Military Review

100 years of Russian glory. Uniforms and equipment for infantry of the Russian Imperial Army

46



The infantryman of the Russian Imperial Army in 1914 was not inferior to its allies or opponents in the degree of equipment and weapons. Yes, there were some peculiarities, advantages and disadvantages. But to say that our infantry is inferior in all things to German or French there is at least silly. Why?

For example, the French form of the period did not contribute to the disguise of personnel. At the same time, one of the main innovations of the Russian army before the First World War was the introduction in 1907 of a new field uniform in khaki, a light olive green color.

However, this form after numerous washings and fading became almost white (like Comrade Sukhova from the movie “White Sun of the Desert”). This legacy of the Russian-Japanese war, which we took into account, and our allies, who in 1909-1911 also developed various types of protective color uniforms (the Boer “uniform, reseda form,“ Detai ”form), could not realize their achievements.

Despite the apparent simplicity and ease of uniforms and equipment of the infantryman of the Tsarist Army was designed and made properly with the arrangement.

In 1907, a new form was introduced for all ranks and types of troops.

It included a single-breasted coat (made of cotton for summer and woolen fabric for winter), trousers, knee-high boots and a cap with a visor.

Bloomers were sewn with the expectation of wearing them tucked into high boots, they were of a dark green "royal" color for infantry and other foot troops.

In the field, the most practical turned out to be khaki bloomers, which received universal recognition during the war.

Prior to 1912, private officers and non-commissioned officers were given virtually the same officer's uniform, but without outside pockets. The gymnast was universal, her ancestor was the Russian peasant shirt-shirt.

The form was complemented by high boots and a cap without a tab.

In cool weather, the personnel were dressed in overcoats, hats made of natural sheepskin or artificial astrakhan and a hood.

The officers wore a coat of gray-blue cloth, the other ranks - coats of coarse gray-brown wool. The overcoats were double-breasted, with turn-down collars, fastened on the right side with the help of hooks and loops.

For foot troops, the overcoats reached the middle of the shin, with a long slit at the back, thanks to which it was possible to tuck the floors of the overcoat in bad weather. Color valves (buttonholes) were sewn on the overcoats and overcoats, in some parts - with colored piping indicating the regiment and the type of troops. Since the overcoats were large, they had a special strap to fit on their backs. Subsequently, in combat conditions, the officers began to switch to the soldiers' overcoats so that they could draw less attention to their personalities.

The caps with a visor were mostly khaki in color, the front color was repainted green. The main color of the band was green.

In the guard and at the grenadiers, the band could have the color red, blue, white or dark green. A stamped cockade was fastened in front, in the center of the band. She had three kinds - for officers, non-commissioned officers and privates. Colors could be: orange, black and white. The militiamen carried a “militia cross” over the cockade. Badges were also fastened to the hats.

Total infantry equipment in the 1914 year included the following items:

1. Cap with cockade;
2. Cocktail with cockade;
3. Hood;
4. A walking shirt (woven cloth) of sample 1912;
5. Set of underwear;
6. Infantry cloth trousers sample 1912 g .;
7. The overcoat of the 1907 model of the year with shoulder straps and dark green buttonholes (could play the role of a bullet-proof vest in the roll, in any case it was quite possible to stop the fragment at the end of it);
8. Boots;
9. Footcloths.


Private RIA 1914 year. Reconstruction.


Equipment:

1. Duffel bag sample 1910 g. (Or 1914 g. According to the type of bag sample 1869 g. For the Turkestan linear battalions) or satchel;
2. Waist belt with a buckle;
3. Trouser belt;
4. Belt for rolling;
5. Two leather (or wooden) cartridge bags (in 1915, they started to give out one to save money);
6. Aluminum (or glass) flask with carrying case;
7. Sugar bag;
8. Bowler;
9. The chest cartridge belt for 30 cartridges (in 1914, leather, later rag);
10. Spare cartridge bag;
11. Camping tent (part);
12. Semi-rack for tents with pin and rope;
13. Case for shovel and shovel (Linneman small shovel or large shovel);
14. Bayonet with leather hanger;

The breast cartridge belt, as well as the overcoat in the roll, hung over the left shoulder. The overcoat, as already stated above, could serve as some protection, and the cartridge belt in a similar way facilitated reloading and left the right shoulder for the rifle butt (it was understood that the main majority in the army were right-handers).

