Military Review

The tale of the scientist Archimedes, which cost the whole army

The tale of the scientist Archimedes, which cost the whole army
Domenico Fetti. Archimedes ponders. 1620 year. Picture from the Old Masters Gallery, Dresden.

Edward Wimon. Death of Archimedes. 1820-s.

Archimedes Tomb in Syracuse.

Ortigia Island, historical center of Syracuse, the hometown of Archimedes. At these shores, Archimedes burned and sank Roman galleys.

Greek theater in Syracuse.

Archimedes overturns the earth with a lever. Old engraving. 1824 year.

The ball inscribed in the cylinder. The author of the illustration is Andre Karvas.

Archimedes' image on the Fields gold medal - the highest award among mathematicians. The inscription in Latin: "Transire suum pectus mundoque potiri" - "Surpass your human limitations and conquer the universe."

Each new tale of the writer and astrophysicist, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences Nikolai Nikolaevich Gorkavoy (Nick. Gorkavoy) is a story about how important discoveries were made in a particular field of science. And it is no coincidence that the princesses of Dzintara and her children Galatea and Andrei became the heroes of his popular science novels and fairy tales, because they are from the breed of those who want to “know everything”. The stories told by Dzintara to the children are included in the Star Vitamin collection. It turned out to be so interesting that readers demanded a continuation. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with some of the tales from the future collection "Creators of the Times." Before you - the first publication.

The greatest scientist of the ancient world, the ancient Greek mathematician, physicist and engineer Archimedes (287 — 212 BC) was from Syracuse, a Greek colony on the largest island of the Mediterranean, Sicily. The ancient Greeks, the creators of European culture, settled there almost three thousand years ago - in the VIII century BC, and by the time Archimedes was born, Syracuse was a thriving cultural city where its philosophers and scientists, poets and orators lived.

The stone houses of the townspeople surrounded the palace of Tsar Syracuse Hieron II, high walls protected the city from enemies. Residents liked to gather in stadiums where runners and discus throwers competed, and in bathhouses, where they didn’t just wash, but relax and exchange the news.

That day in the baths on the main square of the city was noisy - laughter, screams, splash of water. Young people swam in a large pool, and people of respectable age, holding silver goblets of wine in their hands, led a leisurely conversation in comfortable boxes. The sun peered into the courtyard of the baths, illuminating the opening of the door leading to a separate room. In it, in a small pool, similar to a bath, a man sat alone, who behaved quite differently from the others. Archimedes - and it was he who - closed his eyes, but for some elusive signs it was obvious that this man was not sleeping, but was thinking intensely. In recent weeks, the scientist was so deep in his thoughts that he often forgot even about food and had to keep his family home so that he would not go hungry.

It began with the fact that Tsar Hieron II invited Archimedes to his palace, poured him the best wine, asked about health, and then showed the gold crown made for the ruler by the court jeweler.

“I don't understand jewelry, but I understand people,” Hieron said. - And I think that the jeweler is deceiving me.

The king took a bar of gold from the table.

“I gave him the exact same bar, and he made a crown of it.” The weight of the crown and the ingot is the same, my servant checked it. But I do not leave doubts, is not silver mixed into the crown? You, Archimedes, the greatest scientist of Syracuse, and I ask you to check it out, because if the king puts on a fake crown, even street boys will laugh at him ...

The ruler extended the crown and ingot to Archimedes with the words:

- If you answer my question, you will keep the gold for yourself, but I will still be your debtor.

Archimedes took the crown and an ingot of gold, left the royal palace and since then has lost peace and sleep. Well, if he can not solve this problem, then no one can. Indeed, Archimedes was the most famous scientist of Syracuse, he studied in Alexandria, was friends with the head of the Library of Alexandria, the mathematician, astronomer and geographer Eratosthenes and other great thinkers of Greece. Archimedes was famous for his many discoveries in mathematics and geometry, laid the foundations of mechanics, on his account several outstanding inventions.

The puzzled scientist came home, put the crown and ingot on the scales, lifted them in the middle and made sure that the weight of both objects was the same: the bowls swayed at the same level. The density of pure gold was known to Archimedes, the density of the crown (weight divided by volume) was to be known. If there is silver in the crown, its density should be less than the density of gold. And since the weights of the crown and the ingot coincide, then the volume of the fake crown must be greater than the volume of the gold ingot. The volume of the ingot can be measured, but how to determine the volume of the crown, in which so many complicated teeth and petals? This problem tormented the scientist. He was an excellent geometer, for example, he solved a difficult task - determining the area and volume of the ball and the cylinder described around it, but how to find the volume of a complex-shaped body? We need a fundamentally new solution.

Archimedes came to the bath to wash off the dust of the hot day and refresh his head tired of thinking. Ordinary people, bathing in a bath, could chat and chew figs, while Archimedes did not leave the thoughts about the unsolved task day or night. His brain was looking for a solution, clinging to any clue.

