An army without modern weapons and equipment can only rely on the heroism of soldiers and officers. But one cannot win a war on him. In the Russian army, the number of new military facilities exceeded 60 percent. How the rearmament was completed in just a few years, Deputy Defense Minister of the Russian Federation Yury Borisov told the Military Industrial Courier.
- Yuri Ivanovich, in November 2012 you took up the duties of Deputy Minister of Defense. For five years, together with the leadership of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, we have been resolving issues related to the supply of the latest weapons systems, modernization of equipment, re-equipment of the army and fleet, implementation of the state defense order, are responsible for interaction with the defense industry. If you sum up some of the results of this period of your work, what is the main thing?
- It would have been impossible to achieve any results if, under the leadership of the Minister of Defense, it was not possible to select a good team aimed at solving the problems that we then faced. I am responsible for the issues of equipping the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation with military and special equipment, with modern models in the first place. The main activity in this matter is built in accordance with the May decrees of the Supreme Commander from 2012, when the Armed Forces were assigned specific tasks related to serious reform in providing them with weapons and equipment, by the end of the program period - 2020. The activities were implemented through the State Armaments Program (LG), which has been operating for almost seven years already, since 2011.
- One of the innovations that has been introduced into the practice and daily activities of the troops is full life cycle contracts. How did they prove themselves?
- To begin with, it makes sense to say about some general indicators that were achieved in the five years of the SAP. First of all, for the first time, the optimal amount of financial support for LG was maintained. We may have received less money, but basically the financing plan was executed, especially the first five-year plan. Of course, no country is immune from various economic cataclysms, crisis situations, they happen. Nevertheless, the main indicators are maintained.
I will cite a few examples that speak about the dynamic development of the State Armaments Program and its results. Firstly, the annual amount of funding for the state defense order has increased by 2011 compared to 2,1 in the year. The supply of weapons - in 3,2 times. Secondly, if in 2011 – 2012, we had a lot of complaints regarding the volume of contracted activities and obligations on the part of the industry (then approximately 95% of orders were contracted and about 87% were planned), then in the last two or three years these figures significantly above. Today we contract almost 100 percent of the planned activities. At the same time the performance of the state defense order is 97 percent.
- Is it a lot or a little and is it not connected to some extent with errors in the work of the department, as well as executive discipline?
- An error of three percent can always be present. It is also related to objective circumstances, although there is no limit to perfection. Together with industry, we are working on this in order to reduce to zero, for example, receivables. The situation when the money for the products paid, but it is not received. And we are rightly criticized. And since we have the largest budget among all the ministries, the volume of overdue payables looks very impressive. Today, it is less than two percent - no comparison with what was seven years ago.
The troops received hundreds of samples of various aircraft, military aircraft, army helicopters aviation, 122 strategic missile systems, over 100 ballistic missiles for nuclear submarines, three SSBNs, one multipurpose and over 10 diesel submarines, 10 brigade sets of the RK Iskander ... The whole list is very long. The army has really changed dramatically over the past time, and we hope that by the end of 2017 we will go out to provide the RF Armed Forces with modern weapons and military hardware at an indicator of at least 60 percent for troops on constant alert. It looks very worthy. It is believed that if the level of modern weapons and military hardware is less than 50 percent, there are problems in the army. We, I think, have already overcome these crisis phenomena and will try not to return to the starting positions we were in 2012 anymore.
- The Ministry of Defense has become a good tradition to spend days of military acceptance, to publicly announce the results of the receipt of VVST in the troops. This is certainly impressive and speaks of close cooperation with the military-industrial complex, the good work of military representatives. But a few years ago there was a question about the existence of a military acceptance as such. Someone thought that she was not needed. Is this issue resolved?
- History military missions dating back to the eighteenth century. During the reign of Peter I, special services were formed, who looked at the manufacture of the necessary ammunition and equipment for the Russian army. Not us it is invented. The need for measures for the acceptance of military equipment is confirmed by many years of practice.
Taken in 2010 – 2011, the policy of sharply reducing the UE did not justify itself. We had to restore the position of military missions. Judge for yourself. By the end of 2012, the number of IDPs was 12 thousand instead of the established 26 thousand people. This service has been reduced by more than half and was doomed to extinction. By the decision of the Minister of Defense, the necessary measures were taken to raise the status of its workers, and we will continue this work. There is something to think about. Today, the average salary of civilian personnel of the EaP is lower than in the Quality Control Department at industrial enterprises. This is not normal, it is necessary to align. I am also convinced that the most experienced and competent officers who have combat experience should always be sent to the Interim Government. Therefore, with the staffing table has yet to work.
