The Russian Empire, as is known, was the best country in the world, where happy high-school students shone with a reddeness, going in the morning to study, pray and dream to give their lives for the king. Of course, there were some minor problems (associated with outside influence or troublemakers, which are always enough), for example, the total ignorance of the rest of the people. But in the 1908 year, as white patriots now say, the tsarist government adopted a universal education program for the children of Russia - everyone could get an education regardless of gender, nationality and class! The program was conceived to be implemented through 20 years, the very "quiet years" that Stolypin once asked for, after which we would "not recognize the country."
And if the admirers of the tsarist era say that the bloody Bolsheviks did not destroy the empire that was flourishing and good for children, the time of universal and compulsory education would have come earlier - in 1928 year, and not in the USSR, in 1934, when universal literacy.
Perhaps someone believes in these tales of the beautiful kingdom, but today, when Russia celebrates the centenary of the October Revolution, for the sake of diversity we turn to the facts.
In the 1908 year, no universal education program was adopted. It was only a bill that the Commission on Public Education considered for another two years, and after wandering the document on the tables in the Duma, in the State Council, after fruitless discussions among officials, the beautiful dream became the same mythological daddy who for stability serves as a backup to the cabinet in one from high cabinets. In 1912, the bill was rejected by the State Council.
Citizens prone to idealizing the tsarist past, meanwhile, from high departments continue to assert that the opportunity to get an education and make a career for the poor peasant or farm laborer was very high in the reign of Alexander III, and that the people remained dark and impoverished. but also a consequence of sinfulness. Well, in the reign of the last emperor, the possibilities became even greater. Especially with the theoretical universal education, which was discussed above. Speakers, if they mention in parentheses that this law was not adopted, they always forget to clarify what kind of education this should have been, and we will mention that Stolypin was not talking about secondary education, but about universal primary education.
Developing the program, the officials took as a basis parish schools and their subject list.
"The following subjects were taught in the pre-revolutionary elementary school: God's law, reading, writing, four arithmetic operations, church singing, initial information from stories churches and the Russian state, as well as always - handicrafts and handicrafts ". (Rustem Vakhitov," The Revolution that Saved Russia ").
It was these subjects that were required for the transition of a huge agrarian country to a new technological level after other states that had already stepped over the industrial revolution. It was the Law of God and the four actions of arithmetic that were to provide prosperous Nikolaev Russia with a “big breakthrough” and full-scale industrialization, but only through 20 years. If these 20 years were "calm." But they would not be calm and, probably, could not be - everything went towards the redistribution of the world and even to a world war.
It is important to note one more thing. Primary education was not a stepping stone to the secondary level, as we all got used to it. Even after finishing primary school, it was impossible to approach secondary education. Secondary education was provided by the gymnasium, and secondary education was available only to the privileged class: the children of noblemen, officials, and the rich became high-school students. Here we return to the image of the beautiful and strong Tsar Alexander III, in which supposedly, according to the admired "white-patriots", social elevators rushed at the speed of light back and forth. It was Alexander who banned access to commoners' children in the gymnasium - this is a circular of the Minister of Education Delianov from 1887 of the year, which the people received the name "Decree on Cooking Children". Naturally, the whole thing is about money - those students whose parents obviously could not bear all the paid tuition, buying a uniform and so on were eliminated.
Secondary education in Tsarist Russia was not for everyone, it was also paid, they only thought about the general primary education. What about higher? Here the high school students could already think about enrolling in universities. Secondary technical education was given by real schools, graduates were allowed to enter technical and commercial universities, but not universities. In the 1913 year, on the eve of the war, there were 276 real schools in Russia, where thousands of people were trained 17, and there were about 45 million people in school-age children. But after a year the country will face an external threat and will need more skilled workers than philosophers and writers. The new century made a request for engineers, technicians, builders of industrialization. The education system in Tsarist Russia, with all the desire, without a change of lifestyle that occurred in the 1917 year, could not provide an industrial breakthrough for either 20 or 200 years.
Yes, the tsarist government did not skimp on funding education: schools were built and universities were created, but the system did not change and did not improve the lives of 80% of the population. And the very "rapid growth" of allocations for education lasted for a very short period. Then, as we know, the war began, and public funds went to other concerns.
Today we are told that the industry was developing at a rapid pace, no less turbulent than the construction and development of schools for children. However, it was precisely in Tsarist Russia that there was a huge percentage of children directly involved in industry.
What did 80% of children do if they did not study?
Child labor is very profitable and therefore in the capitalist system, aimed at obtaining the greatest possible profit, was extremely common. Pay this category of citizens could be significantly less. Of course, the situation in the rest of the world differed little.
Here are the data from the US labor bureau 1904 of the year, the average salary of a laborer in terms of rubles per month was:
in the United States - 71 rub. (with 56 working hours per week);
in England - 41 rub. (with 52,5 working hours per week);
in Germany - 31 rub. (with 56 working hours per week);
in France - 43 rub. (with 60 working hours per week);
in Russia - from 10 rub. up to 25 rub. (with 60-65 working hours per week).