Rusk bag could hang on the left and on the right side. It packed dry rations and part of the ammunition (cartridges in bulk).
In a duffel bag or satchel folded personal hygiene items, spare clothing, equipment for cleaning weapons. To the folded overcoat of the overcoat was attached a hood, a bowler hat and a 1 / 6 part of the tent and pegs.

In total on the fighter fastened the order of 26 kg. equipment Ammunition was from 80 to 120 ammo. And in the aftermath and more. Cartridges, this is such a thing, which is always lacking, so the fighters sought to take them with them as much as possible.



100 years of Russian glory. Uniforms and equipment for infantry of the Russian Imperial Army




Hiking equipment soldier RIA, 1914 year





Private member of a sapper company of the Brest-Litovsk fortress, 1914 year





Attaching a large sapper shovel and a view of the marching satchel



Infantry chest cartridge belt for rifle



Wooden belt cartridge bags



Leather Belt Cartridge Bags


The officers c 1912 g. Was introduced camping equipment on a brown belt, such as "Sam Brown", with two shoulder straps running parallel to the front and intersecting the back.


Officers RIA 1914-1915


A sword belt for swords was worn over the right shoulder, in the eastern manner. On the left belt there was a jack for the whistle, the holster was located on the belt to the right. A field bag and binoculars complemented the kit.

Part of the ammunition had to buy at their own expense. This applies, for example, service weapons, or binoculars. Officer knapsacks are usually fussed over in the train. If the officer was riding, his overcoat was attached to the saddle.

Subsequently, with the course of the war, the equipment changed. Somewhere along the path of simplification, making, for example, rag cartridge belts, where-before equipment was added, like Adrian's helmet. In any case, the Russian army was not alien to the technical and weapon innovations, but we'll talk about it next time.


We express our deep gratitude to the military-historical club "Rubezh" from the city of Brest and personally to Andrei Vorobei for the advice and materials provided.


Sources:
N. Cornish Russian Army 1914-1918
Archive of VIC "Rubezh" Brest
Author:
46 comments
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 1 November 2017 15: 12
    +9
    But to say that our infantry is inferior to the German or the French in everything is at least stupid.
    .. And where was this said or said? The memoirs of Soviet military leaders who began their glorious path in the tsarist army, the fighting qualities of infantry and cavalry, give a positive assessment, as well as uniforms and weapons ..
  2. Same lech
    Same lech 1 November 2017 15: 23
    +7
    I always liked the uniform of the soldier of the imperial army of 1914 ... simple and without frills ... everything is just the most necessary for everyday life.
  3. hohol95
    hohol95 1 November 2017 15: 52
    +5
    "The French army went to war in red pants for the sake of the profits of domestic paint producers."
    - The last French producer of red garans, Garant, went bankrupt at the end of the 19th century and the army was forced to buy chemical dye in ... Germany.
    In 1909-1911, the French army carried out extensive work on the development of protective color uniforms (“Boer” uniform, reseded uniform, “Detail” form).
    Its first and most vehement opponents were ... journalists and experts of the then media, who quickly set the public against the "degrading human dignity and the French spirit" of a protective uniform.
    Then populist parliamentarians, forever economical financiers and army conservatives joined in, and the initiative was buried until 1914, when they had to urgently extract Detai's gray-blue overcoats from warehouses, which, fortunately, were not written off, unlike their predecessors, khaki and resedy.

