Military Review

"Ermak" - the world's first Arctic icebreaker

18
"Ermak" - the world's first Arctic icebreaker



The launch of the world's largest icebreaker "Yermak", named after the legendary ataman Yermak Timofeevich, was preceded by a great job, done, first of all, by Vice-Admiral Stepan Makarov.

He submitted a note to the Maritime Ministry with a program for the development of the Arctic Ocean using icebreakers as early as January 1897, and was refused. Hoping for the support of famous geographers and hydrographs, he made a presentation in the Geographical Society, also to no avail.

Unwilling to give up, Makarov made a report at the Academy of Sciences, and then he was expected to succeed - the loud approval of the academic meeting and even the publication of the report in a separate brochure.

Academician Peter Semenov-Tien-Shansky supported him, and Dmitri Mendeleev wrote to Makarov: “In my opinion, your thought is brilliant and sooner or later will inevitably be fulfilled and developed into a matter of great importance - not only scientific and geographical, but also living practice” .

The support helped, and in November 1897, Finance Minister Sergei Witte reported to Nicholas II about allocating 3 million rubles for the construction of the first icebreaker. The project of the ship was developed by British engineers with the participation of Makarov. As the witnesses joked, Makarov "swept off the beard" all the most important components of the ship - so carefully he delved into the drawings and details of the construction of the icebreaker. 17 (29) October 1898, the launch of the ship on the water.

In February 1899, the icebreaker Yermak set off on its first voyage from the English Newcastle slipways to Kronstadt. 3 of March at the "Yermak" Russian flag was raised, and 4 of March, breaking the ice ridges in the Gulf of Finland, the icebreaker arrived in the port of Kronstadt. The entire population of the city came to the pier to meet the ship.

The local newspaper Kotlin wrote about this event: "In each of those present, there was an involuntary feeling of pride for us Russians."

Already in the first year of operation, Yermak took part in an operation to rescue fishermen who were carried away on an ice floe to the open sea and who had run into the rocks at the island of Gogland, the battleship Admiral General Apraksin. During the Russo-Japanese War, he opened the way for Rear Admiral Nikolai Nebogatov’s squadron to the Far East, withdrawing it from the port of Lubawa.

During the First World War, the icebreaker carried out ice pilotage of ships in the Gulf of Finland. In 1918, "Ermak" saved the combat core of the Baltic fleet, navigating ships in winter under severe ice conditions from Revel to Helsingfors, and in the spring to Kronstadt.

During World War II, in October 1941, he took part in the evacuation of the Soviet naval base of the Hanko peninsula and the islands of the Gulf of Finland, escorted ships to bombard enemy positions, and took submarines to combat positions. After the war, the icebreaker returned to peaceful life and was in operation until the 1963 year.

It is important that the strong and powerful "Yermak" served the cause of creation, protection and peaceful construction in our Fatherland.
Author:
Originator:
http://rusplt.ru/wins/ermak-pervyiy-mire-31253.html
18 comments
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  1. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 18 November 2017 15: 49 New
    +7
    There is some kind of attractive beauty in these blockages of sides and wide high pipes .... good winked
    And the article is some kind of bastard no similar to the dry exposition from the encyclopedia yes Anyone on Wikipedia will read request
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 18 November 2017 16: 06 New
      +6
      Quote: Rurikovich
      And the article is some kind of bastard

      Here is a very interesting book about the icebreaker "Ermak", if interested, it is downloaded.
      http://militera.lib.ru/explo/sb_ledokol-ermak/ind
      ex.html
      1. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich 18 November 2017 16: 10 New
        +4
        I am well acquainted with the life of "Ermak" yes
        I like to read colorful and detailed materials, but here the author was too lazy to write interesting request
        Personally, my opinion hi
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 18 November 2017 16: 39 New
          +4
          Quote: Rurikovich
          I like to read colorful and detailed materials, but here the author was too lazy to write interesting