The work of minors and women was valued even lower, according to the table of the researcher Dementiev, in the Moscow province men received 14,16 rubles, women - 10,35 rubles, teenagers - 7,27 rubles, and young children - 5 rubles. and 8 cop.
In Russia, according to data from open sources, for every thousand workers 11 children of 12-15 were of both sexes, in the processing of nutrients - 14, in the processing of paper - 58, mineral substances - 63, in fruit, grape, vodka factories - 40, in tobacco factories - 69, match factories - 141. Also, child labor was used in the processing of wood, animal products, chemical and fibrous substances, in oil refineries, distilleries, breweries, sugar beet and vodka plants.
But one should not think that the tsar was not at all disturbed by child labor and the child’s position in the industrial system, in mines and hazardous industries were not there, and, for example, in glass factories children were allowed to put up for night work only during 6 hours humane decision.
As you know, most of the industry in the Russian Empire belonged to foreigners who had to go forward and adjust the harsh laws against children in favor of profit. Historians point out that, yes, the state was forced to limit the rights of minors.
There were attempts to legally regulate at least working conditions - to prohibit work for children under the age of 12, to restrict the work of 8 for children for hours, but industrialists were not in a hurry to embody the weak attempts of the state to become humane - this is a matter of income. And if inspections in big cities improved the child’s life at least a little, then in the outback the operation continued until 1917, until the labor code was adopted, which guaranteed the 8-hour working day FOR ALL for the first time in the world and the prohibition of using children at work to 16- ti years.
Only after the 1917 revolution of the year and other countries were forced to attend to the rights of workers and think about the prohibition of child labor.
"Kitty, kitty, sell the child"
Child labor was used not only by foreign industrialists in factories. The merchants brought to St. Petersburg from the outskirts of the children of the poor and peasants, as a "living commodity", which was very popular - along with wood, game and hay.
The sale of children, the buying up and delivery of cheap labor became the specialization of individual industrial peasants, whom in everyday life were called "cab drivers". The buyers paid their parents 2-5 rubles. and took their 10-year-old child to a better life, if, of course, the child did not have time to die with other children during a difficult journey.
The history of the folklore monuments of these "business projects" (very much like the slave trade in the American south of the beginning of 19 century, only instead of blacks - children), such as the game "Kotya, Kotya, sell the child".
The cabman "sold" the children to shopkeepers or craftsmen, the new owner could have the child disposed of at his own discretion - in return, providing shelter and some food. It is worth noting that children were “not sold” from a good life, because the extra hands in the household are needed, and then an assistant grew up - and give it away? The fact is that at home the child was most likely doomed to starvation. And even under such conditions, many children fled from their owners, talked about beatings, violence, hunger — on foot they returned home ragged or were left homeless, then found themselves "at the bottom" of life in the capital. Some were more fortunate - and they could return to their native village in new overshoes and a fashionable scarf, this was considered a success. However, this "social elevator" was not regulated by the state.
"Here, the monarchists here tell us what kind of an educated country Russia was. But I have only one single question - are the Bolsheviks completely idiots, or what? Why did they create an educational system at all? Did they have no other tasks, or what? they think - let us think up some problem for ourselves! Oh! Let's literate teach literacy! Well, how can we understand this? Indeed, the younger generation of subjects of the Russian Empire was more or less competent, who managed to go through the parochial system and partly Zemsky schools. But these Zemsky schools l would like islands in the ocean ", - says the transformation Revolution historian, adviser to the rector of Moscow State Pedagogical University Eugene Spitsin in an interview with On the eve.
The principles of the future education system were formulated as far back as 1903 in the RSDLP program: universal free compulsory education for children of both sexes up to 16 years; the elimination of class schools and restrictions in education on national grounds; separation of school from church; native language training and more. 9 November 1917 was established by the State Commission on Education.
In October, 1918 authorities approved a provision for free, co-education of school-age children. A year later, they signed a decree on education, and now the entire population of the country, ranging in age from 8 to 50 years, who could not read or write, was obliged to learn to read and write in their native or Russian languages - at will. The education system has gone through various stages, like the state itself - historian Andrei Fursov tells On the eve of .RU:
"After the experiments of the 20s, in which there were attempts to deny the Russian classical system (at the beginning of the 20s, both bourgeois disciplines were forbidden: Greek, Latin, logic, history), but in the middle of 30s, it was all restored the same as the notion of “Soviet patriotism.” And 7 November ceased to be a celebration of the world revolution, and became the day of the Great October Socialist Revolution. So, the Soviet system developed what was laid down in the Russian classical education system. image Maintenance, as it was in 1970-s, in 1980-ies, was the best - it is recognized all over the world the Soviet system was the best -. Now the Norwegians and the Japanese copy it. "
In total, 1920 managed to teach 3 a million people with literacy. Now the school was separated from the church, and the church from the state, teaching in educational institutions of any kind of dogma and performing religious rites was forbidden, physical punishment of children was also prohibited, and all nationalities received the right to study in their native language. Moreover, the Bolsheviks were puzzled by the creation of public preschool education. It was a cultural revolution. In Soviet times, for the first time in the history of Russia, almost universal literacy was achieved, close to 100%. The country received a free secondary education and an affordable higher education. The teacher's profession was respected. The school did not provide a service for money, but raised children, devoting time to the moral and ethical aspects of the development of a young man.