Archimedes took off his tunic, put it on the bench and went to the small pool. The water splashed in it three fingers below the edge. When the scientist plunged into the water, her level rose markedly, and the first wave even splashed out onto the marble floor. The scientist closed his eyes, enjoying the pleasant coolness. Thoughts about the volume of the crown habitually spin in your head.

Suddenly Archimedes felt that something important had happened, but he could not understand what. He opened his eyes in annoyance. From the side of the large pool came the voices and someone's heated debate - it seems about the last law of the ruler of Syracuse. Archimedes froze, trying to realize what did happen? He looked around: the water in the pool did not reach the edge with just one finger, and when he entered the water, its level was lower.

Archimedes got up and left the pool. When the water calmed down, she was again three fingers below the edge. The scientist climbed into the pool again - the water obediently rose. Archimedes quickly estimated the size of the basin, calculated its area, then multiplied by the change in water level. It turned out that the volume of water displaced by his body is equal to the volume of the body, if we assume that the densities of water and the human body are almost the same and each cubic decimeter, or cube of water with a side of ten centimeters, can be equated to a kilogram of the scientist’s weight. But when immersed, the body of Archimedes lost weight and swam in the water. Somehow, in a mysterious way, the water displaced by the body took the weight from him ...

Archimedes realized that he was on the right track - and the inspiration carried him on his mighty wings. Is it possible to apply the found law on the volume of the displaced fluid to the corona? Of course! It is necessary to lower the crown into the water, measure the increase in the volume of liquid, and then compare it with the volume of water displaced by the gold ingot. Problem solved!

According to the legend, Archimedes, with a triumphant cry “Eureka!”, Which means “Found!” In Greek, jumped out of the pool and, forgetting to put on a tunic, rushed home. It was necessary to urgently check your decision! He ran through the city, and the people of Syracuse waved their hands in greeting. Still, it is not every day that the most important law of hydrostatics is opened, and it is not every day that you can see a naked person running through the central square of Syracuse.

The next day, the king reported on the arrival of Archimedes.

“I solved the problem,” said the scientist. - The crown is really a lot of silver.

“How did you know that?” - the ruler asked.

- Yesterday, in the baths, I guessed that the body, which is immersed in a pool of water, displaces a volume of fluid equal to the volume of the body itself, and at the same time loses weight. After returning home, I conducted many experiments with the scales, immersed in water, and proved that the body loses in weight as much as the liquid it displaces. Therefore, a person can swim, and a gold bar - no, but still in the water, it weighs less.

“And how does this prove the presence of silver in my crown?” - asked the king.

“They brought a vat of water,” Archimedes asked and took out the scales. While the servants dragged the vat to the royal chambers, Archimedes put a crown and an ingot on the scales. They balanced each other.

- If there is silver in the crown, then the volume of the crown is larger than the volume of the ingot. So, when immersed in water, the crown will lose more weight and the scales will change their position, ”said Archimedes and carefully placed both scales in the water. The cup with the crown immediately rose up.

- You are truly a great scientist! Cried the king. “Now I can order a new crown for myself and check whether it is real or not.”

Archimedes hid a grin in his beard: he understood that the law revealed by him the day before was much more valuable than a thousand gold crowns.

Archimedes' law remained in history forever, it is used in the design of any ships. Hundreds of thousands of ships plow the oceans, seas and rivers, and each of them rests on the surface of the water thanks to the strength discovered by Archimedes.

When Archimedes grew old, his measured studies in science ended unexpectedly, however, as well as the quiet life of citizens, the rapidly growing Roman Empire decided to conquer the fertile island of Sicily.

In 212 BC a huge fleet of galleys packed with Roman warriors approached the island. The advantage in the power of the Romans was obvious, and the commander fleet I had no doubt that Syracuse would be captured very quickly. But there it was: as soon as the galleys approached the city, powerful catapults hit the walls. They threw heavy stones so precisely that the galleys of the invaders scattered into chips.

The Roman commander did not lose his head and commanded the captains of his fleet:

- Go to the very walls of the city! At close range, the catapult will not be terrible to us, and archers will be able to shoot precisely.

When the fleet with losses broke through to the city walls and prepared to storm it, the Romans were in for a new surprise: now light throwing machines threw a hail of nuclei at them. The descended hooks of powerful cranes hitched Roman galleys with their noses and lifted them into the air. Galleys turned, fell down and sank.

The famous historian of antiquity, Polybius, wrote about the storming of Syracuse: "The Romans could have quickly taken possession of the city if someone had withdrawn one elder from the ranks of the Syracusans." This old man was Archimedes, who designed throwing machines and powerful cranes to protect the city.

Rapid capture of Syracuse did not work, and the Roman commander gave the command to retreat. The heavily thinned fleet moved to a safe distance. The city steadfastly held on thanks to the engineering genius of Archimedes and the courage of the townspeople. The scouts told the Roman commander the name of the scientist who created such an unapproachable defense. The commander decided that after victory, Archimedes should be acquired as the most valuable military trophy, because he alone was worth the whole army!

