The term “noosphere” was proposed in 1927 by the French mathematician and philosopher E. Leroy. “Noos” is the ancient Greek name for the human mind.
The first human-created Paleolithic culture (Stone Age) lasted for about 20-30 for thousands of years. It coincided with a long period of glaciation. The economic basis of human society was the hunt for large animals: noble and reindeer, woolly rhino, donkey, horse, mammoth, tour. At the sites of a stone age man, numerous bones of wild animals are found - evidence of a successful hunt. The intensive extermination of large herbivores led to a relatively rapid reduction in their numbers and the extinction of many species.
If small herbivores could make up for losses from pursuit by hunters of high fertility, large animals due to evolutionary stories were deprived of this opportunity. Additional difficulties arose due to changes in natural conditions at the end of the Paleolithic. 10-12 thousands of years ago, there was a sharp warming, the glacier retreated, forests spread in Europe, large animals died out. This created new living conditions, destroyed the existing economic base of human society. The period of its development, which was characterized only by the use of food, i.e. purely consumer attitude to the environment.
In the next epoch - the Neolithic (new Stone Age) - along with hunting, fishing and gathering, the process of food production is becoming increasingly important. The first attempts at domestication of animals and plant breeding are being made, the production of ceramics is emerging. Already 9-10 thousands of years ago there were settlements, among the remains of which are found wheat, barley, lentils, the bones of domestic animals - goats, pigs, sheep. The rudiments of agricultural and cattle farms are developing. Fire is also widely used for the destruction of vegetation under conditions of hedge farming, and as a means of hunting. The development of mineral resources begins, metallurgy is born.
The growth of the population, a qualitative leap in the development of science and technology over the past two centuries, and especially in our days, have led to the fact that human activity has become a factor of global scale, a directing force for the further evolution of the biosphere. Anthropocenoses arose (from the Greek anthropos - man, koinos - common, community) - communities of organisms in which man is the dominant species, and his activity determines the state of the whole system. VI Vernadsky believed that the influence of scientific thought and human labor led to the transition of the biosphere into a new state - the noosphere (the sphere of mind). Now humanity uses for its needs an increasing part of the territory of the planet and increasing amounts of mineral resources.
The true greatness of Vernadsky becomes clear only now. It is in his deep philosophical ideas, looking into the future, closely affecting the fate of all mankind.
He was born in St. Petersburg in 1863, just two years after the abolition of serfdom in Russia, in the family of a professor of political economy, a prominent representative of the Russian liberal intelligentsia of the last century. Five years later, the Vernadskys' family moved to Kharkov, where Vernadsky’s personality was influenced by his great-uncle, E. M. Korolenko, a retired officer who was fond of scientific and philosophical research. Most of all he was interested in problems related to the life of every person and humanity as a whole. It is likely that some thoughts of EM Korolenko, some of the questions posed by him, were preserved in the memory of Vernadsky and consciously or unconsciously influenced his scientific work.
The Petersburg classical gymnasium, where Vernadsky studied since the third grade, was one of the best in Russia. Here foreign languages, history, philosophy were well taught. Later Vernadsky independently studied several European languages. He read literature, mostly scientific, in fifteen languages, and wrote some of his articles in French, in English, and in German. The scientist has kept his interest in history and philosophy for life.
Then Vernadsky entered the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St. Petersburg University, where among the professors were the luminaries of Russian science: Mendeleev, Beketov, Sechenov, Butlerov. However, Dokuchaev undoubtedly had a greater influence on Vernadsky, who taught mineralogy at the university. The young scientist repeatedly participated in expeditions to study the soil of the Nizhny Novgorod province under the leadership of Dokuchaev. But the sphere of scientific interests of Vernadsky at that time was not limited to mineralogy. He studied and achieved some results also in geology, crystallography, history.
At the same time, Vernadsky sincerely became interested in the teachings of Tolstoy and shared many of his doubts. However, Tolstoy did not believe that science is able to satisfy a person’s desire to find "the meaning of life", reconcile himself with the inevitability of death, and justify high moral principles. It is unlikely that such ideas were close to Vernadsky. Unlike Tolstoy, he kept his faith in scientific knowledge all his life and sought to find the answer to many questions of being based on a logical analysis of facts, reliable information about the world and man.
