Military Review

The love of the pope for sprees has resulted in a century of cruel wars

20
Exactly 500 years ago, the Reformation began, splitting the Catholic Church and becoming one of the most important events in stories Of Europe. For the Reformation stretched a long series of bloody conflicts that radically changed the entire Western world. Russia located in the east had a chance to play its own role in this, and from a very unexpected side.


The love of the pope for sprees has resulted in a century of cruel wars


It is well known that the Reformation was started by the Augustinian monk Martin Luther with the spread of “95 theses”, which, according to legend, he nailed to the gate of the church in Wittenberg. The historical truth is somewhat more boring than this beautiful image — Luther sent his theses aimed at “cleansing” the Church (as the theologian himself understood it), to the Bishop of Brandenburg and the Archbishop of Mainz.

Five hundred years later, when speaking of the theology of Luther, historians usually point out his protest against indulgences as a “mercantile component”. But Luther refuted the theological principles by which the issuance of papers on the “absolution” became possible, and the authority of the Pope, and the authority of the Church itself.

However, talking about the Reformation should not begin with Luther, who took his theological ideas not from the “ceiling”, but from 1379, when Oxford professor and theologian John Wyclif wrote essays that the absolute power and authority of the pope does not correspond to the spirit of the Gospel, and people should save their souls not with the help of the Church, but with the help of the Bible. That is why he translated the New Testament into English, and three years later reached the sacraments of the Church. In particular, speaking against the dogma of the transfiguration of the gifts, according to which the bread and wine during the sacrament are transformed into the body and blood of Jesus Christ.

Twenty years later these ideas and compositions inspired the Czech priest Jan Hus, who became the leader of the national liberation uprising. Despite the fact that, in the end, Gus was burnt as a heretic, his ideas proved to be very tenacious, and the Czech resentment of the pope eventually led to the nominally Catholic Czech Republic being the most atheistic country in Europe.

As for Luther’s “enlightenment”, the most important factor was that he was a member of the Augustinian order. It was Blessed Augustine who once laid the foundations of the “doctrine of predestination,” diminishing the factor of free will of man — as a result, this doctrine became one of the main ones in Protestantism. Paradoxically, the same Augustine laid the foundations of Catholicism, setting the prerequisites for the "filioque" - the dogma of the Trinity, which in 1054 divided the single Christian Church into Catholics and Orthodox.

But back to Luther. Another “point of no return” was the visit of a young preacher to Rome in 1511. Contemporaries claim that he "was shocked by the mores of the clergy reigning in Rome." But you need to understand who exactly then headed the Catholics. It was Pope Julius II - a person, frankly, an outstanding, fully devoted himself to politics and the centralization of power. It is to him that the Vatican owes its corps to the Swiss Guards, who in the times of Julius II were a full-fledged papal army. The pontiff did not hesitate to command this army personally, being directly present on the battlefields.

These worldly affairs did not in the best way affect the moral character of the clergy. In addition, the political intrigues and military campaigns of Julius II demanded money, and he earned money, bestowing everything with new tribute to "church peasants and the land," including in Luther's homeland.

In 1513, Julius II died, becoming the first father, whose body was embalmed. Leo X ascended the throne, he was Giovanni Medici - a pontiff, who had no holy dignity before being elected. It was an even more odious person than his warlike predecessor. In fact, Leo X behaved like a purely secular ruler with an irrepressible burden of entertainment. Balls, theaters, orgies and other “dear to the heart of the pontiff” joy took on such a scale that soon the treasury of Rome was completely devastated. According to some reports, the new pope spent twice as much in a year as the income of the Roman Church. The tribute in her favor was constantly growing, but the waste on the papal throne lacked that.

In October, 1517, Leo X, issued a bullet for the sale of indulgences in order to “assist in the construction of the church of Sts. Peter and the salvation of the souls of Christendom. " This world-famous cathedral was erected back in 1506, but the Pope, as already said, managed to squander all the resources. It’s hard not to see a kind of irony. In due time, Christ told the Apostle Peter: “And I’m saying a verb to you, Thou art the Peter, and on this stone I will build My church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against it.” In practice, it was precisely because of the construction of the main temple in honor of its “main” apostle that the Catholics underwent one of the largest schisms in their history.