Day after day, month after month, the men were on duty on the walls, shot from bows, and charged the catapult with heavy stones, which, alas, did not reach the goal. The boys brought water and food to the soldiers, but they were not allowed to fight - they are still small!

Archimedes was old, he, like children, could not shoot a bow as far as young and strong men, but he had a powerful brain. Archimedes gathered the boys and asked them, pointing at the enemy galleys:

- Want to destroy the Roman fleet?

- We are ready, tell what to do!

The wise old man explained that he would have to work hard. He told each boy to take a large brass plate from the already prepared foot and place it on flat stone slabs.

- Each of you should polish the sheet so that it shines in the sun like gold. And then tomorrow I will show you how to sink the Roman galleys. Work, friends! The better you polish copper today, the easier it will be for us to fight tomorrow.

- And we ourselves will fight? - asked the little curly little boy.

“Yes,” Archimedes said firmly, “tomorrow you will all be on the battlefield on a par with the warriors.” Each of you will be able to accomplish the feat, and then legends and songs will be added about you.

It is difficult to describe the enthusiasm that swept the boys after the speech of Archimedes, and they energetically set about cracking their brass plates.

The next day, at noon, the sun burned hot in the sky, and the Roman fleet stood still anchored in the outer roadstead. The wooden sides of the enemy galleys warmed up in the sun and oozed with resin, which was used to protect ships from leakage.

On the walls of Syracuse, where enemy arrows did not reach, dozens of teenagers gathered. In front of each of them stood a wooden shield with a polished brass plate. The shield supports were made so that the sheet of copper could be easily turned and tilted.

“We will check now how well you polished the copper,” Archimedes said to them. - I hope everyone knows how to let the sunbeams?

Archimedes approached the little curly little boy and said:

- Catch the sun with your mirror and direct the sunbeam into the middle of the large black galleys, just below the mast.

The boy rushed to follow the instructions, and the warriors who crowded on the walls looked at each other in surprise: what else did the sly Archimedes do?

The scientist was satisfied with the result - a light spot appeared on the side of the black galley. Then he turned to the rest of the teenagers:

- Place your mirrors in the same place!

Wooden poles creaked, copper sheets rattled - a flock of sunbeams ran to the black gallery, and her side began to fill with bright light. The Romans poured onto the galleys' decks - what is happening? The commander-in-chief came out and also stared at the glittering mirrors on the walls of the besieged city. The gods of Olympus, what else did these stubborn Syracusans come up with?

Archimedes instructed his army:

- Keep your eyes on the sunbeams - let them be sent to one place all the time.

Less than a minute later, as from a glowing spot on the side of a black galley, smoke poured down.

- Water, water! - shouted the Romans. Someone rushed to scoop outboard water, but the smoke quickly gave way to flame. Dry, tarred wood burned beautifully!

- Move the mirror to the next gallera on the right! - Archimedes commanded.

Minutes - and the next galley also took fire. The Roman naval commander came out of his stupor and ordered him to anchor in order to move away from the walls of the accursed city with his main defender Archimedes.

Losing anchors, landing paddlers on oars, deploying huge ships and taking them to sea to a safe distance is not a quick deal. While the Romans bustled about the decks, choking on the suffocating smoke, the young Syracusans were transferring mirrors to new ships. In the confusion, the galleys approached each other so closely that the fire spread from one ship to another. Hurrying to sail, some ships deployed the sails, which, as it turned out, were burning no worse than the tar walls.

Soon the battle was over. In the roadstead, many Roman ships were burning down, and the remains of the fleet retreated from the walls of the city. There was no loss among the young army of Archimedes.

- Glory to the great Archimedes! Shouted the enraptured inhabitants of Syracuse and thanked and hugged their children. The mighty warrior in brilliant armor shook the curly boy's hand tightly. His small palm was covered with bloody blisters and abrasions from polishing the copper sheet, but he didn’t even wince at the handshake.

- Well done! Said the warrior respectfully. - The Syracusans will remember this day for a long time.

Two thousand years have passed, and this day remains in history, and not only the Syracusans remembered it. Residents of different countries know an amazing story about the burning of Roman galleys by Archimedes, but he alone would not have done anything without his young assistants. By the way, most recently, already in the twentieth century of our era, scientists conducted experiments that confirmed the full working capacity of the ancient "super-weapon" invented by Archimedes to protect Syracuse from invaders. Although there are historians who consider it a legend ...

- Eh, sorry, I was not there! - exclaimed Galatea, attentively listening with her brother to the evening tale, which her mother, Princess Dzintar, told them. She continued to read the book:

- Having lost hope to seize the city with weapons, the Roman commander resorted to the old proven method - bribing. He found traitors in the city, and Syracuse fell. The Romans broke into the city.

- Find me Archimedes! - commanded the commander. But the soldiers, intoxicated with victory, did not understand well what he wanted from them. They broke into houses, robbed and killed. One of the warriors ran to the square where Archimedes worked, drawing a complex geometric figure on the sand. Soldiers shoes trampled fragile pattern.