In 1885, Vernadsky was left as the keeper of the Mineralogical Office of Moscow University. Working at this place, the scientist travels a lot, works in chemical and crystallographic laboratories, makes geological expeditions. In 1897, Vernadsky defended his doctoral thesis and became a professor at Moscow University. In 1906, he was elected a member of the State Council from Moscow University. Two years later, he becomes an extraordinary academician. On the initiative and under the chairmanship of Vernadsky in 1915, a commission is set up to study the natural productive forces of Russia at the Academy of Sciences. At the end of 1921, Vernadsky founded the Radium Institute in Moscow and was appointed its director. In 1926, his famous work Biosphere was published, after which he wrote a lot of research on natural waters, the cycle of substances and gases of the Earth, on cosmic dust, geometry, the problem of time in modern science. But the main theme for him remains the biosphere - the area of life and the geochemical activity of living matter.
Having lived to a very old age, Vernadsky died in Moscow just a few months before the victorious conclusion of the Great Patriotic War. He had to go through three revolutions in Russia and two world wars. But at his age fell no less revolutionary discoveries in science.
But the most important thing: for Vernadsky, science was a means of knowing nature. He was not an expert in any one science or even in several sciences. He brilliantly knew a good dozen of sciences, but he studied nature, which is immeasurably more difficult than all the sciences combined. He reflected on natural objects and their interconnections.
Like many natural scientists who have achieved outstanding success in special fields, Vernadsky came to his philosophical constructions in his declining years, seeing in them a natural generalization of the fundamental principles underlying the universe. But even among the luminaries of natural science, he stands out not only for innovation and the depth of ideas, but also for their astounding modernity.
And in the center of this innovation is the revival of the ancient idea of the central role of man, his mind in the whole Universe. Its significance for our civilization has long been underestimated. And the main reason for this, paradoxically, consisted, apparently, in the very successes of classical science, which culminated in the creation of the general theory of relativity in 1916,
Intoxicated by unprecedented achievements, most scientists traditionally saw in man only a talented contemplator of nature, able to uncover its secrets and to satisfy the thirst for knowledge. But Vernadsky prophetically saw in a man a skilled creator of nature, called upon, eventually, to take a place at the very wheel of evolution.
For all his genius and incredible performance, it took decades for Vernadsky to build a reliable bridge over the precipice separating natural science from history created by people themselves. And this bridge consisted in the key idea that the transition of the biosphere on Earth to the noosphere, that is, the realm of reason, is not a local episode on the outskirts of the vast Universe, but a natural and inevitable stage of development of matter, a natural historical stage. “We are only beginning to realize the insuperable power of free scientific thought, the greatest creative power of Homo sapiens, the free human personality, the greatest manifestation of its cosmic power, whose kingdom lies ahead,” wrote Vernadsky with inspiration.
The unity of the biosphere and man
The central theme of the noosphere theory is the unity of the biosphere and humanity. Vernadsky in his works reveals the roots of this unity, the significance of the organization of the biosphere in the development of mankind. This allows us to understand the place and role of the historical development of mankind in the evolution of the biosphere, the laws of its transition to the noosphere.
One of the key ideas underlying Vernadsky's theory of the noosphere is that man is not a self-sufficient living being living separately according to its own laws, it coexists within nature and is part of it. This unity is due, above all, to the functional continuity of the environment and man, which Vernadsky tried to show as a biogeochemist. Humanity itself is a natural phenomenon and it is natural that the influence of the biosphere affects not only the environment of life, but also the image of thought.
But not only nature has an impact on humans, there is a feedback. And it is not superficial, reflecting the physical influence of a person on the environment, it is much deeper. This is proved by the fact that recently the planetary geological forces have become noticeably more active. “... we see more and more brightly the geological forces around us in action. This coincided, hardly by chance, with the insight into the scientific consciousness of the geological significance of Homo sapiens, with the identification of the new state of the biosphere - the noosphere - and is one of the forms of its expression. It is connected, of course, above all, with the specification of natural scientific work and thought within the biosphere, where living matter plays the main role. ” So, recently the reflection of living beings on the surrounding nature has been changing dramatically. Due to this, the process of evolution is transferred to the area of minerals. Soil, water and air change dramatically. That is, the evolution of species itself has turned into a geological process, since in the process of evolution a new geological force has appeared. Vernadsky wrote: "The evolution of species goes into the evolution of the biosphere."
