Military Review

The 1917 revolution of the year: from trafficking in children to the dictatorship of childhood

The 1917 revolution of the year: from trafficking in children to the dictatorship of childhood

The Russian Empire, as is known, was the best country in the world, where happy high-school students shone with a reddeness, going in the morning to study, pray and dream to give their lives for the king. Of course, there were some minor problems (associated with outside influence or troublemakers, which are always enough), for example, the total ignorance of the rest of the people. But in the 1908 year, as white patriots now say, the tsarist government adopted a universal education program for the children of Russia - everyone could get an education regardless of gender, nationality and class! The program was conceived to be implemented through 20 years, the very "quiet years" that Stolypin once asked for, after which we would "not recognize the country."

And if the admirers of the tsarist era say that the bloody Bolsheviks did not destroy the empire that was flourishing and good for children, the time of universal and compulsory education would have come earlier - in 1928 year, and not in the USSR, in 1934, when universal literacy.

Perhaps someone believes in these tales of the beautiful kingdom, but today, when Russia celebrates the centenary of the October Revolution, for the sake of diversity we turn to the facts.

In the 1908 year, no universal education program was adopted. It was only a bill that the Commission on Public Education considered for another two years, and after wandering the document on the tables in the Duma, in the State Council, after fruitless discussions among officials, the beautiful dream became the same mythological daddy who for stability serves as a backup to the cabinet in one from high cabinets. In 1912, the bill was rejected by the State Council.

Citizens prone to idealizing the tsarist past, meanwhile, from high departments continue to assert that the opportunity to get an education and make a career for the poor peasant or farm laborer was very high in the reign of Alexander III, and that the people remained dark and impoverished. but also a consequence of sinfulness. Well, in the reign of the last emperor, the possibilities became even greater. Especially with the theoretical universal education, which was discussed above. Speakers, if they mention in parentheses that this law was not adopted, they always forget to clarify what kind of education this should have been, and we will mention that Stolypin was not talking about secondary education, but about universal primary education.

Developing the program, the officials took as a basis parish schools and their subject list.

"The following subjects were taught in the pre-revolutionary elementary school: God's law, reading, writing, four arithmetic operations, church singing, initial information from stories churches and the Russian state, as well as always - handicrafts and handicrafts ". (Rustem Vakhitov," The Revolution that Saved Russia ").

It was these subjects that were required for the transition of a huge agrarian country to a new technological level after other states that had already stepped over the industrial revolution. It was the Law of God and the four actions of arithmetic that were to provide prosperous Nikolaev Russia with a “big breakthrough” and full-scale industrialization, but only through 20 years. If these 20 years were "calm." But they would not be calm and, probably, could not be - everything went towards the redistribution of the world and even to a world war.

It is important to note one more thing. Primary education was not a stepping stone to the secondary level, as we all got used to it. Even after finishing primary school, it was impossible to approach secondary education. Secondary education was provided by the gymnasium, and secondary education was available only to the privileged class: the children of noblemen, officials, and the rich became high-school students. Here we return to the image of the beautiful and strong Tsar Alexander III, in which supposedly, according to the admired "white-patriots", social elevators rushed at the speed of light back and forth. It was Alexander who banned access to commoners' children in the gymnasium - this is a circular of the Minister of Education Delianov from 1887 of the year, which the people received the name "Decree on Cooking Children". Naturally, the whole thing is about money - those students whose parents obviously could not bear all the paid tuition, buying a uniform and so on were eliminated.

Secondary education in Tsarist Russia was not for everyone, it was also paid, they only thought about the general primary education. What about higher? Here the high school students could already think about enrolling in universities. Secondary technical education was given by real schools, graduates were allowed to enter technical and commercial universities, but not universities. In the 1913 year, on the eve of the war, there were 276 real schools in Russia, where thousands of people were trained 17, and there were about 45 million people in school-age children. But after a year the country will face an external threat and will need more skilled workers than philosophers and writers. The new century made a request for engineers, technicians, builders of industrialization. The education system in Tsarist Russia, with all the desire, without a change of lifestyle that occurred in the 1917 year, could not provide an industrial breakthrough for either 20 or 200 years.

Yes, the tsarist government did not skimp on funding education: schools were built and universities were created, but the system did not change and did not improve the lives of 80% of the population. And the very "rapid growth" of allocations for education lasted for a very short period. Then, as we know, the war began, and public funds went to other concerns.

Today we are told that the industry was developing at a rapid pace, no less turbulent than the construction and development of schools for children. However, it was precisely in Tsarist Russia that there was a huge percentage of children directly involved in industry.

What did 80% of children do if they did not study?

Child labor is very profitable and therefore in the capitalist system, aimed at obtaining the greatest possible profit, was extremely common. Pay this category of citizens could be significantly less. Of course, the situation in the rest of the world differed little.

Here are the data from the US labor bureau 1904 of the year, the average salary of a laborer in terms of rubles per month was:

in the United States - 71 rub. (with 56 working hours per week);
in England - 41 rub. (with 52,5 working hours per week);
in Germany - 31 rub. (with 56 working hours per week);
in France - 43 rub. (with 60 working hours per week);
in Russia - from 10 rub. up to 25 rub. (with 60-65 working hours per week).
The work of minors and women was valued even lower, according to the table of the researcher Dementiev, in the Moscow province men received 14,16 rubles, women - 10,35 rubles, teenagers - 7,27 rubles, and young children - 5 rubles. and 8 cop.

In Russia, according to data from open sources, for every thousand workers 11 children of 12-15 were of both sexes, in the processing of nutrients - 14, in the processing of paper - 58, mineral substances - 63, in fruit, grape, vodka factories - 40, in tobacco factories - 69, match factories - 141. Also, child labor was used in the processing of wood, animal products, chemical and fibrous substances, in oil refineries, distilleries, breweries, sugar beet and vodka plants.

But one should not think that the tsar was not at all disturbed by child labor and the child’s position in the industrial system, in mines and hazardous industries were not there, and, for example, in glass factories children were allowed to put up for night work only during 6 hours humane decision.

