Military Review

Legendary Magnitogorsk: Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works

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The legendary Magnitogorsk was one of the title and iconic objects of the industry of the young Soviet Union. During the war years, the armor of the future Victory was forged here. Today, the modernized MMK is one of the largest metallurgical industries in the country and the world.


Legendary Magnitogorsk: Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works


1. Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works is located in the city of Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, on the eastern slope of the Southern Urals. From the 18th century, both Russian and foreign industrialists mined iron ore in the area of ​​Magnetic Mountain. True, until modern times the process was organized haphazardly and rather handicraft.



2. Plans for the construction of a large metallurgical plant originated at the beginning of the 20th century. However, they began to implement them in the Soviet state, whose industry was desperate for metal. MMK began to be built in 1929, the first blast furnace was launched in 1932.



3. The full cycle of metal production begins with the extraction of ore. One of the sources of raw materials for MMK is the Small Kuibas mine. The development of a new mine in the vicinity of Magnitogorsk began in the year 1973, after the volume of ore mining on Mount Magnitnaya decreased.



4. It is planned to mine up to 2023 million of iron ore per year in the Maly Kuibas open pit before 2,4. The depth of the mine reaches 180 meters.



5. Experts lay explosives. The depth of the wells exceeds 10 meters.



6. During record explosions, up to 97 tons of modern water-emulsion explosives are laid in the wells.



7. In addition to ore, crushed stone and building stone are mined here.



8. At the mine in a few shifts dozens of dump trucks. For time in the body 42 tons of rock are loaded. During the shift, the BelAZ driver “winds up” over 100 kilometers up and down the pit walls.



9. Over the years of the Small Kuibas, more than 80 million tons of ore was mined on it. Today, mine reserves are estimated at 17-18 million tons. When they run out, they plan to extract ore here in a closed way, for which they are now exploring super-deep horizons. According to some reports, ore underground can be up to 100 million tons.



10. Ore mined in a quarry is transported to the plant by rail.



11. Coke production. One of the key components of the process of smelting iron in blast furnaces is coke. This smokeless fuel of high quality is obtained during the processing of coal.



12. MMK has its own coke production. This is a battery of many coke columns. Before loading them, the coal is crushed and enriched, eliminating rock impurities. Each column is loaded with about 20 tons of enriched and moistened coal - the mixture.



13. Coke is produced at an infernal temperature of about 1100 degrees Celsius. The process of sintering coal particles occurs without air access.



14. Coke ovens "drown" secondary blast furnace gas. It is burned in the walls between the cells of the coke oven battery, heat is given to the brickwork of the walls and heats the coal masses.



15. "Coke pie" is baked on an 14-16 watch. The process of coking coal goes from the outer wall of the chamber to its center.



16. The process of unloading the finished coke from the furnace is quite bright and entertaining. The heated mass pushes a special device into the car. The coke pie crumbles into small pieces.



17. Unloaded coke immediately sent for cooling. It is either quenched with water jets or “dry” using nitrogen. Fragments of fuel at the same time are more durable.



18. Unloading chilled coke.



19. The coke particles are sorted and sent to the warehouse, where the fuel enters the metallurgical production. Today, the MMK coke production plant is the most powerful among the country's steel mills. 9 batteries can produce up to 6 million tons of coke per year.



20. In total, over the years of 85 production, the coke chemistry specialists of Magnitogorsk have produced more than 400 million tons of coke.



21. Simultaneously with the production of coke fuel, MMK also prepares raw materials. The “poor” ore coming from the quarry has a low iron concentration. Therefore, the ore is enriched: crushed, separated by a magnetic field. And so that too small fraction does not fly out of the blast furnace, the ore is sintered into larger pieces - agglomerate.



22. Blast shop. Outside the blast furnace looks like a multi-storey building entwined with pipes. It is in the blast furnace, by loading it with coke and ore agglomerate, that iron is produced - an alloy of iron with carbon and other elements. Cast iron was invented in China. In Russian, the word “cast iron” is of Chinese origin (from the hieroglyphs “pour” and “deed”). But the word "domna" the Old Slavic roots (from "dmenie" - blowing). The modern blast furnace principle in Europe has been used since the 15th century, and in Russia the first furnace appeared in the 17th century.



23. Coke and ore agglomerate are loaded into the blast furnace from above. Under the influence of heated hot air, the raw material is lowered and gradually turns into iron and slag. In this case, the heated combustible gases rise up and leave the blast furnace to heat the coke oven battery. Liquid iron is poured from the furnace into buckets and transported to workshops for further processing into steel.



24. The blast furnace is running continuously. It is stopped for a major overhaul of worn out elements every 10-20 years.



25. The height of the blast furnace reaches several dozen floors. Almost the entire furnace volume is occupied by the charge (a mixture of coke, ore and flux, this substance helps to separate rock and ash from the metal). The mixture from the bottom heats the oxygen-enriched air, heated to 1100 — 1400 degrees Celsius.



26. During 4-6 hours, the heated mixture travels from the top of the furnace to its lower part, the “hearth”, where the iron and slag are already in the molten state. More than one thousand tons of iron accumulates in the hearth with a layer up to an 1,7 meter. Release the melt through the refractory holes of the fly. For each new batch of pig iron, for analysis of the chemical content, a sample is sent to the express laboratory.