This naturally suggests the conclusion that the geological force is not actually Homo Sapiens, but its mind, the scientific thought of social humanity. In The Philosophical Thoughts of a Naturalist, Vernadsky wrote: “We are just experiencing its bright entry into the geological history of the planet. In the last millennia, there has been an intense growth in the influence of one species living substance - civilized humanity - on the change in the biosphere. Under the influence of scientific thought and human labor, the biosphere goes into a new state — into the noosphere. ”
We are observers and performers of deep changes in the biosphere. Moreover, the restructuring of the environment by scientific human thought through organized labor is hardly a spontaneous process. The roots of this lie in nature itself and were laid millions of years ago in the course of the natural process of evolution. "Man ... is the inevitable manifestation of a great natural process, naturally lasting for at least two billion years."
From here, by the way, we can conclude that the statements about the self-destruction of mankind, about the collapse of civilization do not have good reasons. It would be, at least, strange if scientific thought — the product of a natural geological process would contradict the process itself. We are on the verge of revolutionary changes in the environment: the biosphere through the processing of scientific thought moves into a new evolutionary state - the noosphere.
Populating all corners of our planet, relying on state-organized scientific thought and its generation, technology, man created in the biosphere a new biogenic force that supports reproduction and further settlement of various parts of the biosphere. Moreover, together with the expansion of the area of residence, humanity begins to present itself to an increasingly cohesive mass, as developing means of communication - means of transmission of thought envelop the entire globe. "This process - the complete settlement of the biosphere by man - is determined by the course of history of scientific thought, is inextricably linked with the speed of intercourse, with the success of the technique of movement, with the possibility of instantaneous transfer of thought, its simultaneous discussion everywhere on the planet.
At the same time, a person for the first time really understood that he is a resident of the planet and can and should think and act in a new aspect, not only in the aspect of an individual, family or clan, states or their unions, but also in the planetary aspect. He, like all living things, can think and act in a planetary aspect only in the realm of life - in the biosphere, in a certain earthly shell, with which it is inseparably, naturally connected and out of which he cannot. Its existence is its function. He carries her with him everywhere. And he inevitably, naturally, continuously changes it. It seems that for the first time we are in the conditions of a single geological historical process that simultaneously enveloped the entire planet. The 20th century is characterized by the fact that any event occurring on the planet is connected into a single whole. And every day the social, scientific and cultural connectedness of mankind only intensifies and deepens. "The increase in universality, cohesion of all human societies is constantly growing and becoming noticeable in a few years, almost every year."
The result of all the above changes in the biosphere of the planet gave the French geologist Teilhard de Chardin the reason to conclude that the biosphere is now rapidly geologically transforming into a new state — the noosphere, that is, the state in which the human mind and the work it directs represents a powerful new geological force. This coincided, apparently not by chance, with the moment when man inhabited the entire planet, the whole of humanity economically united into a single whole, and the scientific thought of all of humanity merged together, thanks to advances in communication technology.
1. Man, as he is observed in nature, as all living organisms, as any living substance, is a definite function of the biosphere, in a certain space-time of it;
2. Man in all its manifestations is a part of the biosphere;
3. The breakthrough of scientific thought is prepared by the entire past of the biosphere and has evolutionary roots. The noosphere is a biosphere, reworked by scientific thought, prepared by the entire past of the planet, and not a short-term and passing geological phenomenon.
Vernadsky repeatedly noted that the “civilization of“ cultural humanity ”- because it is a form of organization of a new geological force created in the biosphere - cannot be interrupted and destroyed, because it is a great natural phenomenon that corresponds to the historically, rather, geologically established organization of the biosphere . Forming the noosphere, it is connected with all its roots with this terrestrial envelope, which in the history of mankind was not in any comparable measure before. ”
Much of what Vernadsky wrote about is becoming the property of today. His thoughts on the integrity, indivisibility of civilization, on the unity of the biosphere and humanity are modern and clear to us. The turning point in the history of mankind, about which scientists, politicians, and publicists are talking today, was seen by Vernadsky.
Vernadsky saw the inevitability of the noosphere, prepared both by the evolution of the biosphere and by the historical development of mankind. From the point of view of the noospheric approach, modern painful points of development of world civilization are also seen differently. The barbarous attitude to the biosphere, the threat of a global ecological catastrophe, the production of means of mass destruction - all this must be of transient significance. The question of a radical turn to the origins of life, to the organization of the biosphere in modern conditions should sound like alarm, a call to think and act, in the biosphere - the planetary aspect.