- Do not touch my drawings! Said Archimedes menacingly.

The Roman did not recognize the scientist and in anger struck him with a sword. So this great man died.

Archimedes' fame was so great that his books were often rewritten, thanks to which a number of works survived to our time, despite the fires and wars of two millennia. The history of Archimedes' books that have come down to us was often dramatic. It is known that in the XIII century, some ignorant monk took the book of Archimedes, written on durable parchment, and washed away the formulas of the great scientist to get blank pages for recording prayers. Centuries passed, and this prayer book fell into the hands of other scholars. With the help of a strong magnifying glass they explored its pages and distinguished traces of the erased precious text of Archimedes. The book of the brilliant scientist was restored and printed in large quantities. Now she will never disappear.

Archimedes was a real genius who made many discoveries and inventions. He has outstripped his companions not even by centuries - by millennia.

In the book “Psammitus, or Calculus of Sand Grains,” Archimedes recounted the bold theory of Aristarchus of Samos, according to which the great Sun is located in the center of the world. Archimedes wrote: “Aristarchus of Samos ... believes that the fixed stars and the Sun do not change their place in space, that the Earth moves in a circle around the Sun located in its center ...” Archimedes considered Samioi’s heliocentric theory convincing and used it to estimate the size sphere of fixed stars. The scientist even built a planetarium, or “celestial sphere”, where one could observe the movement of five planets, the sunrise and the moon, its phases and eclipses.

The rule of lever, which Archimedes discovered, became the basis of all mechanics. And although the lever was known before Archimedes, he expounded his complete theory and successfully applied it in practice. In Syracuse, he single-handedly launched the new king-of-deck ship of the king of Syracuse, using an ingenious system of blocks and levers. It was then, appreciating the full power of his invention, Archimedes exclaimed: "Give me a fulcrum, and I will turn the world around."

Archimedes' achievements in the field of mathematics, which, according to Plutarch, was simply obsessed, are invaluable. His main mathematical discoveries relate to mathematical analysis, where the scientist's ideas formed the basis of integral and differential calculus. Of great importance for the development of mathematics was the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter calculated by Archimedes. Archimedes gave an approximation for the number π (Archimedean number):

The scientist considered his work in the field of geometry to be his highest achievement, and, above all, the calculation of a ball inscribed in a cylinder.

- What kind of cylinder and ball? Asked Galatea. “Why was he so proud of them?”

- Archimedes was able to show that the area and volume of the sphere refer to the area and volume of the described cylinder as 2: 3.

Dzintar rose and removed from the shelf a model of the globe, which was sealed inside a transparent cylinder so that it touched it at the poles and at the equator.

- I have loved this geometric toy since childhood. Look, the area of ​​the ball is equal to the area of ​​four circles of the same radius or side area of ​​a transparent cylinder. If you add the area of ​​the base and the top of the cylinder, then it turns out that the area of ​​the cylinder is one and a half times the area of ​​the ball inside it. The same relationship holds for cylinder and ball volumes.

Archimedes was delighted with the result. He knew how to appreciate the beauty of geometric shapes and mathematical formulas - that is why it is not a catapult and a burning galley that decorates his grave, but an image of a ball inscribed in a cylinder. Such was the desire of the great scientist.
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  1. Cat
    Cat 5 November 2017 06: 35 New
    Respect to the author, but do the Romans have galleys?
    In 212 BC a huge fleet of galleys packed with Roman warriors approached the island.

    If we describe the events from the Greeks of Syracuse, then apparently we are talking about triremes or quinquires. If from Rome, then about triremes or penthers.
    Galleys are then, after three centuries!
    1. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 5 November 2017 10: 53 New
      The mathematician proved that oars can only be in one row, two and three rows are not realistic.
      1. Cat
        Cat 5 November 2017 12: 33 New
        The mathematician apparently did not read Plutarch and Aristotle. He studied only the works of Diogenes and Socrates. The only trouble is that they are all about "mathematics" which will prove that ships that sail outside their window are not possible. Due to the "mathematician" textbook on sopromat!
        The trouble with Mr. Oparyshev is that, apart from the ancient Greek and Roman scientists, modern Greeks did not know about mathematics. Which in the 80s took and built a trireme, with three rows of oars! And they proved that multi-row ships were and sailed, and at a speed of up to 9 knots per hour. Watch and learn.
        The project "Olympia".
        1. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 5 November 2017 13: 53 New
          I have already grown up (unlike you) for a long time from puppy pants and it’s not difficult for me to imagine that piece of wood from which you can cut the oar of the 3rd row of a large ship. Only to turn such a log, I can’t imagine how. It should withstand the weight of the load and this does not break. But tell me the amiable weight of such an oar?
          1. Cat
            Cat 5 November 2017 14: 52 New
            All Mr. Oparyshev, killed me - a question! Socrates read in the original source and apparently felt "smart."
            Okay, I’ll answer specifically for uncles who haven’t yet, but already go to “panties”.
            The only regret is that I am not in the village where I have a pine trunk 1.2 m in diameter and 15 meters long. Just for the photo with the caption "log for the paddle Ogaryshev Zygite".
            Now on the topic:
            The rowers of the upper row of the Greek trireme were called transits, in the row up to 31 oars (4.5 m long and weighing up to 10.5 kg, the middle and lower (rowers zygites and talamites, respectively) had up to 27 or 28 oars in a row, from 4 m to 4,3 in length. XNUMX m. The weight is naturally lighter than that of the oars of the upper row. A feature of the upper row is the takeaway offboard, like sports boats. The heaviest oars were steering gears. The weight reached the center and more. Look out at the street and look at the pole! About this And the triarch was controlled by two! And now remember the rules of leverage and pharmacists s scales. Rope uklyucheny made in the center of gravity so that the row they were much easier than it seems.