As you know, most of the industry in the Russian Empire belonged to foreigners who had to go forward and adjust the harsh laws against children in favor of profit. Historians point out that, yes, the state was forced to limit the rights of minors.

There were attempts to legally regulate at least working conditions - to prohibit work for children under the age of 12, to restrict the work of 8 for children for hours, but industrialists were not in a hurry to embody the weak attempts of the state to become humane - this is a matter of income. And if inspections in big cities improved the child’s life at least a little, then in the outback the operation continued until 1917, until the labor code was adopted, which guaranteed the 8-hour working day FOR ALL for the first time in the world and the prohibition of using children at work to 16- ti years.

Only after the 1917 revolution of the year and other countries were forced to attend to the rights of workers and think about the prohibition of child labor.

"Kitty, kitty, sell the child"

Child labor was used not only by foreign industrialists in factories. The merchants brought to St. Petersburg from the outskirts of the children of the poor and peasants, as a "living commodity", which was very popular - along with wood, game and hay.

The sale of children, the buying up and delivery of cheap labor became the specialization of individual industrial peasants, whom in everyday life were called "cab drivers". The buyers paid their parents 2-5 rubles. and took their 10-year-old child to a better life, if, of course, the child did not have time to die with other children during a difficult journey.

The history of the folklore monuments of these "business projects" (very much like the slave trade in the American south of the beginning of 19 century, only instead of blacks - children), such as the game "Kotya, Kotya, sell the child".

The cabman "sold" the children to shopkeepers or craftsmen, the new owner could have the child disposed of at his own discretion - in return, providing shelter and some food. It is worth noting that children were “not sold” from a good life, because the extra hands in the household are needed, and then an assistant grew up - and give it away? The fact is that at home the child was most likely doomed to starvation. And even under such conditions, many children fled from their owners, talked about beatings, violence, hunger — on foot they returned home ragged or were left homeless, then found themselves "at the bottom" of life in the capital. Some were more fortunate - and they could return to their native village in new overshoes and a fashionable scarf, this was considered a success. However, this "social elevator" was not regulated by the state.


"Here, the monarchists here tell us what kind of an educated country Russia was. But I have only one single question - are the Bolsheviks completely idiots, or what? Why did they create an educational system at all? Did they have no other tasks, or what? they think - let us think up some problem for ourselves! Oh! Let's literate teach literacy! Well, how can we understand this? Indeed, the younger generation of subjects of the Russian Empire was more or less competent, who managed to go through the parochial system and partly Zemsky schools. But these Zemsky schools l would like islands in the ocean ", - says the transformation Revolution historian, adviser to the rector of Moscow State Pedagogical University Eugene Spitsin in an interview with On the eve.

The principles of the future education system were formulated as far back as 1903 in the RSDLP program: universal free compulsory education for children of both sexes up to 16 years; the elimination of class schools and restrictions in education on national grounds; separation of school from church; native language training and more. 9 November 1917 was established by the State Commission on Education.

In October, 1918 authorities approved a provision for free, co-education of school-age children. A year later, they signed a decree on education, and now the entire population of the country, ranging in age from 8 to 50 years, who could not read or write, was obliged to learn to read and write in their native or Russian languages ​​- at will. The education system has gone through various stages, like the state itself - historian Andrei Fursov tells On the eve of .RU:

"After the experiments of the 20s, in which there were attempts to deny the Russian classical system (at the beginning of the 20s, both bourgeois disciplines were forbidden: Greek, Latin, logic, history), but in the middle of 30s, it was all restored the same as the notion of “Soviet patriotism.” And 7 November ceased to be a celebration of the world revolution, and became the day of the Great October Socialist Revolution. So, the Soviet system developed what was laid down in the Russian classical education system. image Maintenance, as it was in 1970-s, in 1980-ies, was the best - it is recognized all over the world the Soviet system was the best -. Now the Norwegians and the Japanese copy it. "

In total, 1920 managed to teach 3 a million people with literacy. Now the school was separated from the church, and the church from the state, teaching in educational institutions of any kind of dogma and performing religious rites was forbidden, physical punishment of children was also prohibited, and all nationalities received the right to study in their native language. Moreover, the Bolsheviks were puzzled by the creation of public preschool education. It was a cultural revolution. In Soviet times, for the first time in the history of Russia, almost universal literacy was achieved, close to 100%. The country received a free secondary education and an affordable higher education. The teacher's profession was respected. The school did not provide a service for money, but raised children, devoting time to the moral and ethical aspects of the development of a young man.

Qualitative higher technical education made the impossible possible — overcoming the industrial gulf between the USSR and the countries of developed capitalism. A new approach to education can be called successful, one has only to recall the number of world-famous Soviet scientists and inventors.

“Yes, there was a so-called“ philosophical ship ”- a number of scientists, philosophers, architects, artists left, but it was a miser compared to the scale of our country. In fact, the great cultural civilization was created anew - from scratch practically. Of course, relying on the colossal achievements of our ancestors: Pushkin, Turgenev, Nekrasov and other classics, writers and artists who faithfully reflected the soul of the people, ”says Vyacheslav Tetekin, Doctor of Historical Sciences, in an interview with Nakanune.RU. vitie received technical education is, first of all -. not the abstract liberal arts education, which is considered the standard we have created a weaponwhich surpassed the weapons created by the whole of united Europe. Why was this possible? Because in this very short time new technical personnel were created. Great attention was paid to education, huge funds were invested. Education was a state priority. The fundamental science was developing very quickly, the USSR Academy of Sciences was a powerful institution, and no one, as it is now, claimed that officials would "steer" with what the Academy of Sciences is doing. "

In addition to technical education, in the Soviet system it is worth noting such nice bonuses as high scholarship, developed pre-school and out-of-class education, free day nurseries and kindergartens, palaces of pioneers and creative houses on a free basis, music schools, sports education and children's recreation camps - in The USSR joked that if there is any dictatorship in the country, then this is the dictatorship of childhood.

As for homeless children after the Civil War and children left without parents after the Great Patriotic War, the system of orphanages was radically different from the current one, allowing people from these social institutions to find their often high place in society, create families, receive education, have equal opportunities, what we have to dream about now.