If we talk about improving the quality of the AME, I will give these figures. In 2012, we had one claim for 10 warranty products, and in 2016, we already had 14. This says, I repeat, about improving the work of military acceptance, in general, of military missions. But they accompany the work not only on the state defense order, but also on export, some civil areas.
- Is this confirmed by combat experience? How did the domestic equipment and weapons in the Middle East?
- The Syrian conflict has become a serious ground for testing the characteristics of weapons, especially new ones. The combat situation, coupled with difficult climatic conditions, tests equipment for durability as no state tests on ordinary army training grounds. Therefore, almost all new samples, we try to pass through the operation in the CAP. In this case, organized close work with industry representatives. They are located in Hmeimim, have their own repair teams, which allow, if necessary, to make the necessary adjustments to the design of the VVST, analyze and "take to the pencil" all the flaws and comments on the operation. Work there goes, as they say, from the wheels. Immediately make all the necessary changes.
Moreover, the Syrian conflict gave us a very good practice in organizing the maintenance of equipment, accompanying its life cycle. The level of serviceability of weapons and military equipment in Syria is even higher than the average for the Armed Forces, which indicates the responsibility of the defense industry for its products. Although, as you understand, the hot spot is located several thousand kilometers away and enterprises need to deliver spare parts, stand equipment, and have qualified personnel. All this is clearly organized, we received an excellent experience in the logistics of maintenance and repair work. And now we know well how to build this work.
With regard to ensuring the life cycle of the VVST, let me remind you: this is one of the first management decisions of the Minister of Defense, which was taken in December 2012. Then we just started to fulfill our responsibilities in the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation, analyzed the organization of the case in this area and realized that the structure itself had to be changed. Until that time, all repair and service works with the VVST were the prerogative of the repair plants of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. There were more than 130 with a staff of more than 30 thousand people - a mini-branch! The equipment became more and more difficult, and in order to provide for its serious repair, especially modernization, it was necessary to constantly update production assets. A vicious circle: they need to be developed, renewing the fleet of equipment, which by and large is an unusual feature for the Ministry of Defense, which should engage in combat training, ensure the combat capability of the army and navy. Therefore, the decision to transfer these assets to the industry has become extremely important and timely. But it entailed another thing as well - the transition to the maintenance of equipment during the entire life cycle. It was decided to carry out all minor repairs and service work of low complexity on their own — by repair teams that had to be recreated almost anew. And difficult repair - at the enterprises of the industry. Therefore, the equipment, which is produced in factories, is immediately put on service control and serviced by them at all stages of the life cycle, up to disposal.
I will not hide, the process is quite painful. But this is not only the Russian experience. All leading armies of the world profess such principles for ensuring the performance of the VVST. They went over to this for quite a long time - around 10 years, including the Pentagon and the Bundeswehr. We walked carefully, through six pilot projects, before we worked out the necessary regulatory framework, service and repair documentation, appropriate infrastructure. It took the transfer of industry to several other rails, although, as you understand, not every enterprise is interested in repairing. The release of final products is considered more cost-effective. However, with the reduction of the GOZ (and this is an objective process), service and repair, and the release of spare parts are becoming a serious source for replenishing the package of orders for the defense-industrial complex. Far-sighted leaders can not understand this. In their factories, the fall of the GOZ will not be reflected in any way.
- Between the Ministry of Defense and the defense industry in the beginning of the 2010-x were, as we remember, also the “price wars”. No manufacturer of VVST will operate at a loss on the orders of the military department. How did you solve the problem?
- Understand, the customer and the performer are two antagonists. So the system is arranged. We, as customers, want to get more services and higher quality equipment for less money, and the industry will benefit more from these orders and ensure a comfortable life.
Each side, I repeat, has its own interests. But if the interaction is a one-time, as in the bazaar, it is one thing, and when it is long-term, it is quite another. The Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and the defense industrial complex are objectively interested in long-term cooperation. It is in the general interest that the industry be able to develop and update fixed assets, to create better and more reliable products at the expense of profits from our orders. So that a highly qualified shift comes to the enterprises, and the remuneration of labor is worthy.
If all these factors are matched, then constructive relationships are built.
The initiative was made by Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu in December 2012. At that time, there were a lot of critical issues between the defense industry and the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation. The industry and the customer simply did not conduct a dialogue, the situation was simply in a stalemate. For example, in Syria, the Tu-214Р showed itself at its best. But in 2012, the situation with him was this: the contract was made, the money was transferred, but there was no product. Fines and claims to the industry - about five billion rubles - all this is in the courts.
