Any historical event is judged by the results. The socialist revolution in Russia created a new, unprecedented system of life, and then an unprecedented union of republics — the Soviet Union. The collapse of his decade later, the current Russian president called the biggest geopolitical catastrophe.
I believe that this is a catastrophe not only for the working people of our country, but also for the entire population of the planet. No matter how I look at what has happened, I am sure that the whole human community has lost it. Including the USA, which put so much effort to remove the rival, they lost more than they gained.
- Why do you think so?
“Because the USA has lost the possibility of competition, thanks to which they have successfully developed in the field of science, technology, and social reforms.”
- That is, for you, undoubtedly the world significance of the Russian revolution?
- Of course. I have repeatedly quoted in my speeches the words of the father of my American friend, Professor Nick Chollanac. He himself was born in America, and his father came from our Transcarpathian region, Rusyns by nationality. So, we came to visit him in a small mining town where he lived, being then, at the beginning of 70, retired. For the festively laid on the occasion of the meeting table and a conversation took place, deeply bumped into my memory.
“If you had told me that Russian workers live better than American ones, I would not have believed you,” began Nick Holanjak Sr., and originally Nikolai Vasilievich Golodnyak. “But I will tell you something that you rarely hear here.” I came here as a boy and in 12 years went to work at the mine. We lived in a hut. We received pennies. We were mercilessly exploited. But then the Russian workers made the October revolution. Our bourgeoisie were afraid that we would do the same and changed our social policy. American workers live well thanks to the Great October Socialist Revolution. "
So in the United States, the old miner Nikolai Vasilyevich Golodnyak, who worked in the mine for more than half a century, told me so.
- Recognition of the international significance of our revolution?
- In my opinion, so. And this is what is called a confession from the soul, because it's worth it.
- But for you, as I understand it, the October Revolution also has a special personal meaning?
- You're right. In our family, this great historical event and, accordingly, on November 7 Day has always been a special relationship. And the essence is in the fate of my father - the worker Ivan Karpovich Alferov.
- He became a Bolshevik in September 1917?
- A month before the Great October Revolution. However, it is worth telling about what preceded it. The roots of the father's family are in the village of Chashniki, Vitebsk Province. In 14 years he went to work at the local paper mill. Many Belarusians, especially the young, left without land and without work, went to work in St. Petersburg. Before the First World War, as I learned, the largest ethnic group in St. Petersburg after the Russians were Belarusians. Two hundred thousand! He went there in the year 1910 and the elder brother of my father is my uncle Valya. He was 18 years old. He entered the Siemens-Schukkert plant, which became the famous Electrosila during the Soviet era, and before retiring, he worked here — he was a fitting mechanic of the 8 class.
Two years later, after my brother, my father also went to the capital. And he also became a St. Petersburg worker. First, in the port loader, then in the envelope factory. But then the war broke out ...
- Called to the army?
- Uncle did not have, because he was already a qualified mechanic, and his father went to fight. In the hussar regiment, in the 4 of the cavalry division. In the same place, but in the dragoon regiment served the future Marshal of the Soviet Union Semen Timoshenko.
My father became chairman of the regimental soldier’s committee, a member of the divisional. And in the summer of 1917, he was put in the Dvina fortress.
- For political activism?
- For campaigning against the war. In the fortress, he met with "Comrade Andrew." It was Soltz, later known as the head of the Central Control Commission of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks). And he dad enlightened about how to live on.
- After that, Ivan Karpovich and joined the Bolshevik Party?
- Immediately, as soon as he left the fortress. And he remained loyal to the Communist Party all his life.
- And what did you do on the October days of 1917?
- Was at the historic II Congress of Soviets: the soldiers sent him to Petrograd. Then he reported to Krylenko, who had become Commander in Chief, that the division was ready to fulfill all the tasks of the Soviet government.
He was sent to Don - to fight with the rebellion of Kaledin. There he was captured by the white knights. All the prisoners, about thirty, were stripped, leaving their underwear in one to be shot the next day. But at night they made a dig under the shed, where they were locked up, and the guarding Cossack fell asleep, and they managed to escape. There was a strong frost, and they are in their underwear, barefoot. But the Don Cossacks had no theft, and they did not lock their houses. Dad and a friend went into the hall of the nearest house, got dressed and in 5 hours of the morning went to his squadron.
- Continued to fight after that?