Development of republics

“October 1917 is an epoch-making event, and to summarize everything that wouldn’t have happened if this revolution had not been difficult. Of course, none of us wouldn’t be today. And it’s not that daddies and moms grandparents would not have met - the modern look itself was largely shaped by the revolution and the Soviet state that emerged after the revolution. I am talking here about education, of course, about a completely different social structure, says a journalist and co-author in an interview with Nakanune.RU project about modern education " The last bell "Konstantin Semin. - Everyone has something to thank October. Before the revolution in the national republics of the empire (in Turkestan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan), the literacy rate did not reach 2%. Some nations - including the indigenous peoples of Russia, as we call them today they didn’t even have their own written language. Today they are equal citizens of our country. "

Indeed, one of the most important differences between the USSR and the empire was precisely the development of national republics, the uniform spread of education.

"The USSR is a state that has reached heights in almost all spheres of life. Here, of course, science, education, and the cultural revolution. National republics received a big push in development. In spite of how the British Empire or the United States acted in the format of a policy of colonialism and neocolonialism, the Soviet Union, instead of pumping money from its suburbs, on the contrary, sent considerable funds for our national republics to develop, ”recalls the deputy director of the Institute for Strategic their studies and forecasts RUDN Nikita Danyuk.

What did the revolution 1917, Russia? It was the education that became available to all after the change of structure that provided the country with the possibility of a “big breakthrough”, industrialization, Victory in the Great Patriotic War, the opportunity to go to space for the first time, it provided us, living today, with protection in the form of an “atomic umbrella”.

“What is an atomic bomb? This is a product of tremendous tension in basic and applied science, it is the creation of hundreds of manufacturing enterprises that would ensure the creation of these high-tech weapons in cooperation,” said expert Vyacheslav Tetekin. “It was not just the creation of an atomic bomb that would be simplification, this was the creation of a powerful fundamental science, which in fact, especially in engineering terms, we did not exist until 1917. And we did not have industry before 1917. Neither aviationnor automobile. "

In modern Russia, as we see, the collapse of the Soviet system of universal education is taking place, elite schools are emerging, higher educational institutions are increasingly moving to a commercial basis, access to education is falling as rapidly as quality.

"A very simple fact testifies to how powerful the education system in the USSR was. For years, our frantic zealots for the IMF’s money have been trying to break this system for 25. Indeed, they have spoiled it to a large extent by entering the USE, the Bologna system, but the end they did not break it, because the foundation is too strong. Our education, both school and higher, is one of the greatest achievements of the Soviet system, "historian Andrei Fursov sums up.

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  1. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 11 November 2017 20: 46
    Helen! The article is excellent, complete, understandable and not for specialists.
    I’ll add a little. At the beginning of the 20th century, America developed wildly due to the robbery of the ready-made resources of Central America. 70 million bison, 30 million cows, horses, countless sheep, passed only through the Chicago massacres in less than a hundred years. Grass cuttings in America 4 times, ours cry out once or twice. Harvests all year round. All this has given and still gives full-blooded money, therefore the salaries there are incomparably high. Our Earth from the Carpathians to Kamchatka, poor in harvests, compared with the Carpathians, France .Money did not reach the hard workers, hence the living conditions. Thank you for the article.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 12 November 2017 08: 31
      Quote: p-k Oparyshev
      Helen! The article is excellent, complete, understandable and not for specialists.

      The article is funny in modern times, when there are not only propaganda articles (as before), but, finally, scientific monographs, for example Saprykina D.L. "Educational potential of the Russian Empire."
      The authors, at last, can write the TRUTH, and not what they order in the ideologist of the Central Committee department.
      I note to the author that free primary universal education operated in the Republic of Ingushetia in REALITY, about 140 THOUSAND schools worked (today in the Russian Federation there are 63 thousand).
      And the number of schools and students as in 1914 was restored only by ... 1927!
      E-Higher Education RI monograph
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 12 November 2017 09: 03
        Child labor was used not only by foreign industrialists in factories. Merchants brought to St. Petersburg from the outskirts of the children of the poor and peasants

        SW comrade Kiryakova forgot to mention the use of child labor by the STATE under “agreements with economic organizations” and say: what is it called?

        Report on the economic development of Narym by special settlers.

        MAY 1931 - JUNE 1932
        Special settlers of the Narym Territory for their labor use as of June 1, 1932 are distributed as follows:

        Use ... .... TOTAL ......... men ... ... ... womenincluding TEENAGERS .... CHILDREN

        Under agreements with
        Household Organizations ... 182289 .......... 46804 ...................... 51647 ..............19936 …………… 63884

        Source: State Archives of the Novosibirsk Region. F.R-47.Op.5.D.137.L.4-7, 46-50. Script

        Children from 7 to 12 years old, adolescents from 12 to 16 (children too). Work-logging.
        These are documents of the State Archives of the Russian Federation.

        I would like to hear from a respected comrade. Kiryakova term defining this situation hi .
        1. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 12 November 2017 12: 36
          I believe that you will agree that it is better for a teenager to work on a plot, bringing a tool, a slinger and a cutter, than modern children can get involved in early prostitution and soft drugs with beer.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 12 November 2017 12: 55
            Quote: pp to Oparyshev
            I believe that you will agree that it is better for a teenager to work on a plot, bringing a tool, a slinger and a cutter, than modern children can get involved in early prostitution and soft drugs with beer.

            If you give only such a choice, then I support it.
            But the choice is much wider!
        2. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene 12 November 2017 13: 45
          Quote: Olgovich
          SW comrade Kiryakova forgot to mention the use of child labor by the STATE under “agreements with economic organizations” and say: what is it called?

          So what? In a Soviet school, instruction was inextricably linked with socially useful work. I studied at the turn of the 50-60s, in our school there was a garden, a nursery and in the summer we had a monthly practice there, in the fall we went to a nearby collective farm to thresh flax, planted forest belts along highways. The school also entered into agreements with collective farms and the green economy, the school received money for this.
          But the most important thing is that it accustomed us to work, united a cool team. Now all my classmates remember these years with great nostalgia and sadness, because today's students are deprived of all this.
          1. alstr
            alstr 12 November 2017 19: 24
            Yeah. And in the late 80s, we had a career guidance, where we worked without really straining for 4 hours a week. They earned up to 10 rubles a month.
            I still worked as a guide (at the same time, I studied for free). About 3 rubles ran in a day (and if it worked all day, then it was fed for free). Again you want to work, you want not to work.