Luther’s cup of patience was overwhelmed by the fact that the “excessive holiness” of Catholic saints, which accumulates in the Church, was declared the basis for a commercial approach to sins. For its part, the Church can “distribute” this “excessive holiness” to everyone who wishes so that they, for example, do not fall into purgatory. In parallel, Leo X approved the creation of Catholic banks, which, among other things, gave money to grow. In general, the degree of hypocrisy was so high that Luther could not remain silent.

Together with the indulgences, he “threw out” from dogmacy both the very understanding of Christian holiness, and the veneration of icons, and the church hierarchy, and the mystery of sacraments, leaving sola Scriptura - “only Scripture” and a fair share of anti-Semitism, but this is another story.

The Reformation led to the Thirty Years' War, to global upheavals in Europe, to cardinal changes in the Western world, as well as to the counter-reformation with its most severe persecutions against Protestants. And Russia played a rather interesting role in this.

The first Lutherans came to the Russian kingdom as German prisoners. Already in 1550, Ivan the Terrible turned to the Danish king to send him a book printer. The choice fell on Hans Bockbinder, who brought with him not only the Bible, but also books describing Lutheran theology. So the first Lutheran-Orthodox dialogue on religion was held. Another thing is that the Russian clergy did not appreciate the Lutheran dogma, and Maxim Grek wrote a treatise “Against Lutherans - a word about the worship of the Holy Icons” on this occasion.

He did not appreciate the teachings of the former Augustinian monk and the Patriarch of Constantinople Joasaph II, to whom the Lutheran delegation arrived in 1573. However, the hierarch of the Ecumenical Church evaded controversy, asking no longer to write him about the doctrine, but to write "about friendship."

Despite the rejection of Lutheranism by the Orthodox, Ivan the Terrible gave the go-ahead for the construction of the first Lutheran church in Russia, and by the end of the reign of Mikhail Romanov, there were already more than 1,000 Lutheran families in Moscow.

Many researchers note that under Ivan the Terrible, under Boris Godunov, and with the first Romanov Protestants, Russia lived better than in any other European country.

It is necessary to make a reservation that the Lutherans, on pain of death, were forbidden to missionaries among the Orthodox and to convert them to their faith. But the history of the Reformation and the Lutheran - this is including part of the history of Russia, so the present anniversary for our country is not quite a stranger.

The dialogue between the Lutherans of various denominations (such is the fate of the Protestant churches - to constantly break up into newer and newer trends) continues to this day. The Orthodox do not shy away from such discussions either. It is clear that between “Russians” and “Germans” (at one time these words were used in Russia as synonymous with Orthodox and Lutherans) there is a huge amount of canonical and dogmatic disagreements, but nothing prevents them from conducting a dialogue, for example, in the social or cultural sphere. And even hope for more.

“Usually, when Lutherans talk about attempts at interchurch dialogue with Orthodox churches, first of all they recall the words of Luther himself, said at the 1519 Leipzig dispute about the“ Greek Christians of the past millennium, who were not under the authority of the Roman high priest, ”the Lutheran and Lancer specialist told the newspaper LOOK History of Lutheranism Viktor Sukhotin. - The first attempts at contact with Orthodoxy were made during the life of Luther through the community of the Venetian Greeks, but were unsuccessful. In the 1559 year, a year before his death, the successor of Luther, Philip Melanchthon, passed through Orthodox deacon Dimitri to Wittenberg a letter to Patriarch of Constantinople Joasaph II “The Magnificent” to Wittenberg. There was no reaction from Constantinople, and the next contact between the churches took place only in 1573. Despite the failure of that correspondence, it was of great importance both for Lutheran and Orthodox dogma - and neither among the Orthodox, nor the Lutherans, leading the interchurch dialogue today, the position of the patriarch and the Tübingen theologians is not considered the final gap between the churches. ”
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  1. ImPerts
    ImPerts 4 November 2017 15: 36
    +5
    The history of religion and the history of wars are inextricably linked. And even more so, Catholics and reformers. And delving into the history of the spread of Catholicism and reformism, you often recall the joke about the fact that such people cannot forbid picking their nose.
    1. Cat
      Cat 4 November 2017 16: 02
      +5
      There is a good book "Sacred Nativity Scene", the author has forgotten. There, about almost all the Roman high priests on the throne of St. Peter. The book with a delicate sense of humor is distinguished by special authenticity and cognitiveness of Western culture.
      1. polpot
        polpot 4 November 2017 17: 32
        +4
        Leo Taxil is the author of satirical books on church subjects. Now, for well-known reasons, the little-published author of the USSR often published
      2. Servla
        Servla 5 November 2017 17: 54
        0
        For those interested - wrote this book by French publicist Leo Taxil
        1. Ehanatone
          Ehanatone 24 March 2019 07: 22
          0
          Once, quite by accident, I bought the book of the biography of the Prophet Muhammad, quite humorous and ironic, but at the same time approved, it seems, by the Soviet Muftis council, the author is a woman, and Russian ...
          Then it was lost (it seems was stolen and destroyed) and my attempts to find it did not bring success - of course, where there if the search engine gets three million links to a request about the life of the Prophet Muhammad! ...
          Can someone tell me what kind of book this is, published back in the USSR!?
    2. Pravodel
      Pravodel 20 January 2018 18: 09
      0
      Protestants greatly assisted the Orthodox Church in protecting compatriots of the Orthodox in the lands of the Commonwealth, where a fierce policy of oppression of both Orthodox and Protestants was carried out. The unity of the Orthodox and Protestants was one of those forces that helped preserve Orthodoxy in Little and White Russia. If this were not the case, it is possible that the Poles completely destroyed Orthodoxy and massacred all the Orthodox in the lands of the Commonwealth.

