November 1942 the use of parts of the main striking force - the Kwantung Army, deployed in the north of Korea, in Northeast China and near the eastern sector of the Sino-Mongolian border, in other parts of the Asia-Pacific front.

    But it is also characteristic that up to 50% of the personnel of the ground units of this army were recruited from younger draftees who did not have sufficient military training, and limited eligible reservists. The best fighters were in active sections of the front.
    1. verner1967
      verner1967 19 November 2017 20: 25 New
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      But it is also characteristic that up to 50% of the personnel of the ground units of this army were recruited from younger draftees who did not have sufficient military training, and limited eligible reservists.

      By the way, it was just the fact that many units from the Kwantung Army were involved in it, replacing them with this composition and from a strong and efficient 1,5 millionth army and it turned into 850 thousand gatherings of draftees, second-rate reservists and native tribes Mikado’s service.
  4. Seal
    Seal 28 November 2017 18: 24 New
    0
    January 16, 1943 - on the eve of the defeat of Paulus - Baghdad entered the war against Germany, Italy and Japan.

    This, of course, is good. But on May 31, 1941, British troops captured Baghdad, the capital of Mandate Britain since 1920, Iraq.