The transition of the biosphere into the noosphere: forecast and reality
Vernadsky, analyzing the geological history of the Earth, argues that there is a transition of the biosphere to a new state - to the noosphere under the influence of a new geological force, the scientific thought of mankind. However, in the works of Vernadsky there is no complete and consistent interpretation of the essence of the material noosphere as a transformed biosphere. In some cases, he wrote about the noosphere in the future tense (it has not yet arrived), in others in the present (we enter it), and sometimes associated the formation of the noosphere with the emergence of a reasonable person or with the emergence of industrial production. It should be noted that when Vernadsky wrote about human geological activity as a mineralogist, he had not yet used the concepts of “noosphere” and even “biosphere”. He wrote about the formation of the noosphere on Earth in the most detailed work in the unfinished work “Scientific Thought as a Planetary Phenomenon”, but mainly from the point of view of the history of science.
So, what is the noosphere: a utopia or a real survival strategy? The works of Vernadsky allow a more reasonable answer to the question posed, since they indicate a number of specific conditions necessary for the formation and existence of the noosphere. We list these conditions:
1. Human colonization of the entire planet.
2. The dramatic transformation of communication and exchange between countries.
3. Strengthening ties, including political, between all countries of the Earth.
4. The beginning of the predominance of the geological role of man over other geological processes occurring in the biosphere.
5. Expansion of the boundaries of the biosphere and access to space.
6. The discovery of new sources of energy.
7. Equality of people of all races and religions.
8. Increasing the role of the masses in addressing foreign and domestic policy issues.
9. Freedom of scientific thought and scientific quest from the pressure of religious, philosophical and political constructions and the creation in the state system of conditions favorable for free scientific thought.
10. A well-thought out system of public education and a rise in the well-being of the working people. Creating a real opportunity to prevent malnutrition and hunger, poverty and to extremely reduce disease.
11. A reasonable transformation of the primary nature of the Earth in order to make it able to satisfy all the material, aesthetic and spiritual needs of a numerically increasing population.
12. The exclusion of wars from society.
Let us see how these conditions are fulfilled in the modern world and dwell in more detail on some of them.
1. Human colonization of the entire planet. This condition is satisfied. On Earth, there are no places left where a person’s foot would not step. He settled even in Antarctica.
2. The dramatic transformation of communication and exchange between countries. This condition can also be considered fulfilled. With the help of radio and television, we instantly learn about events anywhere in the world. Means of communication is constantly improving, accelerating, there are opportunities that have recently been difficult to dream. And here it is impossible not to recall the prophetic words of Vernadsky: "This process - the complete settlement of the biosphere by man - is determined by the course of the history of scientific thought, is inextricably linked with the speed of intercourse, with the success of the technique of movement, with the possibility of instantaneous transmission of thought, its simultaneous discussion on the entire planet." Until recently, telecommunications were limited to telegraph, telephone, radio and television, which Vernadsky wrote about. It was possible to transfer data from one computer to another using a modem connected to a telephone line, documents on paper were transmitted using fax machines. Only in recent years, the development of the global telecommunications computer network Internet has given rise to a real revolution in human civilization, which is now entering the era of information. In 1968, the US Department of Defense got concerned with connecting many of its computers to a special network, which was supposed to promote scientific research in the military-industrial sphere. Initially, this network was subject to a requirement of resistance to partial damage: any part of the network can disappear at any time. And in these conditions it should always have been possible to establish a connection between the source computer and the information receiving computer (destination station). The development of a project for such a network and its implementation were entrusted to the Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA - the Department of Advanced Studies of the Ministry of Defense. After five years of hard work, such a network was created and called ARPAnet. During the first ten years, the development of computer networks went unnoticed - their services were used only by specialists in computing and military equipment. But with the development of local networks that connect computers within one organization, there was a need to link together the local networks of various organizations. From time to time, attempts were made to use the ready-made ARPAnet network for this, but the bureaucrats of the Ministry of Defense were against it. Life demanded quick decisions, so the structure of the existing ARPAnet network was taken as the basis for the future Internet network. In 1973, the first international connection was organized - England and Norway were connected to the network. However, the beginning of the explosive growth of the Internet at the end of 80's was caused by the efforts of the NSF (National Science Foundation) and other academic and scientific foundations around the world to connect scientific institutions to the network. The growth and development of the Internet, the improvement of computational and communication technology is now proceeding just like the reproduction and evolution of living organisms. Vernadsky paid attention to this in due time: “With a speed comparable to the reproduction rate expressed by a geometric progression over time, this way in the biosphere is created an ever-growing set of new inert natural bodies and new large natural phenomena.”