    Material by Dmitry Yakimovich - ARSENAL-COLLECTION JOURNAL 2012 No. 02
    "Red pants - this is France" - the phrase was uttered, and by none other than the Minister of War.
    Meet Eugene Etienne, never a general, but vice versa - a pure politician, a recognized leader of the French colonialists, a fierce supporter of the creation of a colonial empire in Africa. Due to the fact that French colonialism was the work of the military “to a degree slightly less than complete,” Etienne was familiar with the army, albeit in its “African version,” better than many of his colleagues — which turned out to be sufficient for him to occupy the post of Minister of War in six governments.
    And what is curious - looking from his "colonial bell tower" Etienne was right. The colonial army did not have to deal with regular European armies - but with representatives of the peoples, with great respect for the bright form and now. The French officer, communicating with the Africans - Tuareg, Arabs, Negroes - had to, only if he did not want to drop himself in their eyes - was dressed in all uniforms. With a possible exception regarding boots.
    And this worked in their favor - the same Tuareg recognized that French officers in dressing skills were second only to the "people of the veil." The camouflage form did not cause such respect - and in the end it turned out that yes, the "red pants" really worked for the image of France.
    With a small but sad exception - not on the Franco-German border.
  4. Monarchist
    Monarchist 1 November 2017 15: 57
    +6
    Quote: The same Lech
    I always liked the uniform of the soldier of the imperial army of 1914 ... simple and without frills ... everything is just the most necessary for everyday life.

    I agree with you: it was functional and beautiful in its own way.
  5. Yura Yakovlev
    Yura Yakovlev 1 November 2017 16: 14
    +8
    I remember that we were attracted to the shooting of the film "The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection." They gave out the uniform of junkers and officers, armed with Mosin rifles. There was no particular difference, with the exception of quality, between the pre-revolutionary form and the Soviet-style form, when the gymnast lived out her life, But there was some sense of continuity.
    1. igordok
      igordok 1 November 2017 17: 07
      +1
      Quote: Yura Yakovlev
      I remember that we were attracted to the shooting of the film "The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection."

      I did not find information about such a film. Can the film - "The angle of incidence" (1970)
      1. Yura Yakovlev
        Yura Yakovlev 1 November 2017 18: 50
        +1
        Quite possible. The film is about the revolution. The primary name was that, and then it may have been reduced. Filming was carried out in St. Petersburg, usually after 20 - 22 hours in the fall in the 70th year.
    2. Poppy
      Poppy 2 November 2017 11: 29
      0
      So where does the difference come from? Filmmakers Soviet gymnasts and took.
      It’s now that the reenactors are bothering with the quality of the material, and the filmmakers always only had a general appearance.
  6. Monarchist
    Monarchist 1 November 2017 16: 17
    +6
    Thanks to the authors for interesting and with good illustrations.
    It was new for me that the glass jars were still in the WWI, how much I had to talk with the front-line soldiers and EVERYTHING said that these jars were breathing because the "experimental batch" released before the war.
    Dear authors, let me correct you a little: “This applies, for example, to service weapons and barrels”: Russian officers were allowed to purchase the so-called “Browning 3” (Colt's own brother, model 1911) INSTEAD OF A TABLE Revolver, and from the officers during the PMV trophy pistols and allied weapons appeared. Fedoseev and the Beetle have this.
    1. Some kind of compote
      Some kind of compote 1 November 2017 16: 24
      16
      I have a glass jar
      From Stalingrad, the guys brought
      1. Poppy
        Poppy 2 November 2017 11: 29
        +1
        So this is Soviet already, were on a par with aluminum.
        1. Some kind of compote
          Some kind of compote 2 November 2017 19: 31
          15
          This is yes, Soviet
          Perfectly preserved, even the cork
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 1 November 2017 16: 25
      +3
      There were also - Wooden buckles arr. 1882/1885/1889