            And now, I propose to recall the "rule of leverage" and the paddle is not trireme, but Parma or rowing frigate. How do you like the oar, which is turned over by 8 people? Well, or the Chusovskaya iron barge with a 10 meter oar.
            1. Settlement Oparyshev
              Settlement Oparyshev 5 November 2017 15: 15 New
              In the photo, the oars were in two rows, still where it went.
              From your numbers, not everything is clear. The length of the oars of each level is the same, the difference in the removal of oarlocks. The height of the deck of the first level is approximately how much? A meter and a half? Plus the height of the deck of the second level, another one and a half meters, this is three meters. And still need the length of the oarlock , to the last rower and also plus the immersion length of the oar itself. The length extends noticeably longer than 4.5 meters. I don’t know which shoulder is harder for the oarsmen or the oars themselves, but the weight of half the oar is not small and the two are hardly able to work with it. Captain Blued, paddle control four. Moreover, if one died, the remaining three turned over without losing rhythm. So, the height of the third deck, min. from water: 1m-1.5m from water and each deck 1.5m. 4.-4.5 m, this is min .And the oar then enters the water at an angle, count the side of the triangle, I can’t get it anymore. We get the length of the oar from the oarlock to the water. The height above the water is 1m to the first deck, it could be used for inland seas, and going out to the Ocean, you need to raise the first deck, so that the ocean waves do not overflow the deck and fill the hold. On the oar oars should be quite huge .Schitayu, that we will not possess the actual calculations, although the ancestors were smarter than us.
              1. Cat
                Cat 5 November 2017 18: 22 New

                Catch my predictable friend!
                Mustache in the pictures! Like in first grade
                1. Seal
                  Seal 5 November 2017 19: 20 New
                  Rave. Drawings of a man who does not understand anything in shipbuilding. Particularly ridiculous are the non-resting legs of the rowers laughing
                  1. Cat
                    Cat 5 November 2017 20: 30 New
                    On the replica of the Olympia trireme, a 7 × 5cm bar was used to stop the legs. If you hope that they will draw it on a schematic drawing? what
                2. Settlement Oparyshev
                  Settlement Oparyshev 5 November 2017 22: 49 New
                  Weight distribution and stress plots. A better effort on the levers. That usually four of you rowed your wells one row. You are our storyteller.
            2. brn521
              brn521 7 November 2017 09: 43 New
              Quote: Kotischa
              The heaviest oars of the trireme were steering. Weight reached the center and more.

              It’s not paddles at all, but horseradish attached to the body. They do not row, but only slightly turn around the axis.
        2. Seal
          Seal 5 November 2017 19: 38 New
          Quote: Kotischa
          The project "Olympia".

          To begin with, how it was built. Initially, they decided to build on the "antique" technologies using the "antique" tools and materials. Figs, it didn’t work out. Mr. Coates himself reports this with bribing innocence a couple of lines below (hereinafter from an article that includes Coates' direct speech).
          We found that the long trireme body had to withstand tensile and bending stresses that were close to the ultimate for wooden structures. Such a hull did not have a deck that would serve as the upper pulling element, and thereby prevent the keel from sagging in the middle and possibly breaking it in half. Flax ropes (the so-called hyposomats) were tightly pulled along the entire vessel along the triremes, which were then further twisted to increase tension in order to reduce tensile stresses along the upper edges of the hull. During experiments on a small model of the ship, we found that such ropes under a constant load sag and suddenly break, so instead of them it was decided to use ropes made of artificial fiber. Due to lack of time, we were not able to solve some problems that arose when using such ropes on a full-size model, so we temporarily used steel cables (!!! - RR).

          Out!!! Even on the "small model" the ropes they break, and they have to be replaced by much stronger nylon or polypropylene. But there are also “problems” with them (and, therefore, these are also torn), they don’t have enough time, you know - five years fully armed with the computer age and 700 sponsorship bucks, and they, without hesitation, replace them with steel ones !! ! Just think, what a trifle, isn't it?

