Military Review

Here Aphrodite went ashore (Cyprus in the era of copper and bronze)

97
Many VO readers liked the story of ancient Crete and its stories. “What about Cyprus? - they began to ask questions. “After all, they are close to each other, so it’s not difficult to get to Cyprus from the sea ... And ... how did culture develop there?” Well, that’s all true, so today our story is dedicated to the ancient history of this island.


In addition to Crete, there are other islands in the Mediterranean, and quite large — Sicily, Sardinia, Malta and, of course, Cyprus — the island closest to the shores of Asia, and therefore the paths of ancient migrations could by no means pass it. And if Crete is firmly connected in the minds of people with the name of the man-beast of the Minotaur, then Cyprus is, according to legend, the land where the goddess Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty, once came out of the sea foam.


Here Aphrodite went ashore (Cyprus in the era of copper and bronze)

Cyprus really, even now, remains an amazingly beautiful place ...

There are two mythological versions of the birth of a beautiful goddess. Homer believed that the god Zeus was the father of Aphrodite, and the sea nymph Dion was his mother. The version of Hesiod, however, is much more entertaining. According to her, the god Kronos cut off his reproductive organs to his father Uranus and threw them into the sea, where his sperm mixed with sea water, snow-white foam was obtained, and it was from this that Aphrodite was born.

Night after him leading, Uranus appeared, and he sat down
Around Gaia, blazing love wish, and everywhere
Spread around. Unexpectedly left hand
Son stretched from ambush, and right, grabbing a huge
The sickle is sharp-toothed, the compartment at the parent is sweet
Member of childbearing and threw back his strong scale.
The member of the father is child-bearing, cut off with a sharp iron,
By the sea for a long time worn, and white foam
Beat around from imperishable member. And the girl in the foam
In that originated.
"Theogony" Hesiod


However, today we’ll become acquainted not so much with the legends, as with the history of this unique island, which, like Crete, largely shaped the look of the long-lost Mediterranean civilization. It’s necessary to begin with the fact that at one time it was apparently connected by an isthmus to the Asian mainland and, for example, dwarf elephants and hippos migrated to the island on this mainland. However, it was they who later became dwarf, when the waves of the sea cut it off from the mainland. There were animals on it, but there were no people. For the time being.


Ancient parking of people of the Stone Age in Cyprus. (Sea Museum in Ayia Napa, Cyprus)

And then in the X - IX millenniums BC people got here by sea and most directly contributed to the extinction of dwarf animals, as can be seen from the large number of burnt bones found in caves in the southern part of the island.


"House" of the ancient Cypriot "city" of Hirokitia.


This is how it looked from the inside ...

It is known that the first settlers were already engaged in farming, but have not yet mastered the pottery, so this period in Cyprus belongs to the "pre-ceramic neolith".


Inside Khirokitia was closely. The houses stood one to another, and even were surrounded by a high stone wall. Interestingly, there is a wall, but no signs of an attack on the “city” were found, that is, more than a thousand (!) Years, the Hirokitians lived under the protection of the wall, but no one attacked them? And then suddenly they took it, they all left it and they left ... and no one else settled 1500 for more years at this place! Why? Nobody knows! Such here Cyprus presents to archaeologists riddles!

Primitive people from southern Anatolia or the Shiro-Palestinian coast came to the island with dogs, sheep, goats, pigs, although morphologically these animals were still indistinguishable from their wild relatives. The settlers began to build round houses and all this happened in the X millennium BC!


The remains of the Cypriot pygmy hippopotamus.


The skull of an ancient dwarf elephant.


You can see the reconstruction figures of the Cypriot dwarf elephant and the Cypriot pygmy hippo in the Museum of the Sea (Thalassa museum) in Ayia Napa.

The settlements of that era were excavated throughout the island, including Khirokitia and Kalavasos off the southern coast. All subsequent time, the inhabitants of the dishes were made of stone, but at the end of the Neolithic (around 8500 - 3900 BC) the islanders learned to work with clay and create vessels that they burned and decorated with abstract patterns of red on a light background.


Here they are - these vessels from the Museum of the Sea in Ayia Napa.

The culture of the subsequent period of the Aeneolithic, that is, the copper-stone age (around 3900 - 2500 BC) could be brought to the island by a new wave of immigrants who came from the same regions as their earlier Neolithic predecessors. Their art and religious beliefs were more complex, as evidenced by stone and clay female figures, often with increased genitalia, symbolizing the fertility of people, animals, and soil — that is, reflecting the basic needs of the then agrarian community. In the second half of the period of chalcolith (or the Eneolithic, which is the same thing), people began to produce small tools and decorative ornaments from native, that is, native copper (chalkos), which, by the way, is called chalcolith.


Interestingly, not on this here the first inhabitants of the island sailed here?

The unique geographical position of Cyprus, which lay at the crossroads of sea routes in the eastern Mediterranean, made it an important center of commerce in antiquity. Already in the early Bronze Age (approximately 2500 - 1900 BC) and the Middle Bronze Age (around 1900 - 1600 BC), Cyprus established close contacts with Minoan Crete, and then with Mycenaean Greece, as well as with the ancient civilizations of the Middle East: Syria and Palestine, Egypt and South Anatolia.

Beginning in the first part of the second millennium BC, Middle Eastern texts belonging to the kingdom “Alasia”, a name that is most likely synonymous with all or part of the island, indicate the links of the then Cypriots to the Syrian-Palestinian coast. The rich resources of copper provided Cypriots with the goods that were of high value in the ancient world and were in great demand throughout the Mediterranean basin. Cypriots exported large quantities of this raw material and other commodities such as opium in jugs that resembled opium poppy capsules in exchange for luxury items such as silver, gold, ivory, wool, scented oils, chariots, horses, precious furniture and other finished goods. .


Minoan vessels cannot be confused with any other - once there is an octopus, it means that the influence of the culture of Crete is evident!