            And in the village, as I know, there were agricultural classes (i.e., their own farms, plots, etc.). Plus parents helped. And again, it was impossible to work for more than 4 hours.

            And the main goal, again, was precisely education, than the exploitation of labor.

            And then it sometimes brought very original results. For example, you just need to read what they gave to the pioneer of the Hero of Socialist Labor.
          2. A.V.S.
            A.V.S. 13 November 2017 15: 08
            Under bloody tsarism, children were forced to earn a living. Under Soviet rule, children were able to work to build communism.
            1. chenia
              chenia 13 November 2017 15: 26
              Quote: A.W.S.
              It was under bloody tsarism that children were forced to earn a living

              So the Allied women didn’t want to fight, and our children replaced men, it was a matter of life and death. (as child labor was forbidden), and the fact that the little man at the machine is the level of education.
              1. A.V.S.
                A.V.S. 13 November 2017 15: 31
                Quote: chenia
                and we have men replaced children, it was a matter of life and death.

                In Russia, children worked during the war, this is bad. In the USSR, children worked during the war, this is good. Do you feel the difference ?!
                1. chenia
                  chenia 13 November 2017 15: 36
                  Quote: A.W.S.
                  In Russia, children worked during the war; this is bad

                  In RI, children worked in peacetime, and not at machines.
                  In the USSR, this kid will become an engineer, and in the Republic of Ingushetia sexually in the tavern - feel the difference.
                  1. A.V.S.
                    A.V.S. 13 November 2017 15: 48
                    Thus, in the USSR, child labor was not fundamentally rejected. The main thing is that they would work for the sake of communism.
                    Fyodor Vasilyevich Tokarev (1871-1968) - designer of small arms. The father was a Don Cossack. In the spring of 1882, when Fedor was eleventh year old, the Tokarev family moved from Mechetinskaya to his father’s village Yegorlykskaya. From the end of summer, Fedor studies blacksmithing and works local blacksmith. On January 4, 1916, by order of the Main Artillery Directorate of Esaul (captain of the Cossack troops) F. Tokarev was placed at the disposal of the head of the Sestroretsk arms factory and appointed to head the department for verification and assembly of factory products. Bloody tsarism did not allow Cossack Tokarev to work sexually in a tavern, but appropriated the rank of "major" and forced him to be an engineer at a military factory.
                    1. chenia
                      chenia 13 November 2017 16: 09
                      Quote: A.W.S.
                      Thus, in the USSR, child labor is fundamentally

                      The principle in the USSR was -children must study, and only under certain extreme circumstances could work.

                      I have a dad, he worked from the age of 15, but part-time, studied in evening school. prepared for the army (then they took from 17, he literally didn’t have time for war for half a year). Then (after the war) he graduated from high school (secondary education, 11 classes then for some reason). entered the university. It was hungry, he left after the first year at a military school. He became a colonel. And that is the norm.

                      Quote: A.W.S.
                      Fedor Vasilyevich Tokarev (1871-1968) - designer of small arms. The father was a Don Cossack

                      And here, to a greater extent the exception.
            2. The comment was deleted.
  2. Eurodav
    Eurodav 11 November 2017 20: 58
    Elena Kiryakova, unlike the Oparyshev camp, I won’t sing defirambas, ask, what purpose did you pursue with this article?
    1. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 11 November 2017 21: 07
      Are you not a versatile person? Are you not interested in everything?
  3. moskowit
    moskowit 11 November 2017 21: 51
    Everything is right and right! To the author + ...
    The Russian empire, as you know, was the best country in the world, where happy high school students shone with a blush, leaving in the morning to study, pray and dream of giving their lives for the tsar.

    "... High school girls are rosy, a little drunk from the frost
    Gracefully knock down loose snow from the heel .... "

    But how, then, to understand the "red-necked hunters" who were the first to beat "protesting" scubents "and" high school "protesters" in the tail and mane ???
    “Beat students and high school students!” The mention of high school students is not accidental. Learning young people were primarily targeted by the Black Hundreds. For decades, Russian students immediately responded to the slightest changes in public life. Student unrest, as a rule, preceded major revolutionary events, and higher education institutions turned into revolutionary clubs. In the turbulent 1905 year, students from not only higher, but also secondary educational institutions found themselves in a revolutionary ferment. It is not surprising that in the eyes of the pogrom crowd, students looked instigators of sedition. In Moscow, clashes between students and the Black Hundreds took place regularly, which was partly due to the territorial proximity of Moscow University and the Okhotny Ryad. Kharkov and Novorossiysk (Odessa) universities found themselves in a real siege. In Nizhyn, a lyceum was attacked. Local gendarmes telegraphed that the Black Hundreds appeared at the Lyceum, "demanded a large royal portrait there, forcing them to carry students, which procession with the singing of the anthem went around the city until 7 evening." Professors and students of the Nezhin Lyceum fled to Kiev, but, arriving at the Kiev station, they learned that a brutal pogrom was going on in the city. In Yaroslavl, according to the correspondent of the Yaroslavl Bulletin, after the attack on the Demidov Lyceum, “the appearance of seminarians, gymnasium students, and especially students, became dangerous, so that students in uniform are almost never found on the streets.”