      In 1897, in connection with the introduction of new aluminum equipment, the buckles were no longer ordered by the Ministry of War, but continued to be used. Since initially no order to abolish the baklag was followed, this led to misunderstandings in some military districts. On this occasion, the quartermaster’s administration clarified that “the former baklag should be considered canceled and subject to withdrawal from use in the troops. But since the general exclusion of these things, which are still in the military intact reserves in significant quantities and in a completely new form, would cause significant treasury damage "then the aluminum flasks arriving at the warehouses were to gradually replace the buckles that were given out to the troops in urgent need.
      In 1912, the State Medical University, by its instruction, indicated the need to issue canceled wooden baklag to the full use of their stocks, as some military districts demanded the supply of aluminum flasks, while at the same time having a sufficient stock of baklag in the warehouse.
      With the outbreak of World War I, wooden buckwheels stored in warehouses were given to militias and replenishment sent to the front.
    3. hohol95
      hohol95 1 November 2017 16: 29
      +3
      Glass jars were first introduced in 1862 as an attempt to replace tin jars (manners) arr. 1851 year.
      The experiment was considered unsuccessful, and in 1868 it was decided "do not introduce glass jars."
      On August 31, 1914, glass jars were reintroduced into the equipment as "glass bottles (such as lemonade) braided by straw and sheathed in gray cloth, in the form of a cover with a braid." Later, glass jars began to be made in the shape of aluminum.
    4. Dzmicer
      Dzmicer 1 November 2017 16: 55
      +1
      But couldn’t officers themselves buy any service weapons at their own expense?
      1. sibiryouk
        sibiryouk 1 November 2017 17: 26
        +2
        The order determined several samples of pistols and revolvers, recommended instead of the full-time Nagan-Browning 1900, 1902, 1910. arr. also Luger R-08, later American Colts, out of order Mauser model96, etc.
        1. Looking for
          Looking for 3 November 2017 22: 35
          -1
          The number of the order or instruction. Otherwise, fiction.
        2. Ryazan87
          Ryazan87 12 December 2019 18: 44
          0
          "All G.G. Officers are allowed to:

          1) Have in the ranks and generally in the line of duty, when it is set to be with revolvers, revolvers and automatic pistols of the following systems: 3-line revolver arr. 1895, Browning cal guns. 9 mm., And pistols Borchardt-Luger (Parabellum) also 9 mm. Caliber, so that the release of ammunition for practical shooting officers continue to produce only for 3 lines. Revolvers arr. 1895 year.

          2) Carry a 'Savage' automatic pistol with you in and out of service.

          3) To carry with them out of action revolvers and pistols of the above systems and, in addition, Browning pistols of 1 and 2 samples of calibres 7,62 and 6,35 mm., Pistols of Mauser systems and the Steyersky plant cal. 6,35 mm, as well as new samples of automatic Browning pistols - 7, 65 and 9 mm. caliber (pocket type).