Ceramics of prehistoric Cypriots, especially those that were produced in the early and middle bronze centuries, are exuberant and imaginative in nature and design. Terracotta figurines were also made in large quantities, as indicated by their finds in the tombs of the Bronze Age. As in the period of chalcolith, they most often depicted female figures that symbolize regeneration. Other funerary objects, especially those buried with men, include bronze tools and weapon. Gold and silver jewelry, and cylindrical seals appear in Cyprus already in 2500 BC.


Cypriots and Cypriots loved to adorn themselves with bracelets, even glass ones (Larnaca Archaeological Museum)


And they were anointed with perfumed oils, which is why all the museums of Cyprus are full of such glass vessels.

In the Late Bronze Age (around 1600 - 1050 BC) copper on the island was produced on a massive scale, and the trade in copper by Cypriots expanded to Egypt, the Middle East, and the entire Aegean region. The correspondence between the pharaoh of Egypt and the ruler of Alazii, dating from the first quarter of the fourteenth century BC, provides us with valuable information about the trade relations between Cyprus and Egypt. This is confirmed by items from earthenware and alabaster, which were imported to Cyprus from Egypt during this period. The shipwreck finds in Ulu Burun, found on the southwest coast of Anatolia, indicate that the ship sailed westward, possibly visiting other Levant harbors, and that it loaded 355 copper bars (ten tons of copper) in Cyprus, as well as large storage vessels for agricultural products, including coriander.


The ship that was carrying this cargo. Reconstruction (Sea Museum in Ayia Napa).


When you see such vessels in front of you, you involuntarily ask yourself: how much wood was needed to burn it? Here in Cyprus there is no forest left! (Larnaca Archaeological Museum)

The undeniable influence of the Aegean Sea on the Cypriot culture in the late Bronze Age can be seen in the development of writing, bronze products, stone carving, jewelry production and some ceramic styles, especially in the twelfth century BC, when Mycenaean immigrants periodically arrived on the island. Around 1500 BC Cypriots began to use the letter, which is very similar to the linear letter A of Minoan Crete. Burnt clay tablets found in urban centers such as Enkomi (on the east coast) and Kalavasos (on the south coast) have been found. In the late Bronze Age, Cyprus was also an important center for the production of works of art, which feature a mixture of local and foreign influences. Stylistic features and iconographic elements borrowed from Egypt, the Middle East and the Aegean Sea are often mixed in Cypriot works. Undoubtedly, the foreign motives and significance that they had were reinterpreted on the spot, as they became part of the distinctive local artistic traditions. Cypriot artisans also traveled abroad, and in the twelfth century BC, some Cypriot metallurgists may have settled in the west, on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. In the late Bronze Age, Cyprus clearly maintained strong ties with the Middle East, especially Syria, as evidenced by finds in urban centers with palace buildings from the fourteenth and thirteenth centuries BC, such as Enkomi and Keating, and rich cemeteries of the same period luxury items from a variety of materials. From the beginning of the fourteenth century, a significant influx of high-quality Mycenaean ships was found in Cyprus, which are found almost exclusively in the tombs of the aristocratic elite. With the destruction of Mycenaean centers in Greece in the twelfth century BC, political conditions in the Aegean Sea became unstable, and refugees left their homes in search of safer places, including Cyprus.


Anchors and press for the extraction of olive oil. (Larnaca Archaeological Museum)


Sculptures of the era of classical Greece. (Larnaca Archaeological Museum)

It was they who initiated the process of Hellenization of the island, which then took place over the next two centuries. The most important event for Cyprus between 1200 and 1050 year BC. er was the arrival of several successive waves of immigrants from the Greek mainland. These newcomers brought with them and perpetuated on the island Mycenaean burial customs, clothing, ceramics, manufacturing, and military skills. At this time, Achaean immigrants brought Greek to Cyprus. The Achaean society, politically dominant in the 14th century, created independent states ruled by the Wanakta (rulers). The Greeks gradually took control of large communities, such as Salamis, Keating, Lapithos, Palaopathos and Salt. In the middle of the eleventh century, the Phoenicians occupied Ketis on the southern coast of Cyprus. Their interest in Cyprus was caused mainly by the rich copper mines of the island and its forests, which provided a rich source of timber for shipbuilding. At the end of the ninth century, the Phoenicians established the cult of their goddess Astarte on the island in the monumental temple in Ketis. The stele found in Kethys announces the representation of the Cypriot kings of Assyria in 709 BC. Under Assyrian rule, the kingdom of Cyprus flourished, and the Cypriot kings enjoyed some independence while they regularly paid tribute to the Assyrian king. From the seventh century BC There are records that at that time there were ten (!) rulers of Cyprus, who ruled in ten separate states. One might think that the area of ​​these states was very small, like the island itself, but since there were ten of them and they all peacefully got along, this indicates, firstly, the tolerance of their inhabitants, and secondly, that there just enough. Some of them had Greek names, others had obviously Semitic origin, indicating the ethnic diversity of Cyprus in the first half of the first millennium BC. The tombs at Salamis presuppose both the wealth and the external connections of these rulers in the eighth and seventh centuries. In the sixth century, Egypt under Pharaoh Amasis II established control over Cyprus. Although the Cypriot kingdoms continued to maintain relative independence, the significant increase in Egyptian motifs in Cypriot works of art from this period reflects a clear increase in Egyptian influence.


The Romans on the island were also noted and left behind such floor mosaics.

In 545 BC under Cyrus the Great (approximately 559 - 530 BC) the Persian Empire conquered Cyprus. However, the new rulers did not interfere with what was happening on the island, and did not try to establish their religion there. Cypriot troops participated in the Persian military campaigns, independent kingdoms paid the usual tribute, and Salamis won first place on the island. By the beginning of the fifth century BC. The island was an integral part of the Persian Empire. Well, then the famous Greek-Persian wars began, and the Greeks from the mainland began to dominate Cyprus again.