    More information at © QUESTION
    1. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 11 November 2017 22: 14
      Well, that you are my friend! Look at the modern Navalny. Everything is repeated in the World. Nothing new.
  4. 27091965
    27091965 11 November 2017 22: 28
    Very good article. +
  5. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk 11 November 2017 22: 55
    Shaw, again? :))))
    Oh, these tales, oh, these storytellers :))))
    Of course, one of the global advantages of the Soviet regime was the introduction of universal education. But I wonder - why, speaking of the achievements of the USSR, it is MANDATORY to smear imperial Russia with mud? That’s what our observers have such an alternative talent — I must, I apologize, go to the toilet for some period of our history, moreover ...
    As I said - yes, of course, the achievements of the USSR in terms of education are simply ... fantastic, they are striking both in scale and novelty for that time - in the USSR they created a wonderful system of education that is not like anything Western, but at the same time how at least one of the best in the world (and for me - and the best). And yes, it was laid down in the 30s, and even in something of the 20s that the foundation was provided by the post-war superpower of the USSR
    But does this mean that under the tsar-priest everything was very bad?
    In 1914, approximately 40% of students in higher education were children of workers and peasants.
    In 1900, there were 36 primary schools in the country. After 820 years (that is, 14), there are already 1914 of them. Moreover, we are talking about the schools of the Ministry of Public Education (which was the case under the tsar), and parish parishes are not included in this list.
    In 1885, 26,6% of conscripts came to the army literate, in 1900 - 49%, in 1913 - 67,8%., although TSB provides even 1913% of literate people in 73
    That is, it should have been understood - yes, certainly there was nothing similar to the USSR under tsarism, and yes, the idea of ​​universal education, although it was, passed on the part of good wishes, not the bill, here the article is true. But one should not assume that the Russian Empire consisted exclusively of masons who did not understand the benefits of education — it developed at a very impressive pace in the empire.
    In general, the author’s first and most global mistake is to contrast the history of our country before and after the socialist revolution. Both that and another - our country. Not everything was bad under the tsar and far from everything is good not everything was good under the USSR, but far from everything is bad, each period has its own achievements and we need to study them impartially, and not oppose each other
    1. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 11 November 2017 23: 29
      You don’t really have to believe in the prospects outlined by you. Tsar-Batyushka didn’t visit Russia in debt, everyone on ships, cruisers, and yachts deigned to rule the Empire. When the Tsar was concerned about some kind of lower education.
      1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 November 2017 00: 20
        Quote: p-k Oparyshev
        Something not really believe in the prospects indicated by you

        Questions of faith I do not discuss :)))) Only the facts :)))
        Quote: p-k Oparyshev
        .Tsar-Batyushka didn’t even have a duty in Russia, everything on ships, cruisers, yachts was deigned to rule the Empire

        Can you justify this amazing thesis somehow? :))
        Quote: p-k Oparyshev
        When the King was concerned about some kind of lower education.

        The tsar did not need to do this personally, for this he had subordinates whose duties it was.
        1. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 12 November 2017 12: 38
          Read the previous articles of the Military Review, otherwise you will be surprised that you are a recent spy, only mishandled.
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 November 2017 14: 36
            Quote: p-k Oparyshev
            Read the previous articles of the Military Review, otherwise you will be surprised that you are a recent spy, only mishandled.

            Yeah, I’m like that :))))) I’ve been sitting here since 2011, but now I have revealed my espionage essence laughing
            1. badens1111
              badens1111 12 November 2017 15: 02
              Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
              Yeah, I’m like that :))))) I’ve been sitting here since 2011, but now I have revealed my espionage essence

              Babah and immediately into the spies ?? Wow fly. laughing
  6. AKC
    AKC 11 November 2017 23: 01
    This is not an article. and agitation! I'm not for the king or for anyone else. the author simply attracts the necessary facts, and omits others! too lazy to refute everything, but ask a few questions. Why don't you compare the purchasing power of the ruble when comparing the salaries of German, American, Russian and other workers? Why did the author keep silent about child labor in the Union? maybe the author will tell how children worked in villages and collective farms of the USSR? Dear author, you are probably very far from production. if you believe that a decree on education, you can quickly make skilled workers and engineers in a few years!
    If the life of 80% of the population of the Republic of Ingushetia did not improve, then what is the standard of living of the population in the USSR to be called if it was trying to achieve 13 years?
    And stop telling tales about the SOVIET EDUCATION SYSTEM in the world without analogs in the world
    ! did not have this. at least for the simple reason. that the union was not a leader in industry and other sectors (constantly stealing or copying technologies and goods) with rare exceptions.
    The USSR is a state that has reached heights in almost all spheres of life. eg? Well, maybe not all. Well, for example: let's compare electronics. medicine. light and heavy industry. or products. Well, there may be achievements in armament, and we will be surprised to find that despite such a cool education. the decaying west produced products and armaments not inferior to the Soviet one, and at the same time did not lower the standard of living of its population below the plinth. how in other countries did without communists revolutions and other things?
    but my opinion is. that if there were no communists, education would be spreading at the same rate anyway. it was a requirement of the time, it would be unlikely that there would have been academics, generals, aircraft designers and others without primary education!
    1. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 11 November 2017 23: 34
      There would be no communists, England would wipe its feet on the rulers of Russia, as they are now wiping it on Poroshenko. It’s not necessary to wait. The powers that be decided to strangle the English and poured global money into the USSR, in that order and into education. It was clear that without educated population. USSR will not fulfill the task.
      By the year 17, tsarist Russia had already completed everything that England needed, and then the tsar's family was removed, as were all unnecessary and there all the same education.
    2. long in stock.
      long in stock. 11 November 2017 23: 42
      Well, let me tell you about the work of children in the union. I was born and raised there. And I began working from the age of 12, not because I didn’t have enough money, but because I had the opportunity to earn money. Now about achievements. Did light industry produce bad fabrics for you? No. the clothes were sewn uniformly yes. the quality of the fabric itself was at the level. medicine — what didn’t please you? Can't cure cancer? They still don’t know how anywhere. Electronics .. Again you don’t like that ... didn’t you like TVs? Well, take a look at what they were in the West in those years .. education is the best, again you didn’t like it. but it’s not clear ... then .. as usual, you missed the most important thing: the whole West is against our 1 country ... and this West could easily rob and still robbing countries of the 3rd world .. due to which it maintains the welfare of its citizens. Now tell me where and when did the USSR lower its citizens below the baseboard? And study history — no large state has ever done without revolutions. Communists .. I remind you that only those countries where there were commun partisan nists fought with the Germans. and where they were not there, they were sitting on the priest exactly .. and your passage about production in general ... how to prepare qualified specialists in a few years .. no way. first you need to teach them to read and write to expand their horizons training and only then prepare specialists .. that's why the decree on universal education was issued, what is not clear to you? and the result was then, after 15-20 years, not earlier. if the tsar father would have attended to this at least for years 20 before the First World War, maybe there was no need to make a revolution .. but this did not happen.
      1. AKC
        AKC 12 November 2017 00: 11
        Well, let's take it in order! and I started working at 16. and my father at 12. I just because there was an opportunity. but my father had no money. so he had to work. that is, the same thing could be with the king.
        the clothes were good (depending on what to mean by this). but people wanted imported, and overpaid for quality and beauty! medicine. we still do not know how to do many things that were done in the West at that time! About TVs: Well, compare Sony and the electron in '87. and what is the best education? I want to remind. that we stole technology from the west and not ours! Are you talking about one of our country? but what about the republics and the social camp. why do not you consider them. Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary and other countries? who, together with the USSR, opposed the West!
        West robbed 3 countries of the world. and who robbed the union to feed the social camp!
        about below the baseboard. just look at the standard of living of hard workers in the USA and compare with the working USSR. it was a hard worker of the USSR who dreamed of living abroad. and not a carpenter from Finland dreamed of living as in the USSR.
        about the partisans. But what about poppies, the army of Kraiova. and it’s difficult in Europe to partisan forests. you also learn history and find out. that under communist rule, the army left half the country to the invader. threw the equipment and surrendered to millions in captivity!
        you cannot understand. that they didn’t make decrees of massly qualified world-class specialists from literacy to specialist in 10-20 years (now taking into account automation, where you need to press three buttons in a certain sequence. you can probably).
        1. Karen
          Karen 12 November 2017 00: 27
          Quote: AKC
          I want to remind. that it was we who plundered the west of technology and not ours! .