. "... The course of scientific thought, for example, in the creation of machines, as noted long ago, is completely analogous to the course of the reproduction of organisms." Previously, only informatics researchers, government officials and contractors used the network, now almost anyone can access it. And here we see the realization of Vernadsky’s dream of a favorable environment for the development of scientific work, the popularization of scientific knowledge, and the internationality of science. Indeed, if before people separated borders and vast distances, now, perhaps, only the language barrier. “Every scientific fact, every scientific observation,” wrote Vernadsky, “wherever and by whomever they are made, they enter a single scientific apparatus, classify it and bring it to a single form, immediately become common property for criticism, reflection and scientific work . " But if earlier it took years for scientific work to be published, for scientific thought to become known to the world, now any scientist with access to the Internet can present his work, for example, in the form of a so-called WWW page (World- The Wide Web is the World Wide Web for all users on the network, not only the text of the article and pictures (as on paper), but also mobile illustrations, and sometimes sound. Now the Internet is a global community of about 30 thousands of computer networks interacting with each other. The Internet population is already almost 30 of millions of users and about 10 of millions of computers, and the number of nodes doubles every year and a half. Vernadsky wrote: "Soon it will be possible to make events visible for all thousands of kilometers visible." We can assume that this prediction came true Vernadsky.
3. Strengthening ties, including political, between all countries of the Earth. This condition can be considered if not fulfilled, then fulfilled. The United Nations (UN), which emerged after the Second World War, turned out to be much more stable and effective than the League of Nations, which existed in Geneva from 1919 to 1946.
4. The beginning of the predominance of the geological role of man over other geological processes occurring in the biosphere. This condition can also be considered fulfilled, although it is precisely the predominance of the geological role of man in some cases that has led to serious environmental consequences. The volume of rocks extracted from the depths of the Earth by all the mines and quarries of the world is now almost twice the average volume of lavas and ashes carried out annually by all the volcanoes of the Earth.
5. Expansion of the boundaries of the biosphere and access to space. In the works of the last decade of his life, Vernadsky did not consider the boundaries of the biosphere constant. He emphasized their expansion in the past as a result of the emergence of living matter on land, the emergence of high-growth vegetation, flying insects, and later flying lizards and birds. In the process of transition to the noosphere, the boundaries of the biosphere must expand, and man must go into space. These predictions came true.
6. The discovery of new sources of energy. The condition is fulfilled, but, unfortunately, with tragic consequences. Atomic energy has long been mastered for both peaceful and military purposes. Mankind (or rather politicians) is clearly not ready to confine to peaceful purposes, moreover - the atomic (nuclear) force entered our age primarily as a military means and a means of intimidation of the opposing nuclear powers. The question of the use of atomic energy deeply worried Vernadsky more than half a century ago. In the preface to the book “Essays and Speech” he prophetically wrote: “The time is not far when a person gets atomic energy into his hands, such a source of power that will enable him to build his life as he wants ... Can a person use this power , send it for good, not for self-destruction? Has he grown to the ability to use the force that science must inevitably give him? ” The enormous nuclear potential is supported by a sense of mutual fear and the desire of one of the parties for unsteady supremacy. The power of the new source of energy turned out to be doubtful, it came at the wrong time and fell into the wrong hands. To develop international cooperation in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in 1957, uniting 1981 states to 111.
7. Equality of people of all races and religions. This condition, if not achieved, then, in any case, is achieved. The decisive step for the establishment of equality of people of different races and religions was the destruction of the colonial empires at the end of the last century.
8. Increasing the role of the masses in addressing foreign and domestic policy issues. This condition is observed in all countries with a parliamentary form of government.
9. Freedom of scientific thought and scientific quest from the pressure of religious, philosophical and political constructions and the creation in the state system of conditions favorable for free scientific thought. It is difficult to talk about the fulfillment of this condition in a country where until recently science was under the colossal yoke of certain philosophical and political constructs. Now science is free from such pressures, however, due to the difficult economic situation in Russian science, many scientists are forced to earn a living by unscientific labor, while others leave abroad. To support Russian science, international funds have been created. In developed and even developing countries, as we can see from the example of India, the state and social system create a regime of maximum favor for free scientific thought.