P.S. Interestingly, the memory of this is preserved, and if you have a mustache, a straight nose, dark eyes and a head of hair, then in Cyprus you can easily be asked: "Continental Grik?" That is - "You are a continental Greek? On the island it is a kind of elite. They are given big discounts, especially in taxis ... Not like foreigners from Europe.
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  1. Amurets
    Amurets 15 November 2017 06: 46 New
    14
    Thank! Interesting. Before, I somehow did not think that there could be round houses in Cyprus. More of this type of house I connected with the homes of nomads or African buildings. I never thought that they were in Cyprus. Thanks to the Travelers Club program, a lot of interesting things could be drawn from it. And thanks to the author, a very interesting story.
    1. kalibr
      15 November 2017 07: 27 New
      13
      I'm glad you enjoyed it. Hirokitiya place is really very interesting. You stand on the mountain and think that just like 7 thousand years ago, here someone stood and looked and ... how was everything here? And questions, questions ... there are no temples, but the dead were buried under the floor and laid a bowl for them. They didn’t know a bowl of stone, ceramic dishes ... And they lived on this place for almost 1000 years. Almost how many years of our Russia since ... "The Tale ..." And then they left. And after 1500 new people came, already with dishes and square houses ...
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 15 November 2017 07: 37 New
    10
    And then suddenly they took it, they all left it and left
    ...
    ... And such stories were repeated in different corners of the Earth at different times .. when people threw everything and left .. Thank you, interesting material ..
  3. Curious
    Curious 15 November 2017 08: 54 New
    13
    "... for more than a thousand (!) years, Hirokitians lived under the protection of the wall, but no one attacked them? And then they suddenly took it, they all left and left ... and no one else settled on this place for another 1500 years! Why? No one he doesn’t know! Such Cyprus presents riddles to archaeologists! "

    Maybe the answers to these questions are contained in clay tablets such as this - their Encomies. The Cypriot-Minoan letter, which has not yet been decoded. It was used by just the pre-Greek inhabitants of the island.
    "The ancient Cypriot syllabic letter is presented today in only a few short inscriptions on ceramics, clay balls and cylinders, the purpose of which is still unclear. Texts of more extensive content are preserved on tablets from Enkomi (which are considered the earliest examples of Cypriot writing), and is also known one plate with the Cypriot-Minoan text from Ugarit (Phenicia).
    Discussions about attempts to decipher Cypriot syllabic inscriptions have not subsided to this day. However, the sad reality is that the worldview of ancient people, the fundamental categories of their thinking and, accordingly, the conceptual series with which they expressed these categories are so far from the worldview of modern humanity that any attempts by representatives of modern science to interpret archaic sign systems based on their own views on the world of ancient man, lead, most often, to the results, to put it mildly, curious. And no matter how many subsequent interpretations of decipherings appear, the true meaning of the ancient inscriptions will most likely remain a mystery. "
    1. kalibr
      15 November 2017 09: 06 New
      13
      Yes you are right. Just yesterday, at a seminar on cultural studies, I told students about burials in the houses of Hirokitiya. Under the floor ... So they began to twist their fingers together at the temple. "Living on the corpses." That is, they cannot even imagine this. Scientists are trying, but ... not imagining the spiritual world of those people, what's the point?
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 16 November 2017 00: 48 New
        0
        Quote: kalibr
        Yes you are right. Just yesterday, at a seminar on cultural studies, I told students about burials in the houses of Hirokitiya. Under the floor ... So they began to twist their fingers together at the temple. "Living on the corpses." That is, they cannot even imagine this. Scientists are trying, but ... not imagining the spiritual world of those people, what's the point?

        Vyacheslav Olegovich, these are students. I came across several times that the spirit of the owner, who was turning into a kind of keeper, did not go away, they buried him where he lived and worked. Here is an example of the burial of a blacksmith among the ancient Germans. Here's the end of the text.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 16 November 2017 00: 50 New
          +1
          And here is the beginning. Source Beckert. Iron. Facts and legends.
          1. kalibr
            16 November 2017 08: 03 New
            +1
            The fact that there was a desire to preserve spiritual closeness with the deceased is understandable. But ... we still do not understand the spiritual world of these people.
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 16 November 2017 09: 19 New
              +1
              Quote: kalibr
              The fact that there was a desire to preserve spiritual closeness with the deceased is understandable. But ... we still do not understand the spiritual world of these people.

              It is understandable. And faith, and the spiritual world, and even modern beliefs find their support in the past. This is an example. “There are more legends than truths about druids, more fiction than facts, more tales than scientific evidence. But when the Celtic New Year comes and the youth inspired by the fashion movement hurry to light new lights, today, a thousand years after the departure of the last magicians of the Celtic people, it seems that invisible doors are opening from our world to the sacred world of druids. At such moments, I want to ask Merlin and the great druids Armorica and Ulster to give strength to help those we love and to protect what we believe in. "
      2. Weyland
        Weyland 16 November 2017 01: 37 New
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        So they began to twist a finger together at the temple. "Living on the corpses."

        I immediately recall the story of Herodotus about how Darius the Great asked his Greek vassals how much they would agree to eat the bodies of their dead parents (instead of cremation), and Kallatiev asked how much they would agree to cremate their dead parents (instead of to eat them) - and how both sides were outraged by such a boorish question. But the feature is that the tolerance of the Persians went off scale - because for themselves, cremation (“desecration of the sacred fire with carrion”) was just as disgusting. like the customs of callatias!
    2. nickname7
      nickname7 2 March 2018 16: 43 New
      0
      the fundamental categories of their thinking and, accordingly, the conceptual series
      Thinking was different. But not to the same extent, well, not aliens, these are people. There is no high symbolism and conceptual series. Writing arose as a way of accounting for grain. All these tablets are devoted to everyday routine - accounting and control, a barn book, grain and goods, business correspondence of merchants, laws and decrees. Like birch bark letters, by the way. Mayan writing was deciphered on this principle. For decryption, you need a large amount of text, which is not.
  4. Boris55
    Boris55 15 November 2017 09: 05 New
    +3
    Again, what a civilized West ...