          Everything, you can not read further, do not criticize, do not discuss - the author has carved himself, so much so that not a single critic, a new chronologist, will be better able. If someone even after this intends to defend “honor and dignity” with trireme, penther, septyr, decer and others, and so on, I don’t know what kind of person to treat, what medicines to prescribe.

          A mixed crew of volunteers aboard Olympia. The rowers are located a short distance from each other. The rowers are sitting on fixed, leather-covered benches. The oars are made of Oregon pine.

          So, gentlemen, the oars on the "ancient Greek" ship are made of Oregon pine. The question is, why was it so trifling? They would make it right away from reinforced plastic. Or they just borrowed paddles for rowing in a sports club.

          On my own behalf (Seal) I can add that the port authorities allowed this ship to go into the sea with a wave of no more than two points, and then accompanied by a rescue tug.
          And further. (Again not mine, but I certainly agree).
          In fact, the Olympia went to sea only a few times, including once to complete one of the stages of the Olympic flame delivery in 2004, when the Olympic Games were held in Greece. A team of 170 rowers was trained in advance for this ceremony.
          This case was used by English physiologists to measure the possible swimming speed and energy consumption of rowers. It turned out that developing a speed of 7,6 kilometers per hour for any length of time is all that modern athletes are capable of. Metabolism is on the verge of possible. The maximum speed achieved in these experiments, 16,7 kilometers per hour, rowers could only support less than a minute.Are the ancient Greeks so much more powerful than the modern ones? ... Moreover, the average growth of the ancient Greeks was about 168 centimeters, and the growth of modern world-class rowers is 190 centimeters and above.
          And the climax:
          Physiologists do not even exclude that their metabolism was different, more active.
          Then I almost had a tantrum! "Yes there were people in our time!" (c)
          1. Cat
            Cat 5 November 2017 21: 02 New
            Five years ago, I had a desire to remember my childhood and I asked for suffering. By the principle of preamid, five work colleagues have already asked for me. So I was faced with the fact that, physically weaker than my friends, in two days I restored my skills of a scythe and did not stay from the owners. Of my friends, only Olezhka, a native of the village, kept pace. The other four died in the first three hours. Of these, only one did not have a sports category, and one was at one time a student of the Olympics! So the skill and subtleties of the craft mean a lot. Rowing is also necessary skillfully.
            Even Tur Heyrdal, by his sea voyages, proved one simple truth, we yield knowledge in practice to our ancestors.
            If for you a revelation that oars are made of soft pine, then for me it is a common truth. By the way, my grandfather didn’t have enough hands for the oar from dyalitza. So in our case, computers will not help when creating a replica. Why? All just the Greeks did not have them.
            1. Settlement Oparyshev
              Settlement Oparyshev 5 November 2017 22: 46 New
              Here it is you in a puddle ....... li. People already poke your nose at your verbiage. You have fallen like chickens in a pinch. Congratulations. You can not read it already.
              1. Cat
                Cat 6 November 2017 08: 47 New
                On your profile picture just you yourself are sitting in a puddle, with the flag of the adversary. What do not give on diapers tugriks! wassat
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 5 November 2017 11: 15 New
      Quote: Kotischa
      Respect to the author, but do the Romans have galleys?

      Quote: Kotischa
      Galleys are then, after three centuries!

      Gallera is a warship, using mainly oars for moving.
      In the narrow sense of the word, galleys were known from the Middle Ages characteristic sailing and rowing ships of the MEDITERRANEAN basin with one row of oars and one or two masts carrying Latin sailing weapons, which subsequently became widespread throughout Europe. Meanwhile, by analogy with them GALLERS in the broad sense it is customary to call ALL SIMILAR rowing and sailing-rowing warships of THIS REGION, known in it from ANCIENT times and having undoubted GENETIC CONNECTION with the GALLERS originating from them MORE LATE. tongue
      1. Cat
        Cat 5 November 2017 12: 56 New
        Allegory is our everything! If it’s a big battleship, it’s even possible to drandout. If with an oar, then a galley. And if there is a big gun then a monitor.
        If we write fairy tales for adults, little things sometimes matter.
    3. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 5 November 2017 11: 30 New
      Quote: Kotischa
      from the Greeks of Syracuse, then apparently we are talking about triremes or quinquires

      Undoubtedly, triremes were quite common in beautiful fellow the ancient period ... but are you sure that under Syracuse there were no unirems and biremes? what
      1. Cat
        Cat 5 November 2017 12: 50 New
        Then afracts are open (deckless) single-row ships and even cartographic facts (ships with a deck) are possible.
        Plutarch is credited with creating Archimedes the creation of the largest ship in the Mediterranean - the six-row Syracuse. A number of sources suggest that he had a two-case scheme. Three people sat on the oars of the upper (third) row. The base of the oar was filled with lead.
        1. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 5 November 2017 15: 18 New
          I believe that several centuries ago, all such measurements were noticeably more modest.
    4. Seal
      Seal 5 November 2017 19: 18 New
      triremes or quinquirems. If from Rome, then about triremes or penthers.