- All Civil. Starting as a private, he became a platoon commander, then a squadron, graduated from the cavalry courses of the commanders of the Red Army and ended the war, commanding a cavalry regiment during the liberation of Azerbaijan. He was twice wounded, contused, for participation in the Civil War was later awarded the Order of the Red Banner.
In 1921, for health reasons, as he said, he moved to serve in the Cheka-GPU. He became specially authorized at a large section of the state border with Poland.
- That border was very hot then!
- Yes ... But then he was transferred as an authorized person to the small town of Kraysk, and he chose the house where he settled. And in this house my future mom lived. And six months later they were married.
Then my father worked at the customs, then - the director of a sawmill, that is, he began his economic activities. Then he headed a large sawmill in Permilovo - this is now the well-known Plesetsk. When I was in Arkhangelsk in 2006, a whole delegation came to me from there. And some remembered their father, although they were then still boys. They remembered that the plant worked well and the work of the plant was shown in documentary films.
- This is the fate of the worker who became the leader in Soviet times.
- He graduated from the Industrial Academy and became, according to the diploma, the engineer-organizer. In the current language - this is the manager. But then they did not train managers “in general”, but with a thorough knowledge of a certain industry. So my father has a diploma, which I keep now, written: the organizer of the pulp and paper industry.
- In this industry, he further worked?
- Basically. As you can see, the father established Soviet power, fought for it, and then led industrial enterprises. It is clear how much the October Revolution meant to him.
- He even gave his revolutionary names to his sons.
- My older brother was born in 1924 in Polotsk and was named Marx. We have a newspaper at home, which tells about it as a sign of a new way of life. Thirteen days old he was admitted to membership in the trade union - “with exemption from paying membership fees until the age of majority”.
- And I was born in Vitebsk in 1930. The parents were waiting for the girl and were preparing to give her the usual name of Valeria. But a boy appeared, and his father just read an article about the French revolutionary Jean Jaurès, which made a strong impression on him. So I became Jaures.
- Probably, your father (like many others who are no longer today) would be very surprised and hardly happy when he learned that the November 7 holiday in honor of the October Revolution was canceled here.
- It would amaze him! I called one of my interviews with 90: "I am happy that my parents did not live to that time." The great role of the Russian revolution is recognized throughout the world. How not to recognize it in the homeland of October! If the French continue to celebrate Bastille Day, then our main national holiday, of course, must again be the Day of the Great October Socialist Revolution.
“But, you see, over the past three decades, the heads of people are so fooled by the deafening anti-Soviet and anti-communist propaganda that they need to clarify a lot and much again. What are your main arguments?
- The great significance of the Great October Revolution for our country and all of humanity lies primarily in the fact that it was the first successful experience of creating a state of social justice - an experience that lasted more than 70 years. Yes, there were serious mistakes, shortcomings and even crimes in the path of the pioneers, which is characteristic of any government at all times. However, with all the defects we had, we must look to the root and see the main thing that gave October to the people. Factories and factories — workers, land — to peasants, the abolition of private ownership of implements and means of production, of land — that’s the main thing!
- And people are told: it was all a complete deception ...
- No, reality. The Soviet government gave free education to the people, and we, from the illiterate in the mass of our country, became the most educated country in the world. Free healthcare — and life expectancy has increased from 32 years on average (given the general infant mortality in Czarist Russia) more than doubled. Virtually the entire population was given free housing. It was impossible to have too much - several apartments and houses, but people received the necessary housing. What now?
People then received those rights that were proclaimed by the Stalin Constitution, which, of course (I heard it from the most reputable lawyers), was the best not only in our country, but in the world. It is possible to argue how it was carried out, but in the Soviet Union everyone had the right to work, the right to rest, and again, these were absolutely real rights. Today, I think the older generation can compare and see how much we have lost. And they got ... alas, mostly terrible and nightmarish “innovations”, which, frankly speaking, it would not have been better.
It must be said that the February 1917 revolution of the year was a victory for the Western liberals of the time, and in just 9 months they brought the country to a complete collapse. Today, the current liberals, continuing 25 years to ruin the country, as the fire is afraid of the return of the Soviet Union. I always remember what General Brusilov said, explaining why he went to the Red Army: "Because Lenin saved Russia."
- In a word, are you for the November 7 holiday?
- Sure! I am pleased with how Alexander Grigorievich Lukashenko relates to the achievements of the Soviet time. After 1991, the same predatory privatization went out in Belarus, as in Russia, the Russian language was expelled from schools, and all state symbols - the flag, emblem, etc. - copied the so-called Belarusian People’s Republic, which was proclaimed during the occupation of Belarus by the Germans in 1918 year. And the day of its declaration was declared a state holiday - Independence Day.