          Me too, today's article is a dummy.
  2. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 17: 55 New
    +2
    English development. Apparently, liquid fuel was burning in the boilers. You couldn’t rush into such a colossus. And the British transferred their Fleet to liquid for 5 years before. The icebreaker was wonderful and I thanked those who pierced it, and Nikolai 2mu for three lyamas. 2 years done! Well done!
    1. Petrol cutter
      Petrol cutter 18 November 2017 18: 11 New
      +5
      Yes, even Vietnamese. Did the steamboat go? Walked. Did you do your thing? Did. What else is needed for happiness ?!
      1. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 18: 45 New
        0
        Why are you ... sh? What happiness are you talking about? More specifically, can you ?.
    2. Kibb
      Kibb 18 November 2017 18: 24 New
      +5
      Quote: pp to Oparyshev
      The English development. Apparently liquid fuel was burning in the boilers. You can’t rush into such a colossus. And the British transferred their Fleet 5 years before to liquid!
      Here is the link to the book about Ermak posted above. Why write nonsense?
      CAPACITY The British Navy transferred to liquid fuel much later
      1. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 18 November 2017 18: 48 New
        0
        The difference is that I express my opinion, to which you must show respect.
        Now give your opinion on the icebreaker, I read.
        1. Kibb
          Kibb 18 November 2017 19: 27 New
          +7
          The icebreaker was built according to the Russian project, at British shipyards - it is natural that the technology is British, but not British development at all. Coal boilers. Mendelev really offered to transfer to oil, but coal remained - IMHO right, given the complete absence of oil in the north and the torment with the first oil boilers at for example Rostislav.
          Otherwise, of course, it’s good that the first one is Russian, Arctic, but it’s bad that it came to the point of withdrawing the fleet in winter from Kronstadt or Vladivostok, then there are no icebreakers, it’s expensive inexpedient, etc., etc. On the other hand, the icebreaker is not naval - Witte allocated money through the mnfin
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 19 November 2017 05: 21 New
        +2
        Quote: Kibb
        Here is the link to the book about Ermak posted above. Why write nonsense?

        I laid out the link to Ermak. The struggle for the transition to liquid fuel did not end in the years of WWII. German battleships and LKR were heated by coal, English ships had mixed heating of boilers. Icebreakers all went on coal heating. There were fewer problems with fuel, since high-quality Svalbard coal was used.
        "The large deposits of high-calorie coal on the Svalbard archipelago are estimated at 10 billion tons. The main coal region is located in the central part of the island of Western Svalbard. Here are all the existing Norwegian and Russian mines.
        The fact that there is coal on the polar archipelago, in some places even coming to the surface, was first discovered at the very beginning of the XVIІ century. The English whaler John Pul in 1610 landed on the south coast of Kingsbey (Kongs Fjord). Here, quite by accident, he stumbled upon coal carried by a stream to the shore. However, commercial exploitation of Svalbard’s coal deposits began only 300 years later. "
        http://www.arcticugol.ru/index.php/o-shpitsbergen
        e / dobychauglya As well as Vorkuta coal.
        "Coal mining in the Pechora coal basin was started in 1934, and today it is the basis for the development of the coke industry and fuel industry and energy. The quality of coal in the Pechora coal basin is estimated by experts as high. It has low ash content, high calorie content and low sulfur content. . - Read more on FB.ru: "http://fb.ru/article/333893/kachestvo-uglya-pecho
        rskogo-ugolnogo-basseyna-ego-potrebiteli-zapasyi
  3. nPuBaTuP
    nPuBaTuP 18 November 2017 19: 53 New
    +4
    Thanks to the grandfather "Ermak" Russian icebreaker fleet is the most powerful ....
    And thanks to Makarov ... bow to him low for this
  4. Eurodav
    Eurodav 18 November 2017 20: 54 New
    +5
    Ermak is power, for those times! And Makarov is the soul of the fleet, as he was called ... If he had not died in Port Arthur, he would have done a lot for Russia!
    1. Galleon
      Galleon 24 November 2017 12: 36 New
      +2
      "Do not strike violently.
      Stand with bowed head
      At the sounds of his name - Makarov. "
      Ishikawa Takuboku
  5. Eurodav
    Eurodav 18 November 2017 20: 57 New
    +5
    Quote: nPuBaTuP
    Thanks to the grandfather "Ermak" Russian icebreaker fleet is the most powerful ....
    And thanks to Makarov ... bow to him low for this

    And Makarov's sailors in Port Arthur were called Grandfather !!! See how it was reflected ... The fate of the heroes ... Man and the Icebreaker ...
  6. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 18 November 2017 21: 10 New
    +2
    But, truly Arctic, it’s worth noting for the sake of justice, he didn’t ... Machinery was rather weak at the beginning of the century.
    Real Arctic icebreakers capable of operating throughout the Arctic Ocean appeared only after 60 years. Atomic. The beauty and pride of the fleet of the USSR and Russia.
  7. Galleon
    Galleon 24 November 2017 12: 34 New
    +1
    “Ermak” was not able to see, but next to “Krasin” on the pier stood in the North in the early 80's. Wow, stood next to the legend! It is a pity that hero ships rarely live to the honorary pier and can only be seen in models and photos. It is good that in Kaliningrad we have an oceanographic museum and there are moored scientific veterans.
    1. Scaffold
      Scaffold 17 January 2018 13: 03 New
      +1
      So "Krasin" in St. Petersburg has survived to this day.