          Allow me to put you in bold "bad".
          I understand that you think so from ignorance. About genetics there, about cybernetics.
          In fact, in cybernetics, for example, we have always been ahead of the West ... Just pogans like Yu.V. Andropov did everything to prevent the country from developing to its full height and sunk into oblivion.
        2. long in stock.
          long in stock. 12 November 2017 08: 32
          well, let’s take it in order. why did your father start working at 12? and you want to tell me that he didn’t go to school? there wasn’t such a thing. somewhere there is no connection. with the union the school was obligatory and it was strictly followed. so either don’t negotiate or something is wrong. people wanted an import, it’s beautiful .. and not like that. it’s generally peculiar to people and everywhere and everywhere. but the quality .. yes it was the same. possession of a thing is not like everyone else is just a status . More precisely, Ponty. And they were definitely not interested in the state. I didn’t find Sony 87, but I found the first trintron of 68 years, they’re no different. Medicine, now it’s not a Soviet medical doctor, so do not compare. For your information, we already started at the beginning of 80 lasers used medicine in large quantities, the witness and the patient himself didn’t know how? they knew how and did. how do you know what they were doing in the west and how accessible it was. do you want to remind me that we stole technology? Well, be more specific, what kind of a nuclear bomb do you remember? so it was past the checkout. the technology was known to us, but from the fact that it was necessary to accelerate, we didn’t threaten everyone with a club. allies countries, which of them were industrially developed? only the German Democratic Republic and the Czechs. that's all. it's not much. now about how and who lived. you just don’t need to tell me that everyone wanted to run west and prosper there .. how do you know how a carpenter lived in Finland? from beautiful pictures from magazines? well, there’s only gloss ... we have Now a carpenter, if he is a good master, lives quietly .. and now about the story .... which you really don’t know .. millions speak .. half of the country .. so Westerners so praised by you simply merged entirely. together with armies, technology and government. .you teach history .. now the partisans — the army of the Territory and the Germans didn’t fight .. there are a lot of evidence to that. they only managed to arrange a Warsaw massacre and that’s because they were afraid of losing power, refute if you can. French poppies-2 times ha ha Resistance to the Germans began to organize fighters Spanish inter-brigades who were interned in France. And they began to join the partisans in large numbers only after the Allies landed. All these data are in the public domain. If you start to talk about something, then at least bother to read about it .. and look funny ..
          1. AKC
            AKC 12 November 2017 19: 13
            You need to learn, learn life, and then argue! at 12, you can work on vacation on the collective farm. or after school, for example, a horse with a cart to drive around the field to collect beets! and at the same time the horse needs to be harnessed. (and the horse is evil). Well, right, because it’s he himself who went, because no one forced him !!!
            and for the rest, learn materiel, on the same TVs, clothes. medicine, cars. ask about technologies that stole or bought: well, for example, engine building, military equipment, and other other
            I know how they lived in Finland, I saw it with my own eyes and could compare, it’s from the propaganda of the CPSU that you recognized how bad it was in the West. look how many people ran away from the Union !!! but as the curtain fell, they began to leave the country of the Soviets in general in an endless stream!
            about everything else you wrote: take an interest in the topic, otherwise I can say that the Germans in the cities of the USSR were greeted with bread and salt and there are still photo documents on the Internet! and the mass partisan movement began only after people learned what the new order was.
            1. long in stock.
              long in stock. 12 November 2017 21: 18
              what are you ?? Is this something I need to learn? A 20-year-old boy tells me how they lived in the Soviet Union ... the joiners did not run away from the union .. He saw Finland on a tourist trip ... harbor a horse, he is angry ... you wrote that you should work about dad I had to, but it turns out to be on vacation .. according to Soviet law, no more than 4 hours a day .. of course it’s like under the tsar, it’s 10 hours every day and then 4 with the weekend .. you yap banal who do not own any topic ... with bread and salt ... where? in the Baltic states? such as you met ... you yes olgovich ... began to leave in an endless stream ... even if you looked at how many people left and how many went away with the king .. you should not impersonate an adult-style building phrases and general wretchedness betrays in you a man who is still extremely young .. you gentlemen are liberal liberals .... go to Ukraine to comment, but don’t mess with serious things .. don’t do this for you.
              1. AKC
                AKC 12 November 2017 22: 21