    The city, found by A.V. Barchenko and V.N.Demin, is older than all the civilizations of Asia and Africa, because it was once buried by a glacier, and the glacier on the Kola Peninsula only melted 10-12 of thousands of BC.
    Here they are for sure just pounds and other overseas colored paper did not give ...
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 15 November 2017 09: 23 New
      +8
      Quote: Boris55
      The city, found by A.V. Barchenko and V.N.Demin, is older than all the civilizations of Asia and Africa, because it was once buried by a glacier, and the glacier on the Kola Peninsula only melted 10-12 of thousands of BC.

      Plus to you for a stone staircase trimmed by a glacier.
    2. kalibr
      15 November 2017 09: 59 New
      +8
      And where did they write about this? You see, overseas colored paper is simply not given to anyone. You must first make yourself known, that is, publish an article in the journal of the SCOPUS system, this is from 30.000 to 1000 euros, but the university usually pays for such articles, as well as the Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. You can publish several articles in cheaper publications. When people find out, interest will appear - then a monograph in English is being prepared. (or some other, but better English), is the publisher and the book is published. Then money comes back. There is no other way today. If they do not know him, my advice is to turn to knowledgeable people, that's all.
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 15 November 2017 10: 08 New
        0
        Quote: kalibr
        And where did they write about this?

        I found it somewhere. Or until they publish it beyond the hillock, as it were, and not? laughing
        1. kalibr
          15 November 2017 13: 31 New
          +7
          Yes, but you wrote above about the money from there? What money do you need? Ours - publish with us. They have them!
  5. XII Legion
    XII Legion 15 November 2017 09: 19 New
    18
    Article is super!
    Cyprus is a miracle - both historical and natural
    The author answered many questions that I thought about.
    Thank you!
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 15 November 2017 09: 29 New
      +1
      Quote: XII legion
      Cyprus is a miracle

      In Cyprus, at public expense, you don’t need to warm the bones for feeding wooden mosquitoes on the Kola Peninsula ...
  6. kalibr
    15 November 2017 09: 57 New
    +6
    Quote: Boris55
    In Cyprus, warm bones at public expense

    I didn’t understand, explain this ...
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 15 November 2017 10: 07 New
      0
      Quote: kalibr
      I didn’t understand, explain this ...

      Perhaps he went too far - he was not standing with a candle. The bottom line is that they have their own archaeologists. Let them glorify their own country. Why do you need to do their work for them?
      There are many interesting things in the West. Take CASH work and publish on VO.
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 15 November 2017 12: 17 New
        0
        In addition. I am sorry that you do not understand the importance of archeology in the management of peoples. Dill for a reason dug up the Black Sea ...
        The second priority of common mankind controls is chronological
        "It is known that a person who has forgotten his history, the history of his Fatherland is like a tree that has lost its roots. And what happens if an entire nation forgets its history or believes in some historical myth imposed on it taking into account the interests of external hostile forces? George Orwell when he wrote: "He who rules the past rules the future; who controls the present, controls the past. "Rewriting the history of a people will inevitably lead to a change in its future. That is why the advent of a new government is always accompanied by a rewriting of history, but the rulers themselves do not understand how they are used in the dark. This was very clearly manifested today in the former Union republics that broke away from the USSR. Therefore, it must always be remembered that history never teaches anything, it only punishes ignorance of its lessons. "
        1. kalibr
          15 November 2017 13: 29 New
          10
          And why "dill"? This is an insulting name for people, in general, the same as we Russians. Why are you so through a lip about foreign nations? This does not do honor to a representative of a great country!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 15 November 2017 19: 47 New
            +1
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, on what grounds do you deny a person domestic Nazism when you yourself consider part of your compatriots to be a little losers?
            1. Curious
              Curious 15 November 2017 20: 50 New
              +4
              There is no domestic Nazism. Nazism is the solely official political ideology of the Third Reich. The purpose of Nazism is the creation and establishment of a racially pure state of the "Aryan race." In the materials of the Nuremberg trials no varieties (household, etc.) are not provided.
              If domestic nationalism is meant, then this is also a very insidious thing. Here, very often, as in physics, the force of action is equal to the strength of the reaction. So you have to be prepared for the fact that QUI VENTUM SEMINAT, TURBINEM METET.
              1. Weyland
                Weyland 16 November 2017 01: 45 New
                +1
                Quote: Curious
                QUI VENTUM SEMINAT, TURBINEM METET.

                Contradict yourself: based on a proverb. QUI SEMINAT, METET
                - the force of action (VENTUM) is not at all equal to the force of reaction (TURBINUM) ", but much less than it - rather, the" butterfly effect "is here!
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 16 November 2017 04: 53 New
                +2
                Viktor Nikolayevich, do you call copiers that way, or are you still “photocopiers”?
                1. Curious
                  Curious 16 November 2017 11: 01 New
                  +2
                  I call copiers the "era." The Era blueprints were produced by the Grozny Printing Machine Plant.

                  To install them, an isolated room with a metal door and an alarm was required and the device was registered with the KGB. So the appearance of bourgeois technology we met with the formed conceptual apparatus in the field of photocopying.
                  As for the classical Latin expression, their use in the original is not a clogging of the Russian language with borrowings. Just as expressive as for me.
                  1. Amurets
                    Amurets 16 November 2017 11: 48 New
                    +2
                    Quote: Curious
                    To install them, an isolated room with a metal door and an alarm was required and the device was registered with the KGB.