Formally, the same Tupolev PJSC and Kazan Aviation Plant could be bankrupt, having such facts in hand. But would the Ministry of Defense, the Armed Forces as a whole, benefit from this? Not. Kazan plant in our country is one that develops, builds, maintains and modernizes all long-range aircraft. Therefore, the leadership of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation had to look for other extraordinary solutions. And after a while it gave the result, allowed to establish a dialogue with the industry, to achieve timely deliveries.
Unfortunately, it is not always possible to build relationships amicably. We take seriously all the failures of the state defense order. Not a single fact is left unattended. We appeal to the courts. We fine negligent performers. There is an interdepartmental working commission on the review of disruptions of the state defense order, co-chaired by the deputy attorney general and your humble servant. At such commissions, glaring facts were repeatedly considered and appropriate decisions were made, including personnel. This work is hard but constructive, and it continues now. I hope the industry representatives are not mad at us.
- You probably already look into tomorrow and plan the LG-2025. What will it be?
- The LG determines the appearance of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, adequate to the conflicts that may threaten our country. This is the main document on the basis of which the army and navy develop, and this is already quite a long period. The security of the state really depends on the effective implementation of the LG.
Of course, the world is changing and the nature of conflicts, too. In addition, periodically there come revolutionary moments in the creation of technology. Say, fifth-generation combat aircraft systems come, new tank platforms. These processes are inevitable, and we must not only monitor them, but also timely respond to challenges in order to be competitive with the best armies in the world.
What are the features of the HPV-2025? In order to ensure the preset dynamics of the transformation of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, first of all, the continuity of measures is necessary. What we have outlined and are implementing today should be smoothly transferred to future weapons programs and implemented.
Of course, priorities change, but basically they coincide in the existing LG and LG-2025. Of primary importance is the development of strategic nuclear forces (SNF) as the main deterrent to possible aggression against Russia. We are certainly paying special attention to this area. Our nuclear missile shield must be reliable so that no one has even thought to try us for strength.
The nature of the fighting itself is also changing, as shown by the Syrian conflict, local wars of the last decades. Precision plays an increasingly important role. weapon. Therefore, our second priority is to expand the range of similar weapons.
The third priority is reconnaissance and information support for combat operations. And this is a space group, navigation, unmanned vehicles.
Of course, robotics will receive a new development, since the general trend is to conduct military operations without human intervention. And although the high-intelligence systems are still far away here, robots are already the norm of life.
I think that the future program period will be characterized by the introduction of fundamentally new types and systems of weapons. The hardships gained in this direction by leading defense industry enterprises make it possible to expect that by the 2025 – 2026 years there will be completely new types of weapons that will make major changes in the strategy and tactics of warfare.
- Recently, as part of the training of the SNF, Russia launched a rocket, which in the West was dubbed “Satan-2”. Why did she scare our western counterparts so much? Can we call it a prototype of the Sarmat rocket?
- In the West, our rocket is called “Satan”, and we respectfully call it “Voivode”. It was her version and was launched.
As for Sarmat, work on this strategic missile system is being conducted in a planned manner, by the end of 2017, we are planning the first throwing tests. This product has not flown yet, so various “plums” in the media are not about it.
Sarmat is a liquid intercontinental rocket that carries a fairly large amount of payload, has a launch range comparable to Voivode, but it takes less time to overcome the active part of the trajectory due to a very good energy. The missile defense system of a potential enemy will be much harder. It will be a good splinter for him.
- Are you satisfied with the process of modernization of the Tu-160 strategic bomber in KAPO?
- Kazan Aviation Plant of the end of 2012 of the year and today is heaven and earth. Then there were no prospects for the development of the enterprise at all. Although this is the only factory - the manufacturer of long-range aircraft, ensuring their repair and modernization. But the lack of orders led the company to bankruptcy. The workshops began to become empty, the amount of work inadmissibly fell, the people began to quit.
Decisions on the reproduction of the Tu-160 aircraft in a new guise gave KAPO a push. And after entering the mass production plant loading will increase multiply. If in 2012, it was about three or four billion rubles, it will grow tenfold in the short term. This is a serious help for Kazan, and for Tatarstan as a whole, and for us. We do not intend to lose the plant, as, indeed, other assets of the Ministry of Defense.
Ensuring the independence of our state is the most important task and money cannot be regretted on this. I would stress that we are not striving for an arms race, we are building our activities on the principle of reasonable sufficiency, as called for by the Supreme Commander, we are on the path of modernizing many samples of VVST, after which they acquire completely new TTX. Therefore, the sequestration of the military budget did not affect and will not affect the performance of the state defense order.