      And all these "remy" are not a scientific fantasy at all.
      Here it is

      the fantasies of the ignoramus writing science fiction literature on historical topics !!!
      Read the professionals. For example, the captain of the first rank G. Kostylev "Military-historical Hochma". There is on the Internet.
      1. Cat
        Cat 5 November 2017 21: 36 New
        And what is it in your drawing?
        As not even a specialist, I’ll tell you - this miracle-yudo the whale fish will not swim! Before you pickle paper, read the sources. Start at least with Odessa Homer and perhaps learn to distinguish between grains and chaff.
        1. Wonder Yudo with keel! The Greeks and Romans did not swim at night, they tried to pull the ships to land. Naturally, their keel ships did not.
        2. The location of the rowers on a miracle is linearly elevated! All ancient authors mention that the rowers were staggered, that is, in the diagonally elevated arrangement of the rowers. Moreover, in the frontal section, they are also located one above the other with offset.
        3. Takeaway is off the top row, for a false side? Yes, even under the deck! Drink vitamins !!!
        Neither the Romans nor the Greeks mention more than three rows. Everywhere and always three types of rowers. It is more likely that two or three people sit on the upper ranks, which gave the name to the penthers. Moreover, the latest excavations of the Elings in Piraeus confirm the increase in the width of the ships while maintaining its length.
        Last: the rank of captain of the first rank does not tell me anything. Let it go read Socrates!
        1. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 6 November 2017 08: 52 New
          In front of the galleys, they made a huge canine, which broke the sides of the enemy. The canine was a continuation of the keel. And where does it get to shore? Didn’t you beguile anything ?.
          1. Cat
            Cat 6 November 2017 12: 21 New
            You are absolutely right on the Mediterranean gallery from the 13th century doing a “fang” in French “spinach”! Only it was on the galleys, not the triremes. Unlike the latter, who were armed with oblique Latin Prussians and had a keel.

            Regarding the nature of the coastal sailing of Greek ships, I practically mention all the authors from Xenophon to Virgil. Moreover, archaeological excavations of the Elings in Thebes, in Piraeus and other cities of Elada confirm the version that in peacetime the military ships of the Greeks were stored on land. Moreover, in Greece, drags and parking lots were preserved. Yes, just read Homer, there is a mustache.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 5 November 2017 07: 30 New
    Hieron had a crown
    And suddenly Hieron thought
    That that crown is not golden
    And he called Archimedes
    Archimedes, Archimedes, Archimedes
    Always victory, always victory!
    Our Archimedes, our Archimedes, our Archimedes
    Everything knows how to give an answer!
    We will not give up our native land,
    None of us are cowards!
    Ships go by sea
    On the attack of Syracuse
    And we openly say:
    "Our Archimedes is unique"
    And we are not afraid of Rome!
    Do not get tired, plan, drank,
    Carry Beam Beam
    We will not give up our native land
    Favorite Syracuse
    We directly say to the enemy:
    "Our Archimedes is unique"
    And we are not afraid of Rome
    1. Cat
      Cat 5 November 2017 14: 55 New
      Well, if you believe the sources, then Geron himself put all the money on the wrong horse!
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 5 November 2017 20: 51 New

      Yes ... Oh, this ARCHIMEDE!
  3. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 5 November 2017 07: 34 New
    Tales, tales, tales ... winked But we are presented with this for truth what
    Personally, I still agree that the things described in fairy tales were actually, but I strongly doubt that these things happened exactly as described in fairy tales yes
    Almost all of our history is a fairy tale ... request
    1. ICT
      ICT 5 November 2017 08: 44 New
      Quote: Rurikovich
      Tales, tales, tales ..

      I personally did not understand the meaning of the article, there is a normal fairy tale about fellow travelers lol

      there are attempts to verify the myth
      1. ImPerts
        ImPerts 5 November 2017 09: 16 New
        The cartoon was remembered immediately, as well as the program "I want to know everything" laughing
        1. kush62
          kush62 5 November 2017 11: 22 New
          ImPertz Today, 09:16 ↑ New
          The cartoon was remembered immediately, as well as the program "I want to know everything"

          The same thing, the cartoon immediately remembered.
          But “I Want to Know Everything” was a newsreel before films in movie theaters.
          1. ImPerts
            ImPerts 5 November 2017 13: 19 New
            They also showed on TV.
      2. Skay
        Skay 5 November 2017 20: 33 New
        That's just a week ago with the children watched this cartoon! Children are thrilled! Five times reviewed!
  4. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 5 November 2017 11: 43 New
    And the FAQ about the steam "gun" Archimedes did not mention? request By the way, a little more is known about the Ent tool, more than the Archimedean "lighter"; and therefore, attempts to "reconstruct" this antique "wunderwafel" have still not stopped! That's just ... from which side did not fit .... only zilch and it turned out! negative
    1. Cat
      Cat 5 November 2017 12: 59 New
      Only one Archimedean infinite screw would be enough to glorify his name for centuries!
  5. sabakina
    sabakina 5 November 2017 12: 33 New
    It seems to me that Archimedes was Russian.
    1. ImPerts
      ImPerts 5 November 2017 13: 53 New
      Quote: sabakina
      It seems to me that Archimedes was Russian.