                    And also a lot of alcohol for washing the plates.
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 16 November 2017 13: 19 New
                      +1
                      Who then considered him? As far as I remember, even alcohol accounting in those years was carried out in volume units.
                      1. Amurets
                        Amurets 16 November 2017 15: 00 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Curious
                        Who then considered him? As far as I remember, even alcohol accounting in those years was carried out in volume units.

                        You are right, in liters and how much EMNIP, depending on the raw materials and quality, cost from 6 to 12 kopecks / liter.
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 16 November 2017 21: 08 New
                    +2
                    Cool! Another linguistic "stamp"! "So sho can you still tell me for Nazism?" I think that the dead Jew is deeply violet confessional affiliation of the shooter, be he a German from the Einsatzkommand, Melnik or AKovets.
                2. Mikado
                  Mikado 16 November 2017 14: 25 New
                  +3
                  Viktor Nikolayevich, do you call copiers that way, or are you still “photocopiers”?

                  You still ask, Anton, as I say - "copy" or "Xerox" laughing drinks I confess, the last .. wink I say, crusts mean little! laughing
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 16 November 2017 20: 08 New
                    +1
                    Once in the notary I heard the verb "xeranut" request . As for the crusts, I have a friend - a veteran of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, when his gay men stop and he begins to present documents, they are very offended, "didn’t you show the crust right away?"
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 16 November 2017 20: 12 New
                      +3
                      "didn’t show the crust right away?"

                      these are other peels laughing I used to take a diploma with me too, so, they say, a police officer by training and all that. drinks
            2. kalibr
              15 November 2017 22: 32 New
              +2
              For one simple reason. I have not yet met a man who would not be at most to blame for his loser. Yes, there is a fault of circumstances of the same state - who argues? But man himself is "so" in many ways. Therefore, why not name it? But as citizens of the GREAT COUNTRY, and she is great, although sick, no matter who our person is, he should not, in my opinion, go down even lower and speak contemptuously about people in sovereign and independent countries. This is not an indicator of our high culture. I generally don’t like the fashion instituted by our journalists to give everyone offensive nicknames - Geyropa, Americans, and so on. Do they do that? Do Puerto Ricans have sweaty scrubs? This does not give us the right to be the same. In our language, quite literary expressions are quite enough to show our attitude to them. We do not live in plowing.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 16 November 2017 04: 41 New
                +2
                I agree that such speech neoplasms are a mockery of one’s own language and a sign of low intelligence. On the other hand, are the terms "barbarian", "Yankee", "dixie", "gringo", "tommy", "ossi" also unpleasant to you?
                1. kalibr
                  16 November 2017 07: 57 New
                  +2
                  Interesting You asked a question. The Greeks called the "barbarians" of all non-Greeks, but this was not a curse. If the barbarian was part of Greek culture, for example, he drank diluted wine, then he was not called that. “Yankee” essentially became a self-name, “gringo” is a historically established term, “tommy” is the same ... But in these terms there is still no message to the monkeys and a hint of them.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 16 November 2017 20: 47 New
                    0
                    That is, the degree to which the event approaches the observer is important. The poor fellow Alexander was so traded in the Athenian school that he invented the idea of ​​a multicultural state. In Texas, you can rally the Lyuli, calling the white native “Yankees”. In 20-30gg. Little Russian Semites were very offended when they were called Jews in official documents: "What kind of Jews are we? !! We are Jews !!!!" So the terms "vatnik" and "dill" may well become literary even during our lifetime
                2. Mikado
                  Mikado 16 November 2017 17: 27 New
                  +3
                  I agree that such speech neoplasms are a mockery of one’s own language and a sign of low intelligence.

                  it was so funny to watch when two monkeys 25-28 years old walking with me pretending to mind, beauty and style walked me two weeks ago, one shows the other something on the phone and explains: "..well, here it is - it’s still like that, lightly".. I almost fell out. belay Wide and powerful Russian language! drinks
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 16 November 2017 20: 52 New
                    +1
                    Well, yes, "people tick tickets" ...
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 16 November 2017 21: 01 New
                      +1
                      it is funny to watch, but not very aware. what We are poor if we replace complex turns with simpler, but foreign expressions. Although .. I do not know which is better. Our modern language was created by the Bolsheviks. If you read the reports of the times of Peter the Great - there is generally "the highest syllable." Do you know how dates were written in 1890? "One thousand eight hundred and ninetieth!" Not kidding, I saw it myself. hi
                      By the way, if you're interested, take a look at today's thread in the weapons section of the 21st Century Weapon article. There is a battle of the titans. fellow Caliber with a mustache and a bomb against Kurios with crowbar and forest. good
                      and then come back here! drinks
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 16 November 2017 21: 23 New
                        +2
                        Oh, this is a sequel to an article in which Shpakovsky suggested producing drones on the battlefield, and I - sandblasting? Someone’s blood will be shed !!!
                      2. Curious
                        Curious 16 November 2017 22: 36 New
                        +1
                        A hundred years have passed, and all the Bolsheviks are to blame. Meanwhile, the Bolsheviks made available to all the inhabitants of the USSR the best examples of Russian literature starting with the "Words on Igor's Regiment", Trediakovsky, Prokopovich, Sumarokov and further on the list. Read and improve. And it is difficult to imagine such literary trash, which is now being published, written in Konsko-Turkish language with grammatical errors.
          2. Weyland
            Weyland 16 November 2017 01: 42 New
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            Why are you so through a lip about foreign nations?

            dill is a derivative of "dill" (Ukrainian Oppozitsionery) + drinks = Bander-logs = Bandera. That is, it is not about the people hi , and about his individual representatives of a strictly defined political orientation am !
          3. Boris55
            Boris55 16 November 2017 08: 53 New
            0
            Quote: kalibr
            And why "dill"?