                Well, in principle, I did not expect anything else from you! I knew that you say that this is not a job but a hobby. and no one forced him. he himself wanted (I’m talking about my father), you must have grown up at home. and on vacation, the back was pulled on my mother’s grub. and so all my life all the way to retirement! even though the ruble earned a hump and not sitting on a salary? you don’t know the truth of life: remember, my friend: the child does not work on a good life during the holidays and after school !!! What is under the king, what is under socialism, what now!
                I understand you. that the truth is long and boring, and difficult to digest! fascists were greeted with joy, not only in the Baltic states, but also in Ukraine and in some cities of the Russian Federation. The callo-bureaucrats in the USSR were nemeri, Vlasov (of the most famous Russian)! ask when the large-scale guerrilla war unfolded in what year and opinions why this happened!
                And I repeat: learn the materiel, take an interest in the origin of engines, aircraft, and tank in the USSR. take an interest in the origin of magnetophones, televisions, washing machines, take an interest in the pedigree of armaments, take an interest in who built automobile factories and whose cars were produced there! in the vast majority of cases are of Western origin! Internet to help and library !!!
                about how many left, fled. asked for political asylum. Now it is in the public domain. I don’t give a damn about the tsar, but with him, in order to leave to live abroad it was not necessary to hijack planes or trains, the very Lenin wanted to go to London. or to Paris, and no one interfered with him and no one called him a traitor. It doesn’t seem strange to you: you are comparing the cannibal of a king who spread rot on people. but the beautiful socialist paradise behind the Iron Curtain did not interfere with the communication of its subjects with foreigners!
                about life abroad and the USSR. only now our country is approaching the standard of living to 90 years in the west and it makes me happy! about the trip they made fun !!
                PS. I want to note that I do not pretend to the laurels of Chekhov and Tolstoy. therefore, the syllable is the same, but I must say that you also do not write like Gorky! your thoughts are jumping, to be honest, I was somewhat surprised to learn that you are already aged (!!
                I will not tell you about wretchedness and limitation, it's all subjective! just want to notice. that now there is a lot of information on the network so use do not hesitate! And then take part in disputes! I didn’t specifically give links, you will need to find it yourself, but don’t. Live in your world! good luck. develop your horizons!
                It was always interesting why when there are no arguments. begin to pay attention to correctness, writing style, and insult? this is probably a hallmark of the maydanut residents of Ukraine and the Communists. not surprised father alone - Lenin!
                1. long in stock.
                  long in stock. 13 November 2017 01: 31
                  in principle, I didn’t expect anything different from you either. I’m blatting that everything was stolen, you don’t have a clue about what a license is. Moreover, you don’t understand why it happened. You don’t know how to analyze what you read. Links to give -Yes, I forgot about this more than you knew .. and the writing style is that marker that shows that the little man is not who he claims to be .. you simply do not have the life experience that allows you to draw such conclusions. you think since you no one sees you in the house .. a naive Chukchi young man .. if you saw insults somewhere, they’ll figure it out to the moderators. You said something like that you understand the production, but it turned out that you didn’t understand anything. stealing technologies loudly shouting out .. well, not all of the icebreakers bypassed it .. and it's good that you even remembered Vlasov, take a look, it’s you ... and yes, but you didn’t grow up on your mother’s little grubs? offend strongly ..
  7. Amurets
    Amurets 11 November 2017 23: 33
    Here is what the Trans-Baikal, and then the Amur Cossack Roman Bogdanov wrote about the formation of Cossacks in the mid-XNUMXth century. I must say right away that he was like a secretary and a chronicler under Count N.N. Muravyov-Amursky, during the first campaigns of Muravyov on the Amur.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 11 November 2017 23: 37
      Adapted from the collection: Amur Cossacks Authors Collective Volume 2
    2. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 12 November 2017 12: 41
      Please note that the description begins in 1849. And here are the most important previous years. Then there were the consequences of a nuclear explosion. That's interesting.
  8. tractor driver
    tractor driver 11 November 2017 23: 56
    1) Maybe the article is good, but it does not fit into it, for example, Maxim Gorky or Mikhail Lomonosov. Sons of the tradesman and peasant, and graduated from university. This could not be! But it was ...
    2) And the schedule does not fit into the article.
    And the very "rapid growth" of allocations for education lasted a very short period. Then, as we know, the war began, and public funds went to other concerns.

