Military Review

100 years of Russian glory. Russian Imperial Army on the eve of the First World War

45
100 years of Russian glory. Russian Imperial Army on the eve of the First World War



Before proceeding to the consideration of hostilities on the Eastern Front during the First World War, it is necessary to recall / clarify / clarify / tell (underline) what the Russian Imperial Army represented in this period.

Many sources (both imported and domestic) say a lot about the fact that before the First World War the Russian Imperial Army was the most numerous, but the most backward in terms of armament in Europe.

We categorically disagree with this interpretation of the situation, and we have to say the following:

After the defeat in the Russian-Japanese war, it became clear that the army needed reform.

In March, 1909, General Vladimir Alexandrovich Sukhomlinov was appointed Minister of War, and military reform received priority status.

Why not before?

From 1905 to 1907, the events of the First Russian Revolution took place in the country, and there was, to put it mildly, no time for reform. When the passions subsided, it is time to think about the army in order not to allow defeats like the Russian-Japanese war, although we put the military loss under some doubt. Here, rather, there was a political defeat.

It is also worth noting that during this period the creation of the General Directorate of the General Staff took place, which was separated from the Ministry of War.

The first transferred all the functions and questions of preparing the country for war. The second left administrative part and the economy.


General Vladimir Aleksandrovich Sukhomlinov

In parallel with the military reform, it was necessary to carry out and accelerate the development of industry.

It is no secret to anyone today that at that time Russia was forced to place a significant part of orders for the production of armaments abroad, as its capacities were not enough.

And it's not about the fifth column, as some people think, but about the specifics of historical development. Yes, before the First World War, Russia fed bread to all of Europe, agriculture was the flagship of the economy. Although the industry was developing by leaps and bounds, it was far behind the leading countries of Europe.

The main activities of the new minister include the following:

- the creation of automotive parts;
- The Imperial Air Force (although there is a great merit of one of the relatives of Nicholas II, but this is in detail in the relevant article);
- the creation of military counterintelligence;
- Introduction of machine-gun teams in infantry regiments and squadrons in corps;
- disbandment of reserve and fortress (garrisons of fortresses) units, due to which we managed to strengthen field armies, the total number of corps grew from 31 to 37.

The necessary changes were carried out in the officer corps, as part of it did not correspond to the command positions they held.

Hundreds of officers were dismissed due to their incompetence. Such a phenomenon, meaning incompetence, was inherent not only in the Russian army of that period, but also, for example, in the British army. In Great Britain, even during the war, positions and titles were received by descent, and not by skill and merit. We began to fight this before the start of hostilities.

The tsarist army was a fairly large organized group of people with a huge mobilization reserve by the standards of the time.

The ground forces consisted of a standing army and militia.

The standing army, in turn, was divided into the regular army and reserve, the Cossack troops and foreign units.

In peacetime, the army numbered almost 1,5 million people, for 45 days it could be increased to 5 million people (this happened in August 1914) for XNUMX days.

Men were liable for military service at ages from 21 to 43.

At that time, the 3 of the year served in the infantry, which allowed them to constantly have more than 60% of the personnel of the lower ranks of the 2 and 3 years of service, that is, sufficiently trained soldiers for active combat operations.

At the expiration of the term in active service in the ground forces, the 7 man of years was in the reserve of the 1 level, 8 of years - the 2 level.

In the Russian Empire at the beginning of the twentieth century there lived 170 million people, so they called not all of the draft-age citizens, but about half. The rest who did not serve, but was by all criteria fit, were recorded in the militia. Most of the men between the ages of 21 and 43 years were enrolled here.

The militia was divided into two categories.

The first category - those who in the event of war will have to replenish the army.

The second category is men who are not fit for military service for health reasons, they were recorded in battalions (or squads) of the militia. In the event of war, it was supposed to form 640 similar squads.

Also, the Russian army was accepted on a voluntary basis, which gave some privileges. You want to serve and good health - welcome.

It is worth noting that representatives of not all nationalities fell under military conscription. They were Muslims of the Caucasus and Central Asia (they paid a special tax), Finns, small peoples of the North.