            It's not about them, but about how archeology affects the minds of the masses. She can inspire, and maybe vice versa. I doubt that you did not understand what it was about. As Comrade Stalin said: "Are you an enemy, or a dupek?"
            1. kalibr
              16 November 2017 10: 31 New
              +1
              To get started, read the 20-volume "Archeology of Russia" and for general acquaintance at least a few journals "Archeology of the Russian Federation". Well, why, why are bakers so fond of judging the global without knowing the basics?
              1. Boris55
                Boris55 16 November 2017 11: 20 New
                0
                Quote: kalibr
                To get started, read the 20-volume "Archeology of Russia" ...

                I'm just bastard from this type of statement. Have you graduated from many institutes yourself? laughing
                Quote: kalibr
                Well, why, why do bakers love to judge the global without knowing the basics?

                I tell you about Thomas, you tell me about Yeryomu ... Mow on and on under the demented who do not give an account of the consequences of their actions.
                When the mind goes beyond the mind (when it leaves the smart one) it always turns out either Titanite or the atomic bomb, but when the mind is ahead of the mind, the ark and nuclear power plant turn out.
                About ukropetekov-this is an example of the impact of your brothers on the masses of Ukraine. How power uses you for its own purposes. What authority do you serve?
            2. kalibr
              17 November 2017 08: 12 New
              0
              Neither one nor the other. Am I an expert in my field? What are you a specialist in?
              1. Boris55
                Boris55 17 November 2017 08: 46 New
                0
                Quote: kalibr
                Am I an expert in my field?

                Do you ask or approve? If the latter, then you in all the rest are a baker
                Quote: kalibr
                What are you a specialist in?

                I am in this: "Fell - here, wrung out - there"
                1. kalibr
                  17 November 2017 12: 39 New
                  0
                  The opinion of the one who fell and wrung out does not matter to me. And the sign had to be put! I sometimes confuse them. Here is the opinion of one doctor of historical sciences, it somehow suits me better.
                  1. Boris55
                    Boris55 17 November 2017 14: 57 New
                    0
                    Quote: kalibr
                    Here is the opinion of one doctor of historical sciences, it somehow suits me better.

                    According to the definition of VG Belinsky: “A crowd is a collection of people living according to tradition and reasoning according to authority ...”

                    “The main quality of the crowd is unwillingness and inability to think independently and come to opinions that correspond to the real state of affairs and the direction of the course of events. The so-called "elite" is also a crowd, but more informed on some issues than the common people. In a crowd-“elitist” society, partly a non-crowd is healers who can think independently and without having to wash so much their opinion into the psyche of others under the guise of their own opinion, or under the guise of the opinions of impeccable authorities who they themselves nurtured to their authoritative opinion was received by the crowd. In this case, the term “crowd-people” does not have such a specific meaning, but refers to a historically formed community of people, against which and in interaction with which so-called “historical figures” operate.
                    The commonality of tradition is a factor in social organization, uniting the crowd together and allowing it to be controlled through the authorities of tradition, the founding leader, heir leaders and loyal interpreters. Tradition can be arbitrarily deliberately and unintentionally isolated in comparison with what actually was and is in life. The destruction of the authority of tradition or of tradition itself turns the crowd - all thoughtless and extolled in conceit of their intellectual power - into rabble.
                    “Discourse” on authority - intellectual dependency - the main quality of the crowd. It manifests the desire of the crowd to live in a strange mind and ready-made recipes that are distributed by the authorities slipped into it. The crowd does not want to solve their own problems with their own minds - to live humanly - and, having become disillusioned with some leaders, immediately begins to expect new authoritative leaders. Thanks to their thoughtlessness, the crowd follows the leader passionately, i.e. irresponsibly, doubtlessly believing that the leader was right. This gives rise to thoughtless permissiveness of the crowd. The mafia, standing on deliberate permissiveness, introducing the leader to the crowd and herding him, actually leads the crowd behind the provocateur leader anywhere she likes, even for slaughter not for the smell of tobacco. Also, the crowd thoughtlessly participates in the public association of labor, without being responsibly interested in anything, even their private business. "
        2. kalibr
          17 November 2017 08: 18 New
          0
          Do not go where you do not need to go. I’m teaching the course “Public Opinion Management Technologies” and I can tell you that all these “priorities!” Are sucked out of a finger to scare ordinary people like you. Actually, the technologies are completely different ...
          1. Boris55
            Boris55 17 November 2017 08: 51 New
            0
            Quote: kalibr
            Actually, the technologies are completely different ...

            Again we did not understand each other. I suggested that you familiarize yourself with extremely generalized priorities management, and you tell me about their private technology.
            Specifically, what management priority do you disagree with? A song about them.
            1. kalibr
              17 November 2017 12: 37 New
              0
              Thieves, of course, are the same at all times. And there is also a song by Fox Alice and Kota Basilio from Pinocchio - also a hymn and very good.
              1. Boris55
                Boris55 17 November 2017 14: 59 New
                0
                I propose to finish this.
  7. OAV09081974
    OAV09081974 15 November 2017 09: 58 New
    20
    Excellent article by a wonderful author.
    Richly illustrated
    And Cypriots - in all senses, well done)
  8. Serge72
    Serge72 15 November 2017 10: 25 New
    19
    Aphrodite is a man's dream)
    And the Cypriots were lucky))
    How lucky we are - that we read such materials and admire such photos hi
    Interesting article
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 15 November 2017 12: 19 New
      13
      Aphrodite is a man's dream)

      yeah, especially those who "dreamed" got diseases called her middle name. laughing but this is to the Good Doctor drinks
      1. Serge72
        Serge72 15 November 2017 14: 38 New
        16
        Got it
        Well
        laughing
        drinks
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 15 November 2017 16: 19 New
          +8
          safety measures and personal protective equipment - our everything! drinks it's not even the doctor will say laughing
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 16 November 2017 09: 24 New
            +1
            Quote: Mikado
            safety measures and personal protective equipment - our everything! drinks it's not even the doctor will say laughing