    and on the graph, the number of schools seems to have increased by a quarter in the most military years or two?
    They say that history does not tolerate the subjunctive mood, but try to mentally continue the yellow curve - it would be much higher than the red one. There would be several times more schools if the Tsar remained before the 1940s than under the Soviets?
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 12 November 2017 01: 22
      Maxim Gorky .. let me know which university Gorky graduated ...? ... if you read his books you should know that a person was engaged in self-education ...
      1. LeonidL
        LeonidL 12 November 2017 02: 33
        Well, how many were Maxim Gorky, Lomonosov to Russia ...?
        1. Looking for
          Looking for 5 June 2018 18: 38
          2 !!!!!! to a country with a population of 150 million !!!!!.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 12 November 2017 04: 20
      Quote: tractor driver
      ) Maybe the article is good, but it does not fit into it, for example, Maxim Gorky or Mikhail Lomonosov.

      Chekhov’s Vanka Zhukov and his education fit in well.
    3. long in stock.
      long in stock. 12 November 2017 08: 38
      the fact of the matter is that only the most talents could break through. these are unique people. but only on geniuses you can’t build anything .. for this you need a huge number of just workers and engineers .. and you can get them only by mass training .. and there wouldn’t be there are more schools .. because the money for the war was gone - and there weren’t enough of them. Short-term financing of such programs will not work. These are long-term projects ..
  9. Curious
    Curious 12 November 2017 01: 03
    Let's see the official documents.
    1. Curious
      Curious 12 November 2017 01: 07
      This Knga contains a lot of interesting information about the Russian Empire, including detailed data on the literacy rate of the population.
      1. Curious
        Curious 12 November 2017 01: 16

        As you can see, the compilers of the yearbook of the Empire’s achievements in public education were not rated very highly.
        For comparison, according to the 1939 census, the literacy rate of people aged 16 to 50 was close to 90%.
  10. parusnik
    parusnik 12 November 2017 01: 27
    Neither aviation nor automobile
    ..At Russo-Balt did a lot of things .. But there were no aircraft engine factories .. Ilya Muromets and Russian S-13 fighters flew on low-power imported engines .. This lag in engine building made itself felt during the years of Soviet rule, purchased licenses for abroad ..
    1. Curious
      Curious 12 November 2017 01: 37
      Russo-Balt for all the years of its existence has produced no more than 600 cars.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 12 November 2017 01: 43
        At least something wink ... I am aware of these statistics .. But our opponents will write that it was a huge success .. wink
        1. Curious
          Curious 12 November 2017 01: 48
          Better than the classics opponents can not answer.
          "... the young man stopped to light by the janitor who was sitting on a stone bench at the gate.
          “And what, father,” the young man asked, drawn out, “do you have brides in the city?”
          The old janitor was not at all surprised.
          To the bride and the mare"He answered, eagerly getting involved in the conversation."
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 12 November 2017 01: 56
            good ... What are you doing with your opponents ... smile ..An opponent is now politically literate, well-read .. smile ... It follows the indicated course in 1991 .. If it is serious, everything repeats itself, during the years of the Soviet regime, somehow they didn’t really try to write about the successes of the tsarist regime, they wrote more about shortcomings, now we see the opposite picture ...
            1. Curious
              Curious 12 November 2017 02: 08
              The fact is that by reproaching Soviet historiography for the dominance of ideology, current opponents follow the same path. They certainly need the “successes” of the Russian Empire, like air. For the sake of this goal, the criterion of success is determined by the presence of something for evaluation. There are 600 cars - this means this is the criterion of success. We are not talking about any kind of objective analysis. Accordingly, discussions are turning ... you yourself know what discussions are turning on on the site under such articles. And not only on the site.
              1. Snakebyte
                Snakebyte 12 November 2017 13: 48
                How else?
                Putin, on the other hand, announced that tsarist Russia at the beginning of the XNUMXth century is the ideal that present-day Russia should strive for. That's all and follow the general line of the CPSU ... I wanted to say EP.
      2. Pushkar
        Pushkar 29 March 2018 23: 54
        Quote: Curious
        Russo-Balt for all the years of its existence has produced no more than 600 cars.
        I will supplement it. Hand-assembled cars. Assembly, not manufacture. Cars are very expensive for the elite.
  11. LeonidL
    LeonidL 12 November 2017 02: 30
    All right! My grandfather under the tsar, according to him, finished three classes and the central school hall and was handed over to the farm laborers of the Polish estate (panders). there, they managed to get out a little in people - as an assistant engineer on a locomobile and go through technical courses to get this specialty. He went through the entire First World War - he graduated as a senior non-commissioned officer as an adjutant of the senior battalion and the St. George Knight. Civil - the headquarters of the cavalry brigade. Then everything was done from scratch - the labor faculty, the Technological Institute ... built factories, built Tankograd ... graduated from Bhilai in India. And if not for October, he would have remained a locomotive engine driver at best. Grandmother only after the Revolution was able to realize her dream of becoming a doctor ... It was a social elevator that gave unprecedented opportunities to ordinary people.
    1. long in stock.
      long in stock. 12 November 2017 08: 41
      Now the liberoids will come running with an unbroken bun in the mouth and start shouting, “ALMOST ...” and they will remember the flags ..
      1. Looking for
        Looking for 5 June 2018 18: 50
        You see, your grandparents, fathers and mothers received educations. Professions, and you, undoubtedly considering yourself an educated person. ELEMENTARY UNLIMITED. ?. And I’m more than sure. 90% of those who rant here. Write a “not” particle SEPARATELY from the word. And they still rant about the education system in the USSR !!!! Renegades !!!!
  12. Ural resident
    Ural resident 12 November 2017 10: 52
    It’s absurd to compare the education of the 19th century and the end of the 20th.
    I do not think. that the monarchy was the right form of government - it was a tribute to its time.
    If there wasn’t a revolution, the political system would have changed in any case, just a liberal coup was organized at the most inopportune moment, when everyone on the contrary had to come together.
    And in the 20th century, education would still be universal and free under any authority.
    1. chenia
      chenia 13 November 2017 12: 18
      Quote: Resident of the Urals
      It’s absurd to compare the education of the 19th century and the end of the 20th.

      Definitely. The ability to read, write, and knowledge of the four actions of arithmetic cannot be passed off as literacy.

      Quote: Resident of the Urals
      There would be no revolution - the political system has changed anyway

      The same is true, but the new government forced this process. And you know when you felt the results - already during the war. when they started producing new equipment of relatively good quality. Usually indicate Lend-Lease.
      But the war ended. The "cold" began and suddenly we began to produce high-tech products (space, nuclear facilities, aviation, shipbuilding), won the space race.

      During the Korean War, the Americans complained that UN troops (essentially the same Americans) have aviation that is qualitatively worse, and that is especially fun, quantitatively less than the North Koreans (well, it’s also clear where the firewood comes from).

      This is all I need, such a breakthrough could be made by a country with a completely different level of education, and an understanding of the word "literacy".
  13. iouris
    iouris 16 November 2017 01: 15
    Quote: "... elite schools appear" End of quote.
    The fact of the matter is that education can be either universal or none.
  14. Russia
    Russia 20 February 2018 22: 12
    Plus, Plus and again Plus article!
  15. captain
    captain 22 February 2018 10: 52
    The article was written by the Komsomol member, who apparently never knew that in the USSR, children on collective farms plowed for "sticks" and by no means 4 hours. And throughout all 75 years of the USSR. For example; during sowing, during weeding beets, during harvesting, etc. Although maybe she didn’t want to know what the slaves of the proletariat were doing there in their villages and how the power was dealing with them. In addition to crying out for our Russian past, many no longer have any desire to write either. I once read that the communists did without teachers and teachers trained in the Russian Empire. It turns out that the sailor Zheleznyak taught at Moscow State University and the Bauman School.