Qualitative higher technical education made the impossible possible — overcoming the industrial gulf between the USSR and the countries of developed capitalism. A new approach to education can be called successful, one has only to recall the number of world-famous Soviet scientists and inventors.
“Yes, there was a so-called“ philosophical ship ”- a number of scientists, philosophers, architects, artists left, but it was a miser compared to the scale of our country. In fact, the great cultural civilization was created anew - from scratch practically. Of course, relying on the colossal achievements of our ancestors: Pushkin, Turgenev, Nekrasov and other classics, writers and artists who faithfully reflected the soul of the people, ”says Vyacheslav Tetekin, Doctor of Historical Sciences, in an interview with Nakanune.RU. vitie received technical education is, first of all -. not the abstract liberal arts education, which is considered the standard we have created a weaponwhich surpassed the weapons created by the whole of united Europe. Why was this possible? Because in this very short time new technical personnel were created. Great attention was paid to education, huge funds were invested. Education was a state priority. The fundamental science was developing very quickly, the USSR Academy of Sciences was a powerful institution, and no one, as it is now, claimed that officials would "steer" with what the Academy of Sciences is doing. "
In addition to technical education, in the Soviet system it is worth noting such nice bonuses as high scholarship, developed pre-school and out-of-class education, free day nurseries and kindergartens, palaces of pioneers and creative houses on a free basis, music schools, sports education and children's recreation camps - in The USSR joked that if there is any dictatorship in the country, then this is the dictatorship of childhood.
As for homeless children after the Civil War and children left without parents after the Great Patriotic War, the system of orphanages was radically different from the current one, allowing people from these social institutions to find their often high place in society, create families, receive education, have equal opportunities, what we have to dream about now.
Development of republics
“October 1917 is an epoch-making event, and to summarize everything that wouldn’t have happened if this revolution had not been difficult. Of course, none of us wouldn’t be today. And it’s not that daddies and moms grandparents would not have met - the modern look itself was largely shaped by the revolution and the Soviet state that emerged after the revolution. I am talking here about education, of course, about a completely different social structure, says a journalist and co-author in an interview with Nakanune.RU project about modern education " The last bell "Konstantin Semin. - Everyone has something to thank October. Before the revolution in the national republics of the empire (in Turkestan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan), the literacy rate did not reach 2%. Some nations - including the indigenous peoples of Russia, as we call them today they didn’t even have their own written language. Today they are equal citizens of our country. "
Indeed, one of the most important differences between the USSR and the empire was precisely the development of national republics, the uniform spread of education.
"The USSR is a state that has reached heights in almost all spheres of life. Here, of course, science, education, and the cultural revolution. National republics received a big push in development. In spite of how the British Empire or the United States acted in the format of a policy of colonialism and neocolonialism, the Soviet Union, instead of pumping money from its suburbs, on the contrary, sent considerable funds for our national republics to develop, ”recalls the deputy director of the Institute for Strategic their studies and forecasts RUDN Nikita Danyuk.
What did the revolution 1917, Russia? It was the education that became available to all after the change of structure that provided the country with the possibility of a “big breakthrough”, industrialization, Victory in the Great Patriotic War, the opportunity to go to space for the first time, it provided us, living today, with protection in the form of an “atomic umbrella”.
“What is an atomic bomb? This is a product of tremendous tension in basic and applied science, it is the creation of hundreds of manufacturing enterprises that would ensure the creation of these high-tech weapons in cooperation,” said expert Vyacheslav Tetekin. “It was not just the creation of an atomic bomb that would be simplification, this was the creation of a powerful fundamental science, which in fact, especially in engineering terms, we did not exist until 1917. And we did not have industry before 1917. Neither aviationnor automobile. "
In modern Russia, as we see, the collapse of the Soviet system of universal education is taking place, elite schools are emerging, higher educational institutions are increasingly moving to a commercial basis, access to education is falling as rapidly as quality.
"A very simple fact testifies to how powerful the education system in the USSR was. For years, our frantic zealots for the IMF’s money have been trying to break this system for 25. Indeed, they have spoiled it to a large extent by entering the USE, the Bologna system, but the end they did not break it, because the foundation is too strong. Our education, both school and higher, is one of the greatest achievements of the Soviet system, "historian Andrei Fursov sums up.