            OZK or suit L-1 "gas mask and personal protective equipment.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 16 November 2017 14: 27 New
              +1
              and this is guaranteed to scare away any woman! good drinks so to speak, the problem will be radically eliminated in the bud! soldier
              1. Curious
                Curious 16 November 2017 14: 46 New
                +1
                The most reliable way to guarantee 100% success is to dip in iodine, then in honey. Repeat this procedure at least seven times. And never fuck.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 16 November 2017 15: 03 New
                  +2
                  and once again offer me to call you "entertainer"? wink good There, under the branch yesterday, the Good Doctor, come on, still swearing with respectable Caliber about medicine - so you can successfully make a new contribution! fellow drinks
  9. Curious
    Curious 15 November 2017 12: 00 New
    12
    "The city found by A.V. Barchenko and V.N.Demin is older than all the civilizations of Asia and Africa, because it was once buried by a glacier, and the glacier on the Kola Peninsula only melted 10-12 thousand years BC"
    A city is nothing else. After all, they found hell there, and the devils of the living. But they are still hiding.
    All this is located at a depth of 12 km and was discovered during the drilling of an ultra-deep well in 1991.
    This is what the Finnish newspaper Ammenusastia wrote.
    “A terrifying one with huge limbs flew out of the well before we lowered the included recorder (sound recorder) to a depth of over 12 kilometers. Squealing, like a wild wounded beast, quickly rose high into the sky, then disappearing from view. As a scientist and communist, I I don’t believe in miracles and the Bible, but as an eyewitness to everything that happened, I have to believe in hell now. We don’t need to say that we were shocked by such a discovery. But we know what we heard, and we know what we managed to see "That’s enough to be absolutely sure that they drilled through the gates of hell."
    This was reported to Finnish reporters by a drilling participant, "a world-famous geologist, Dmitry Azzakov."
    The project manager, Academician David Huberman, was called “from the very top” and asked to explain how the Western press was already writing about such a discovery, and the Central Committee was not in the know. The frightened Huberman phoned the Finnish vile newspaper through the embassy. The Finns replied that they have a holiday on this date, an analog of April Fools Day.
  10. kalibr
    15 November 2017 13: 26 New
    +7
    Quote: Boris55
    There are many interesting things in the West. Take THEM work and publish on VO.

    I am doing this, but can’t I add my own vision of the problem? Something with your head ... not that. In my opinion, it’s interesting to know when the knowledge obtained from different sources is generalized on the basis of one’s own impressions and visions. You do not know English and Evans about the same Crete will not read. And today it is impossible to live the myth that everything around is the best of all things in the world. "Every weather is good!"
    1. San Sanych
      San Sanych 15 November 2017 15: 19 New
      0
      Quote: kalibr
      Quote: Boris55
      There are many interesting things in the West. Take THEM work and publish on VO.

      I am doing this, but can’t I add my own vision of the problem? Something with your head ... not that. In my opinion, it’s interesting to know when the knowledge obtained from different sources is generalized on the basis of one’s own impressions and visions. You do not know English and Evans about the same Crete will not read. And today it is impossible to live the myth that everything around is the best of all things in the world. "Every weather is good!"

      why, then, a reference from what sources, at the end of the article was not published? P.S. the island of Malta can in no way be considered "quite large", in the Mediterranean it is on the 34th place in the territory
  11. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 15 November 2017 13: 35 New
    12
    "Continental Grick?" That is - "Are you a continental Greek? On the island it is a kind of elite.
    They are given big discounts, especially in a taxi "////

    I remembered ...
    I once traveled alone in Cyprus in the early 90's. I caught tremp from Troodos (mountainous region), the village of Ka-ka-petria in Larnaca.
    It was Greek Easter and buses did not go. The taxi stopped.
    "Where from?" "From Israel" . Greek driver: "YA-Vrey ???" I had to confess. He was silent
    all the way, digesting, apparently, this wild news. (I did not receive a discount, on the contrary, an extra charge for his work on a holiday smile )
    But I did not argue. I had a snack in Larnaca, I caught another taxi. It turned out with a Turkish driver. On that Israel
    made no impression. Chatted in English all the way. The price to Patos was normal.

    Thanks for the great article! good
    1. kalibr
      17 November 2017 12: 34 New
      0
      I drove with a taxi driver with an Assyrian taxi driver - generally something, then with a local Greek, who has a Russian wife from Kazakhstan (!). Both trips were very funny and instructive.
  12. igordok
    igordok 15 November 2017 13: 41 New
    +5
    It does not seem to say that copper, in Latin Cuprum, named after this island.
    1. kalibr
      15 November 2017 15: 25 New
      +2
      I forgot, I forgot - I always remembered and forgot ...
    2. Weyland
      Weyland 16 November 2017 01: 48 New
      +2
      Quote: igordok
      Cuprum Latin is named after this island

      The funny thing is that the opposite is true - the word "Cyprus" comes from the Assyrian "cypress" = copper!
  13. kalibr
    15 November 2017 15: 26 New
    +2
    Quote: San Sanych
    why, then, a reference from what sources, at the end of the article was not published?