10. A well-thought out system of public education and a rise in the well-being of the working people. Creating a real opportunity to prevent malnutrition and hunger, poverty and to extremely reduce disease. The fulfillment of this condition is difficult to judge objectively, being in a big country, standing on the threshold of hunger and poverty, as all the newspapers write about it. However, Vernadsky warned that the process of transition of the biosphere into the noosphere cannot occur gradually and unidirectionally, that temporary retreats are inevitable on this path. And the situation that has developed in our country can be regarded as a temporary and transitory phenomenon.
11. A reasonable transformation of the primary nature of the Earth in order to make it able to satisfy all the material, aesthetic and spiritual needs of a numerically increasing population. This condition, especially in our country, cannot be considered fulfilled; however, the first steps towards a rational transformation of nature in the second half of the 20th century undoubtedly began to be implemented. In the modern period there is an integration of science on the basis of environmental ideas. The whole system of scientific knowledge provides a foundation for environmental tasks. Vernadsky also spoke about this in an effort to create a single science of the biosphere. Ecologization of the Western consciousness took place starting from the 70s, creating conditions for the emergence of an ecophilic civilization.
Now the extremist form of the green movement was no longer necessary there, since the state mechanisms for regulating environmental problems had been launched. In the USSR, before the 80s, it was believed that socialist management impedes the threat of an environmental crisis. During the period of perestroika, this myth was dispelled, the movement of the greens became more active. However, in the modern period, the political leadership shifted mainly to the solution of economic problems, environmental problems receded into the background. On a global scale, the resolution of an environmental problem in the face of a growing global population requires the ability to solve global problems, which seems doubtful under the conditions of sovereignty of various states.
12. The exclusion of wars from society. Vernadsky considered this condition to be extremely important for the creation and existence of the noosphere. But it is not fulfilled and it is not yet clear whether it can be fulfilled. The world community seeks to prevent a world war, although local wars still take many lives.
Thus, we see that there are all those specific signs, all or almost all of the conditions that V. I. Vernadsky pointed out in order to distinguish the noosphere from the previously existing states of the biosphere. The process of its formation is gradual, and probably it will never be possible to accurately indicate the year or even the decade from which the transition of the biosphere into the noosphere can be considered complete. But, of course, opinions on this issue may be different.
Vernadsky himself, noticing the undesirable, destructive consequences of managing a person on Earth, considered them to be some of the costs. He believed in the human mind, humanism of scientific activity, the triumph of goodness and beauty. Something he ingeniously foresaw, in some ways, perhaps he was mistaken. Noosphere should be accepted as a symbol of faith, as an ideal of rational human intervention in biospheric processes under the influence of scientific achievements. We must believe in her, hope for her coming, take appropriate measures.
Vernadsky's ideas were far ahead of the time in which he worked. This fully applies to the theory of the biosphere and its transition to the noosphere. Only now, in the conditions of an extraordinary exacerbation of the global problems of our time, the prophetic words of Vernadsky about the need to think and act in the planetary - biosphere - aspect are becoming clear. Only now the illusions of technocratism and the conquest of nature are crumbling, and the essential unity of the biosphere and humanity is being revealed. The fate of our planet and the fate of humanity - this is one fate.
Vernadsky connects the stage of the noosphere with the action of many factors: the unity of the biosphere and humanity, the unity of the human race, the planetary nature of human activity and its commensurability with geological processes, the development of democratic forms of human community, the unprecedented flourishing (“explosion”) of science and technology. Summarizing these phenomena, putting in an inseparable relationship the further evolution of the biosphere with the development of mankind, Vernadsky introduces the concept of the noosphere.
It must be borne in mind that the task of creating the noosphere is the task of today. Its solution is connected with the unification of the efforts of all mankind, with the assertion of new values of cooperation and interconnection of all peoples of the world. In our country, the ideas of the noosphere are organically linked with the revolutionary restructuring of socialist society. Democracy, democratic principles of public life, the revival of culture, science and popular life, a radical revision of the departmental approach to environmental management, etc., are all components of the noosphere.
Aspiration to the future, therefore, is a characteristic feature of the noospheric doctrine, which in modern conditions must be developed from all its sides.