And Lukashenko returned Soviet symbolism, made Russian the second state language, and it was decided to celebrate Independence Day on the day of the liberation of Minsk by the Red Army in 1944. Lukashenko said this: Belarus became independent thanks to the Red Army.
I believe that the greatest holiday and the real Independence Day for Russia is 7 November. And may he return to us.
Science in the Soviet Union became a productive force
- For you, Zhores Ivanovich, the main field of work has been and remains science. On the eve of the October 100 anniversary, I would like to talk about it.
- Well, science in the Soviet Union was a prestigious area of activity.
- Maybe even the most prestigious!
- In official documents - party, government - science was proclaimed the productive force of society. And it came from Karl Marx, it was formulated by him.
And most importantly, we had a significant result. Today they like to talk about our “one-sidedness”, about the “defense flux” (which, by the way, in other countries is also available), but let's not forget that the Soviet country made a giant leap in its scientific and technical development. And it is the basis of the development of civilization.
In my speeches for the last time I often quote two such quotes. The first is from Frederic Joliot-Curie, from the 1950 lecture of the year in connection with his 50 anniversary, where the great scientist and great citizen said: “Science is necessary for the country. Each power wins its independence by the fact that it brings something new, its own to the treasury of civilization. If this does not happen, it is subject to colonization. "
But recently, in the Year of Light, which was declared 2015 year by the UN decision, I heard a characteristic statement by the Minister of Energy of Saudi Arabia, who said: “The Stone Age ended not because there was a shortage of stone, and the Oil Age would end not because there will be a shortage of oil. " If you think about these words, it will become clear: the development of civilization is due to the birth of new technologies that are created by scientific research and scientific and technical developments.
- Actually, you yourself at different times said the same thing more than once.
- Because it really is extremely important. After all, scientific discoveries can have both positive and negative effects. More recently, we were all worried about how one of the greatest scientific discoveries would be used, which resulted in the creation of atomic weapon. And how did this happen? At the core were the two largest innovative projects of the twentieth century - the US Manhattan project and the Atomic Soviet. Competing among themselves, they gave birth to fantastic technology at the time.
In every major scientific and technical project, it is of crucial importance who implements it. Qualification of people, personnel! So, the problem of leading personnel in the Manhattan project was solved by Adolf Hitler, since the most prominent scientists fled then from Europe to the United States.
- The names of those physicists were perceived in fact, as scientific stars of the first magnitude!
- But we already had a decent power of minds. The personnel problem of the Soviet Atomic Project was solved by Abram Fedorovich Ioffe, who created in the USSR a unique physical school and put forward a whole galaxy of talented students and followers - Kurchatov, Artsimovich, Aleksandrov, Zeldovich, Khariton, Kikoin, Petrzhak, Flerov ... If it had not been for this Soviet physical school , we could not deprive the United States of a monopoly in the creation of atomic weapons.
- Yes, by right your native Physico-Technical Institute in Leningrad is named after A.F. Ioffe - an outstanding Soviet scientist and organizer of scientific activity.
- Considering the topic of our conversation, this should be emphasized. Abram Fedorovich began to create a Physicotechnical Institute immediately after the October Revolution - in 1918, that is, in the most difficult time of the Civil War.
“Although now it is constantly being repeated that it was a time of destruction, not of creation ...”
- That's why I recall such a significant fact. And I also want to note: in tsarist Russia, physics was almost at the zero level. We had only separate groups of scientists in this area. The only physical school, perhaps, is Petr Nikolaevich Lebedev. And what did we have in 1930's when the atomic problem arose and then it was necessary to solve it urgently? We already had the most powerful, recognized all over the world Soviet physical school, which successfully competed its crucial role in competition with the capitalist West.
Not so many Nobel Prize winners. But pay attention: most of them are physicists! And it is very interesting to note that almost all of them came from three institutions: LPI them. Pn Lebedeva and IFP them. P.L. Kapitsa in Moscow, FTI them. A.F. Ioffe in Leningrad. There are hundreds of institutes, but three of them came out because there were world-class scientific schools, and their appearance caused the development and relevance of research and development in the country. And if it were not for the defeat of Soviet science at the beginning of the 90s, I am sure that we would still be in the lead in this and in many other scientific fields.