    What for? Who will read it here? voyaka uh?
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 15 November 2017 16: 00 New
      +5
      You have a chance to force us to learn English, but you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, do not use it! request laughing and so - they would have given a couple of links, we would have climbed into the translator, and there, you look, once and again - and half the language is learned! hi
      1. kalibr
        15 November 2017 18: 43 New
        +3
        Dear Nicholas! Is it necessary? There is a lot of sadness in many knowledge.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 15 November 2017 18: 51 New
          +5
          I don’t know, Vyacheslav Olegovich .. hi But is not raising the educational level a blessing? what Although some have enough of three classes to live a happy life. no I'm not talking about the countries of Africa or the poorest countries of Latin America - they live, enjoy the small things, breed, and in search of a better share they go to wealthy countries and form diasporas there. request
          1. kalibr
            15 November 2017 22: 18 New
            +2
            Well, you yourself answered me. For some, yes, good, but for someone not. Here it is better to individually approach each.
  14. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 15 November 2017 18: 16 New
    19
    History and the sea in one bottle
    Its author discovered
    And surprised us all good
    Fine
    Thank you
    1. kalibr
      15 November 2017 18: 41 New
      +8
      I am glad, thank you! I just love the sea, especially warm, but without E. coli, as in Abkhazia, and what would the mountains be. And so there was something to see. I remember until before I often traveled to Anapa, where the excavations of the ancient city of Gorgippia, then went to the High Bank and represented the purple ships of the Greek triremes at sea. The sea is all the same ...
      1. Some kind of compote
        Some kind of compote 15 November 2017 19: 22 New
        18
        Yes, the sea brings oblivion
        I love more than mountains
  15. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 15 November 2017 19: 16 New
    +8
    Just from there. Thanks to the author for a comprehensive article, which clearly lacks the signature "to be continued." Now there is a velvet season, approximately like in the Crimea in mid-September. The people are calm, friendly, there are a lot of Russian Greeks who arrived at the beginning of the 90.
    1. kalibr
      15 November 2017 22: 16 New
      +3
      I will make you happy. There will be 4 more materials - about the churches and monasteries of Cyprus and the riddle of Cape Makronissos. Everything is ready, everything will turn out in turn.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 15 November 2017 23: 06 New
        +3
        This is fine, but now I would like to receive historical information from the Greco-Persian wars to the 1974 year, at least.
        1. kalibr
          16 November 2017 07: 52 New
          +2
          This is also true. But this must be dealt with, but I did not. That is, you will need to do and write. It takes time ...
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 16 November 2017 08: 34 New
            +2
            Clear. But still, since the beginning is purely historical, then this line should be continued, otherwise churches and monasteries after the battle in the Thermopyl Gorge - this is a mixture of genres. I look forward to continuing.
            1. kalibr
              16 November 2017 10: 34 New
              +3
              I understand that too. But it’s always easier to write about what you yourself saw. The theme of the history of Greece will be continued. Yesterday, at your advice, I was surrounded by monographs, surfed the Internet ... I read, put bookmarks. Something will work out, but when I don’t know.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 16 November 2017 21: 56 New
                +1
                Well, I look forward to continuing. One was unlucky for the Cypriots - since the British settled there after World War I, he did not get into the program of the resettlement of Turks from Greece and Greeks from Turkey, which Atatürk implemented in the early 20's. Therefore, both of them remained there, which ultimately led to a mutual massacre after the British left and the partition of Cyprus in 1974. And during the reign of Venice (the time of Shakespeare) in the current Turkish part was the castle of the Venetian military commander Othello, whose wife died under strange circumstances. William wrote the famous play on this basis.
                1. kalibr
                  17 November 2017 08: 10 New
                  +1
                  I had an article here in the VO about this castle and a photo from there, from the North side from Famagusta. Only I forgot her name. And there is a photo of a rusty Venetian helmet from a museum in Ayia Napa.
      2. Weyland
        Weyland 16 November 2017 01: 52 New
        +2
        If you want a good source about the early Bronze Age of Cyprus, there was a very good article in the Oxford Journal of Archeology:
        http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468
        -0092.2006.00261.x / abstract
        EARLY BRONZE AGE METAL TRADE IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN. NEW COMPOSITIONAL AND LEAD ISOTOPE EVIDENCE FROM CYPRUS
        Authors
        JENNIFER M. WEBB, DAVID FRANKEL, ZOFIA ANNA STOS, NOEL GALE
        1. kalibr
          16 November 2017 07: 51 New
          +1
          I am deeply grateful to you for this friendly help with interesting material for a more in-depth study of this item.
  16. Weyland
    Weyland 16 November 2017 01: 32 New
    +2
    Unexpectedly left hand
    The son held out from an ambush,
    and right, grabbing a huge
    The sickle is sharp-toothed, the compartment at the parent is sweet
    Member of childbearing and threw back his strong scale.
    The member of the father is child-bearing, cut off with a sharp iron,
    By the sea for a long time worn, and white foam
    Whipped around from an imperishable member.
    And the girl in the foam in that one was born.
    "Theogony" Hesiod

    Transfer intentionally unclear. Unclear, where exactly Cronus was ambushed and from which exactly Aphrodite was born. It was born в foam but not of foam, and from ... just about, from the very one around which the foam whipped ... laughing
  17. kalibr
    16 November 2017 10: 35 New
    +2
    Quote: Weyland
    The translation is intentionally unclear.

    This is not for me. I didn’t translate. And so ... You all correctly noticed.
  18. Mikado
    Mikado 16 November 2017 22: 38 New
    +2
    Curious,
    Meanwhile, the Bolsheviks made available to all the inhabitants of the USSR the best examples of Russian literature starting with the "Words on Igor's Regiment", Trediakovsky, Prokopovich, Sumarokov and further on the list.

    The Lord is with you! I didn’t dare to think about it, that they are to blame for something in the culture! just the general education they gave!
    1. Curious
      Curious 16 November 2017 23: 01 New
      +1
      So I do not understand.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 16 November 2017 23: 12 New
        +2
        to the honor of the Communists, it is to them that we should be grateful to culture, education and toilets. Each country has its own development. We have such things came to the era of the USSR.
  19. kalibr
    17 November 2017 08: 15 New
    +1
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave Yesterday, 20:47 ↑
    That is, the degree to which the event approaches the observer is important

    Obviously so ...
  20. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 17 November 2017 11: 30 New
    +2
    interesting .. but it hurts a little .. stormy times there were in the Greek-Persian war well and then in the era of the Diadochi