27. The operator monitors the process of smelting iron.



28. A special device punches the fly to release the cast iron from the furnace.



29. Cast iron is released from the furnace on average every 40 minutes. The molten metal flows through the gutter system through the entire foundry and enters the cast iron carts.



30. Gornova - one of the most important and crucial positions in the domain production. He observes the smelting process visually or instrumentally and in a timely manner releases cast iron and slag from the blast furnace.



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32. Liquid iron is poured into cast iron dishes - ladles or mixers - with capacities from 50 to 500 tons and taken by rail to steel production.



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34. The total length of pipelines through which compressed air, gases and other elements of production circulate at MMK is hundreds of kilometers.



35. Oxygen converter shop. Cast iron is turned into steel in the oxygen-converter shop. To make the metal less brittle and more plastic, cast iron is freed from excess impurities, oxidizing them with oxygen.



36. A converter furnace is a cylindrical vessel whose design allows it to rotate 360 degrees in any direction.



37. The converter is loaded with scrap metal and cast iron in a ratio of one to four. Cast iron to converter is poured from buckets. As scrap, scrap is used at MMK rolling shops and products of Vtorchermet.



38. It is warm in the oven.



39. The process of turning iron into steel is accompanied by red-hot fireworks.



40. At the neck of the inclined converter, the ladle with cast iron is raised using a bridge crane.



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42. The converter loaded with cast iron and scrap is plugged and purged. The reaction with oxygen is rather fleeting. Steel is ready in a quarter of an hour. At the very end, the “metal soup” is flavored with aluminum and ferroalloys, the additives increase the quality of the steel.



43. Slag forms on the surface of the melt. It is necessary to get rid of this “skin”.



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45. Steel is drained from the bottom of the converter. The slag temperature is lower than the steel temperature by 50 degrees, the difference is controlled by thermal sensors. The computer displays steel and slag in different contrasting colors. The operator, noticing the border, at the right time turns the converter so that the slag merges into another container.



46. Various characteristics of steel grades (strength, malleability, resistance to corrosion) are achieved with the help of additives: vanadium, nickel, etc. After the initial processing of steel, slabs are formed by continuous casting of steel into billets of various widths.



47. From the oxygen converter shop, slabs are sent to the rolling shops for further processing.



48. Mill-5000. Production of thick sheet. The hot-rolling plate mill 5000 is unique on a scale not only domestic but also world metallurgy. Designed to produce steel plates with widths up to 5 meters. Such steel is very much appreciated by manufacturers of large-diameter pipes, builders of ships, bridges and nuclear facilities.



49. The technological process on the mill-5000 is fully automated.



50. Before rolling, the slabs are heated in furnaces. Waterblast removes scale from warmed slabs. After that, the steel billet enters the crimping cage - the most powerful in the world, where the billet is compressed with a force 12,5 thousand tons.



51. The heating temperature of the workpiece during the rolling process varies depending on the steel grade and can reach 1300 degrees.



52. Installation of accelerated cooling. Maximum water consumption - 11 250 cubic meters per hour!



53. Inspection tables.



54. The presence of possible surface defects and compliance with the required geometric dimensions of rolled products is checked on the inspection table. The internal structure of the sheets is controlled by ultrasound systems.



55. One of the stages of the technological chain is a section for cutting steel.



56. The length of the entire camp exceeds one kilometer.



57. Finished steel sheets are supplied to machine-building, ship- and bridge-building companies, as well as to manufacturers of large-diameter pipes, which are then used in Russia's largest transport and energy projects.



58. Marking rolled products.



59. LPC-11. Cold-rolling mill complex-2000. Another production division of MMK is Sheet-Rolling Shop No. 11, the largest and most modern complex in Russia for the production of cold-rolled and galvanized steel. The complex includes a stan-2000 tandem combined with hydrochloric acid pickling lines, a hot-dip galvanizing unit 2, a combined annealing / galvanizing unit, an inspection unit, packaging lines.



60. Steel rolling comes to the galvanizing unit in rolls. They are unwound and welded to form a continuous web.



61. Steel strip is pickled, cut off the edges, and rolled to the desired thickness in the cold rolling mill.



62. Automated control station in LPC №11.



63. Continuous annealing and hot dip galvanizing unit. Coating thin-sheet cold-rolled steel from mild steel.



64. The galvanizing process is continuous, the metal first enters the drive, and then is heated in a furnace to 800 degrees.



65. The finished product is galvanized steel coils.



66. Galvanized metal is in demand by the automotive industry, construction industry enterprises, “white” engineering (manufacturers of household appliances), as well as manufacturers of packaging. Including outside of Russia.



67. MMK covers an area of ​​more than 11 thousand hectares.



68. The number of employees of MMK itself is about 18 thousand people.

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4 comments
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  1. NIKNN
    NIKNN 1 November 2017 21: 27
    +1
    Thank you for the interesting tour. good hi
  2. timgan777
    timgan777 7 November 2017 00: 06
    +1
    I like the city (I’ve been more than once) beautiful, although, like in all industrial cities, environmental problems
  3. opernach
    opernach 21 November 2017 20: 57
    0
    I work there, reconstruction 2500, etc. Further wink
  4. Aslan Ondabaev
    Aslan Ondabaev 15 May 2018 22: 41
    0
    Hello. please tell me, under what number is the steel shop numbered?