      "People-State-Fatherland"
      - this is the slogan of every Russian patriot. A strong state, a close-knit people, prospering for centuries, the Fatherland, which can not be defeated either by internal or external enemies.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 4 November 2017 15: 53
    +4
    The love of the pope for sprees has resulted in a century of cruel wars
    ... Catholics and Protestants cut each other with great pleasure .. In a verbal argument, truth was not born ...
    1. Vladislav 73
      Vladislav 73 5 November 2017 13: 14
      +4
      Quote: parusnik
      ... Catholics and Protestants cut each other with great pleasure .. In a verbal argument, truth was not born ...

      That's for sure! Take only prominent figures of the Reformation, for example, Jean Calvin, nicknamed the “Geneva Pope.” In Geneva, bonfires blazed with enviable regularity, the Spanish thinker and physician Miguel Servet became the most famous victim of it. And what is the English Reformation under Henry VIII a followed by the Counter-Reformation with his daughter Maria Tudor, when the Protestants of the Catholics first sent those Protestants to the bonfire, and then the Catholics? And of course, how the apotheosis of religious wars is the Thirty Years War. And the Protestants and Catholics have not ascertained the truth poured into verbal disputes, and affirmed the torture in the basement and on the scaffold, where the bundle of all "ideological" opponents and those, and others ...
  3. Horseman without a head
    Horseman without a head 4 November 2017 16: 20
    15
    Pope's love of revelry

    If only for revelry wassat
    I read somewhere that the popess once found herself in the Vatican
    1. ImPerts
      ImPerts 4 November 2017 16: 33
      +2
      Quote: The Headless Horseman
      I read somewhere that the popess once found herself in the Vatican

      Papess John.
      ... Two years, five months and four days were ruled by the papess, who was named John VIII. It would have continued if she had not become pregnant. During the procession in the streets of Rome, the popess began giving birth. Outraged and furious by such a deception, the crowd dragged John along the pavement and stoned her and the child with stones. According to legend, a plate was placed at the place of their death with the inscription: “Petre, Pater Patrum, Papissae Prodito Partum” (“Oh, Peter, Father of the Fathers, expose the birth of a son with a papess”) ...
      ... After the death of John in the 857 year in the Vatican, a tradition appeared: during the election of a new pope to do sexual examination. To do this, the pontiff was seated on a chair with a hole and, in the presence of several people, they checked whether he was a man. Confirmation became the words: “Mas nobis dominus est” (“We have a man as our Lord”). Only in the 16 century did Pope Leo X cancel this procedure ...

      Source: http://www.kulturologia.ru/blogs/050316/28687/
      1. Town Hall
        Town Hall 4 November 2017 16: 45
        +2
        Quote: ImPerts
        Papess John.
        ... Two years, five months and four days were ruled by the papess, who was named John VIII.