          Revolvers and pistols are acquired by officers with the permission of the commanders of units of troops and the heads of departments and institutions, and officers are certainly prohibited from transferring acquired revolvers and pistols to private individuals who do not have permission from the authorities to maintain such. In case of violation of this rule, officers are subject to legal liability. "(Order of the Military Department No. 74, 1907)
    5. Zug
      Zug 1 November 2017 19: 54
      +2
      I have such a flask — my brother found this year in the area of ​​Kisnyaselki — the green glass — went from the Finnish war there — on the tops of the shastali. I presented it to me for my birthday — they say it costs money, however — Original
      1. Dedall
        Dedall 4 November 2017 21: 25
        +1
        Young green! For your information, such a flask could be bought in sports shops even even in the years 80-82. The glass was either colorless or bottle-green, and on top were painted with gray paint. And I wore linen underwear with the stigma of 14 years old at a clothing store in Kyzyl-Arvat in 84.
        1. Zug
          Zug 5 November 2017 08: 40
          0
          I didn’t have it in stores, but I’ve dug it! -Value !! although ... like a companion found an aluminum-whole and although one already dangled on a belt, also a cop I didn’t give me a second, greedy! but from the three-line bayonet he gave, when I found-h with a serial!
  7. hohol95
    hohol95 1 November 2017 16: 28
    +2
    Glass jars were first introduced in 1862 as an attempt to replace tin jars (manners) arr. 1851 year. It was ordered to make 5ooo glass jars and "test in the Caucasian troops participating in expeditions and in the Orenburg troops on the Syr-Darya line. Send 4000 to the Caucasus and 1000 to Orenburg from glass jars." The experiment was found to be unsuccessful, and in 1868 it was decided not to introduce glass jars, and 5000 made jars were transferred to the ownership of the parts that tested them so that they did not use these jars with any equipment of the lower ranks, so how to scoop (water) a lid from a newly introduced pot can serve (meaning a pot sample 1862). " It was decided to leave the tin jars of the old type in the troops, right up to replacing them with iron bowlers arr. 1862 year. The flasks of the new sample had not been introduced by the beginning of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, and if the problem of “scooping” water was solved with the help of a pot lid, then during the campaign the soldier was left without a supply of water, since he did not have a standard aquifer in his equipment jars.
    Even before the start of the war, by the order of the Commander-in-Chief dated March 31, 1877, it was prescribed "to start now, with the economic means of the troops, small glass water-bearing flasks, by the number of people in the units, so that every soldier could carry such a flask filled with water. " A sample for the flasks was not installed, it was just indicated that they should be "sheathed with cloth and adapted to wear them during the campaign." Covers for flasks were made by the soldiers themselves, from old uniform clothes. Glass jars immediately showed their impracticality. For example, in the Perm Infantry Regiment, two months later, from glass jars "hardly a tenth remained."
    In addition to glass, tin flasks were ordered by the troops, "similar to the old soldier's manners, only thinner and with a narrow hole; the flasks were lined with gray cloth and were worn over the shoulder."
    On August 31, 1914, glass jars were reintroduced into the equipment as "glass bottles (such as lemonade) braided by straw and sheathed in gray cloth, in the form of a cover with a braid." Later, glass jars began to be made in the shape of aluminum.
    1. Lganhi
      Lganhi 2 November 2017 11: 13
      0
      This is what a "wise guy" occurred to equip soldiers with glass jars? !!! am . They would, damn it, in order to save money, they would also replace the duffel bag with a glass backpack. Is it really not clear that the soldier is fighting, and in a combat situation there is no time for a careful lying on the ground during shelling? Or in a bayonet battle should a soldier think more about the safety of a glass jar than his life? I remember the Chinese glass thermoses of the 80s, so they constantly fought, even though we treated them very carefully. So it is we, tourists, and then they broke glass. And here are the soldiers!
      1. Poppy
        Poppy 2 November 2017 11: 30
        +1
        They are thick-walled, you just won’t break it
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 2 November 2017 12: 54
          0
          ... A sample for the flasks was not installed, it was just indicated that they should be "sheathed with cloth and adapted to wear them during the campaign." Covers for flasks were made by the soldiers themselves, from old uniform clothes. Glass jars immediately showed their impracticality. For example, in the Perm Infantry Regiment, two months later, from glass jars "hardly a tenth remained."
        2. Zug
          Zug 3 November 2017 20: 11
          0
          where are they thick-walled from? there I have such-found-glass damn ... the only thicker are the chikushka-those that we found are tiny ..
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 2 November 2017 13: 08
        0
        Apparently decided to save! Glass is cheaper than metal! Luminium, tin and steel SAVED.
        . Their important advantage was cheapness, but they were not favored by the troops because of fragility and, if possible, they tried to replace them with standard aluminum or trophy jars of various kinds. Nevertheless, glass jars were widely used until the end of the war. In 1941, this simplified piece of equipment survived a rebirth; also to the troops in 1941-1945. old glass jars from pre-revolutionary stocks were also issued, as a result of which the original glass jars of 1914-1917. today are quite rare ....
      3. Zug
        Zug 3 November 2017 20: 10
        0
        Not (((when a bullet hits such a flask, according to the soldiers, the hip unfolds completely - you won’t collect it ...
  8. Dzmicer
    Dzmicer 1 November 2017 16: 51
    +5

    For comparison, the equipment of the British infantryman: the unfortunate commoner (Britain is still a feudal state) had to carry up to 25 kg.
  9. a.hamster55
    a.hamster55 1 November 2017 17: 07
    +3
    More from the story, a little survived. Thanks to the author!
  10. Dr. Hub
    Dr. Hub 2 November 2017 05: 35
    +3
    By and large, that form has come down to our time in a slightly modified form. The fundamental difference with the uniforms of the SA, I think not, which indicates its effectiveness
  11. Olgovich
    Olgovich 2 November 2017 09: 13
    +1
    I also had cotton in 1980, which after 2 months turned almost white (pale green).
    But it was soft-soft, like silk and warm.
    Another type of cotton, mixed with synthetics and not so shed, they tried not to take ....