      Let's not take the palm from dill.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 5 November 2017 14: 29 New
        Quote: ImPerts
        Let's not take the palm from dill.

        Duc, how do you take them away? recourse They build a fence and dig a ditch! what
    2. venaya
      venaya 5 November 2017 14: 28 New
      Quote: sabakina
      It seems to me that Archimedes was Russian.

      Once that part of the continent where he lived was also Rus, and they say that he wrote in a dialect of the Russian language. By the way, even today's Greek linguists assure that even the modern Greek language has evolved mainly from Russian, there are too many connections.
    3. Luga
      Luga 5 November 2017 16: 40 New
      Quote: sabakina
      It seems to me that Archimedes was Russian.

      Woke up famously ...
      Quote: venaya
      Once that part of the continent where he lived was also Rus, and they say that he wrote in a dialect of the Russian language.
      sabakina, are you serious or so, mock?
      If the second, then I join and put forward a hypothesis of the origin of the name Archimedes. Archimedes = ArChemVed
      Ar - "army", that is, "military"
      Chem - understandably, a “chemist”, in the sense of a lover of “kidding”, that is, doing something dangerous, cunning, incomprehensible to others.
      Vedas - well, it’s clear from the word “knows”, that is, “knows”.
      The result is Archimedes - versed in military tricks. As an option - "Arch-Vedas", that is, knowledgeable. Also suitable. In any case, stopudovo, Russian.
      laughing laughing laughing
      According to the article. Karel Chapek has the story "The Death of Archimedes." It is short and easy to find. So, it seems to me that the version of the death of Archimedes, presented in it, is closer to the truth than the version of a violent soldier who did not know who he had actually killed.
    4. ver_
      ver_ 6 November 2017 03: 52 New
      ... they were ancient Ukrainians ...
  6. Antares
    Antares 5 November 2017 14: 25 New
    It is known that in the XNUMXth century some ignorant monk took the book of Archimedes, written on strong parchment, and washed away the formulas of the great scientist to get clean pages for recording prayers.

    Oh, these believers with their faiths! Why do they destroy the achievements of the human mind for millennia?
    The center of the scientific world under Archimedes was Egypt. Greek scholars studied there, gained experience from the Egyptians. Then the center moved to Athens, then Rome / Constantinople and everywhere religious barbarians overtook them! Library of Alexandria .. Burned by Christians for the first time. Then the Muslims. Both of Constantinople successfully both ... in general, here Christianity and Islam fought with similar progress.
  7. EvilLion
    EvilLion 5 November 2017 14: 30 New
    The task of determining the density, or rather the volume of the crown, is, of course, the button accordion, but where does the scale come from? We take a container of water of a known volume, place a bar of gold, note the change in water level, place the crown, again note, with the difference we execute the master. Why weigh something?
  8. ver_
    ver_ 5 November 2017 17: 01 New
    Quote: sabakina
    It seems to me that Archimedes was Russian.

    ..a beautiful fairy tale .. Rome was founded by the brothers George and Yaroslav - the sons of Vsevolod in the early 13th century ..
  9. Okhtinsky
    Okhtinsky 5 November 2017 17: 33 New
    Luzhsky, do not deceive people.
    Quote: Luga
    Ar - "army", that is, "military"
    This is not true! You are right about ArChemVeda, but you have not guessed about the syllable Ar. Ar - this is not related to the army. No need to be smart! Everything is clear right there - ar - this is ar! It only means that Archimedes had at least one hundred square meters in his possession near Saratov, like a true Russian!
  10. Antares
    Antares 6 November 2017 11: 15 New
    There is an old legend claiming that Archimedes helped the Tsar discover fraud on the part of the Tsarist jewelry master who undertook to make the Tsar’s golden crown. The master received for this purpose a certain amount of gold. However, he decided not to put all the gold in the crown, but partially replace it with silver, and appropriate the rest of the gold. Archimedes dropping the crown into the water and measuring the displaced amount of water, thereby measured the volume of the crown. Knowing the density of gold, he received the specific gravity of the gold present in the crown - it turned out to be less than it was given. Thus, Archimedes convicted the tsarist master of deceit. However, the legend says that Archimedes accurately said exactly how much the master concealed gold. But according to the data that Archimedes had at his disposal, he could not say this at all. He really could record the fact of theft, but could not determine the quantitative component of theft.
    In fact, only in a few alloys does the resulting volume equal the sum of the volumes of the metals included in it. The alloy of gold and silver just does not apply to such alloys. And in this case, the volume of the alloy obtained will be LESS than the sum of the volumes of gold and silver included in it. That is, the density of the gold-silver alloy is MORE than the density calculated simply by the rules of mixing. Therefore, the amount of stolen gold calculated by Archimedes was less than in reality