        This is a historical bike ...
        1. Cat
          Cat 4 November 2017 17: 11
          +4
          Oh well? Again offended feelings of lovers of the great Rome!
          I want to disappoint you, sowing a proclamation is true. The rite also took place.
          In fact, the “rot” of the papal throne is full not only of tricky cases and jokes, but also of a sea of ​​real and correct stories from which the hair stands on end
      2. Weyland
        Weyland 4 November 2017 17: 32
        +1
        Quote: ImPerts
        Mas nobis dominus est

        I heard that the wording was shorter and tougher: Testatus est! (Testicles available!). The term "testing" seems to be from here.
        1. ImPerts
          ImPerts 5 November 2017 08: 17
          0
          Quote: Weyland
          Testatus est!

          Possible.
          Perhaps this phrase was said by the inspector for the members of the commission, and
          "Mas nobis dominus est"

          pronounced for the conclave, i.e. of all laughing
          We don’t know how exactly all this was done, anyway I hi
    2. Weyland
      Weyland 4 November 2017 17: 29
      +2
      Quote: The Headless Horseman
      I read somewhere that the popess once found herself in the Vatican

      It was over 600 years before Luther. The then popes generally annealed to their full height - John the 12th became a pope, EMNIP, at 19 (because he was the son of the previous pope and grandson of the previous one!), Drank Satan's health, raised toasts in honor of Bacchus and Venus, ordained bishops in the stable - until the husband of his next mistress caught him “at the crime scene” and inflicted multiple injuries of varying severity, which led to a lethal end
  4. venaya
    venaya 4 November 2017 16: 43
    +2
    .. what between the "Russians" and the "Germans" (at one time these words were used in Russia as synonyms of Orthodox and Lutherans)

    Indeed, in those years the difference was both religious and language. It is Martin Luther who is considered the founder of the German language, before him there was no German language and written language before, after all, almost everyone spoke Russian there, for example, the very same Rurikovich had sailed from there to Staraya Ladoga.
    .. with 1379 yearswhen Oxford professor and theologian John Wycliffe. .. that's why he translated the New Testament into English,

    I would also like to read this same "New Testament" in the original language, because then there was no plain English either, and the Bibles have not been found anywhere before the 1917th century. And Orthodoxy itself is also woeful, because in those days they called the followers of the Vedic religions such as the "Drevlyans" (Druids in the West), as for example among the Sumerians and others. And this newly made Christian church of the Greek version was also called Orthodox, and up to XNUMX. These are such things, in all articles there are standard blots, I can not even decide to blame only this author, many are unfortunately not accurate.
  5. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 4 November 2017 17: 40
    0
    A muddy topic .. Without access to the archives, you can only nod your head in one direction or another ..)
    1. Antares
      Antares 6 November 2017 11: 33
      0
      Quote: Razvedka_Boem
      Without access to the archives, you can only nod your head in one direction or another ..

      Vatican Archives open since 1924 (restrictions there)
      On the official website you can also find information regarding the procedure for access to archival documents. For direct access to archival materials, you must fill out a card. To do this, you need to provide the Secretary with the following documents:
      1. A request for access to documents in the name of the prefect, in which you declare information about the applicant (name, address, nationality) as well as a scientific degree and motivation for the study.
      2. A letter from a historical research institute or an accredited specialist in the historical field (preferably with a professor’s degree) is recommended.
      3. A document confirming the degree for the laity and the license for the clergy.
      4. A copy of an identity document and one photograph.
      It is forbidden to bring in the back archives: bags, briefcases, computers, ballpoint and fountain pens, cameras and food products. All these things are stored in special lockers. Mobile phones must be turned off.
      The archive itself is a storehouse of documents, in a single copy and representing invaluable value to humanity. After the libraries of Alexandria, Constantinople, Athens, Rome, etc. were burned, few documents from different eras were collected. Unfortunately, the era of the ancient world was burned in the above libraries.
      1. Razvedka_Boem
        Razvedka_Boem 6 November 2017 16: 31
        0
        Vatican Archives open since 1924 (restrictions there)

        Limitations ..)
        And if you are deeply interested in the Vatican Bank .. It may be harmful to health.
  6. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 4 November 2017 21: 18
    0
    To the author.Alexander! When you write Russia, you mean a single space surrounded by a stable connection, transport highways. Was this happened 500 years ago, more likely no than yes.