    And the soldier cap of RI, as it seems to me, was much more comfortable and convenient than the cap.
    1. Lganhi
      Lganhi 2 November 2017 11: 23
      0
      A pilot is the most useless and unnecessary thing in military clothing. She looks good and beautiful on stewardesses. In the army, it would be much more practical to have a version of a summer military cap with ears tied up at the top, sewn to the front of the cap, a kind of analogue of an earflaps, only a summer version.
      Mentally raise the cap of the cap and sew it to the front of the cap, it will look good from an aesthetic point of view. In addition, such a cap will not fly off your head, it will protect against the scorching sun, but at the same time it will not interfere with the review and be cramped in a confined space.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 2 November 2017 11: 41
        +2
        Ever thought about the origin of the word "cap"? PILOT .... A headdress created for aviation pilots so that after leaving the cockpit and removing the helmet they could take out a folded headdress from their pocket, put them on and follow to the headquarters (barracks, hangar ...) with their heads covered and not violate the charter.
        Many liked it for its functionality, which caused a boom in the introduction of other troops (infantry, submariners ...)
        There can be no universal headgear. Therefore, there are "Keppy", "Panama",
        From personal experience - the Afghan cap you indicated is very uncomfortable when wearing a helmet. As an option - turn the visor back.
        1. Lganhi
          Lganhi 2 November 2017 11: 42
          +1
          Therefore, the visor must be sewn with the frontal part.
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 2 November 2017 13: 01
        0
        A dad is better hats ??? But then the STEEL HELMET were not used.
  12. Poppy
    Poppy 2 November 2017 11: 31
    +1
    Quote: Olgovich
    And the soldier cap of RI, as it seems to me, was much more comfortable and convenient than the cap.

    And where to put on a cap when putting on a helmet?
    1. Glory1974
      Glory1974 2 November 2017 21: 06
      0
      And where to put on a cap when putting on a helmet?

      After the start of the WWI, officers of the Russian army began to pull springs from their caps. There was even a fashion for the front cap all crumpled, the fields are omitted. It turned out like a cap, which did not interfere with the use of a helmet.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 2 November 2017 23: 06
        0

        Such here! It’s quite realistic to pull on such a helmet!
      2. not main
        not main 3 November 2017 01: 52
        0
        Quote: glory1974
        And where to put on a cap when putting on a helmet?

        After the start of the WWI, officers of the Russian army began to pull springs from their caps. There was even a fashion for the front cap all crumpled, the fields are omitted. It turned out like a cap, which did not interfere with the use of a helmet.

        Have you tried to put a helmet on such a “cap”?
        1. Glory1974
          Glory1974 3 November 2017 19: 53
          0
          Have you tried to put a helmet on such a “cap”?

          if you also omit the tulle then it is.
          1. not main
            not main 3 November 2017 20: 39
            0
            Quote: glory1974
            Have you tried to put a helmet on such a “cap”?

            if you also omit the tulle then it is.

            Yes, it is clear that you do not understand the caps!
  13. hohol95
    hohol95 2 November 2017 13: 02
    0
    Now you should write the article about WINTER EQUIPMENT!
  14. Sasha75
    Sasha75 3 November 2017 02: 25
    +1
    That in the First World, we lacked everything however, as in the war of 1904 with Japan from ammunition to weapons. Japan consider China given for the old rifles, we do not go there we sell them. The lack of weapons was such that it was written about her by 1 rifle for three, and the liberals transferred it to the 1941 war. The lack of a chance tool reached the point where they bought axes for gold and saws all over Europe bought needle rifles, that's what they fought for.
  15. Looking for
    Looking for 3 November 2017 22: 28
    -1
    To buy at your own expense? Well, on the issue of binoculars I agree. On the issue of time weapons, this is either absurdity or mistake.
    1. Dedall
      Dedall 4 November 2017 21: 39
      +3
      Unfortunately, that is exactly what happened. In pre-revolutionary times, optical glass was not produced in Russia. And according to the supply standards of that time, only binoculars in infantry regiments were relied upon only by the regiment commander. In artillery, they supplied commanders up to and including the battery. In the fleet, only the commander of the ship had personal binoculars, and the officer in charge transferred it on shift. The binoculars themselves were purchased by the military department exclusively in Germany.
      Only during the years of the Stalinist regime so hated by Ukrainians, thanks to the special operation of the OGPU, were they able to obtain recipes for cooking optical glass. Then, masters trained in clandestine ways established his release in Leningrad, and after that the famous LOMO appeared. And only after that the Kiev Arsenal plant appeared, safely ceasing to exist under the current regime.