However, the mountaineers from the Caucasus still could get to the effective service, thanks to the "non-native troops" (irregular equestrian connections, formed on a voluntary basis).



A separate military estate was the Cossacks, but we'll talk about this in a separate article.

In peacetime, the territory of the Empire was divided into 12 military districts, led by the commanders of the troops: St. Petersburg, Vilna, Warsaw, Kiev, Odessa, Moscow, Kazan, Caucasus, Turkestan, Omsk, Irkutsk and Priamur.

Before the war, the imperial army numbered 208 infantry regiments. The field army was divided into 37 army corps: Guards, Grenadiers, I-XXV infantry, I-III Caucasian, I and II Turkestan, I-V Siberian.

All infantry divisions with their artillery were part of these corps. The staff of the corps was as follows: two infantry divisions, a division of light howitzers (two 6-gun batteries), a sapper battalion.

In each infantry regiment of the 4-x battalion (16 company) composition of the state from 6 in May 1910, there was a machine-gun team with 8-st Maxim machine-guns. In wartime, the regiment should have been a 3776 man. Our direct opponents - the Germans, had six machine guns (7,92 mm machine gun MG08), on the 12 company regiment.

The main armament of the infantrymen was the 7,62-mm rifle of the Mosin system arr. 1891 of the year. Rifles produced in dragoon, infantry and Cossack versions. In the 1910 year, due to the introduction of a new cartridge, modernization was required. Thus, a new curved aiming plate of the Konovalov system was introduced, which compensated for the change in the trajectory of the bullet.


Appearance of various modifications of the Mosin rifle.

Despite the fact that the rifle was produced in three armory factories, factories still could not cope with the required production volumes. Therefore, orders were forced to place in the USA and France. This significantly increased the cost of producing rifles, but there was nowhere to go.

As already mentioned above, a machine-gun command was introduced into the infantry regiment. This was a significant step to increase the firepower of the infantry units, since before that the machine guns were bought mainly by the naval department, and they were intended to be placed in fortresses. With a gun carriage and a weight of 250 kg, this was not surprising. BUT! During the Russian Japanese war, the Russian army was able to evaluate the effectiveness of this type of weapon and the severe need for the presence of infantry.


Maxim machine gun on an artillery carriage


The machine gun was upgraded, and in the infantry variant, the 60 kg strand began to weigh. That significantly increased its mobile properties.

Starting from 1914, armored cars were actively introduced into the Russian army.

The first field radio stations, created by Popov and Troitsky, appeared in the armed forces as early as 1900 year. By 1914, radio stations became, if not a competitor to fixed-line telephony, then an assistant.

By 1914, “spark companies” were created in all corps, the world's first parts of EW, born in the Russian-Japanese war and received further recognition and development.

Military science was developed, the works of a number of military theorists were published: N. P. Mikhnevich - “Strategy”, A. G. Yelchaninov - “Doing modern combat”, V. A. Cheremisov - “Foundations of modern military art”, A. A. Neznamov - "Modern War".

In 1912, the “Field Service Regulations”, “Manual for field artillery actions in combat” were issued, in 1914, “Manual for infantry actions in combat”, “Manual on rifle, carbine and revolver”.

The offensive was considered the main type of hostilities, but much attention was paid to defense. Offensive infantry used intervals up to 5 steps (more rare battle formations than in other European armies).

It was allowed to creep, move by rushes, advance by detachments and individual soldiers from position to position under the cover of comrades. They demanded that the soldiers dig in, not only in defense, but also in offensive operations.

Studied fight, action at night. The cavalrymen were taught to act not only on horseback, but also on foot.

Although the work on reforming the army was in full swing, and there were significant advances, it was not without negative moments.

Part of the officer corps resisted changes, the dependence on arms supplies by foreign firms had a negative effect, little attention was paid to the preparation of reserves, only the Cossacks regularly conducted inspections and exercises.

The militia was not trained enough or had no training at all. Subsequently, the neglect of the development of heavy artillery (but about this in a separate article), and the hope for a quick war (hence the insufficient supply of projectiles) will have an impact.

The idea of ​​building a large number of railways in the west of the empire was not fully implemented, which during the war would accelerate the mobilization, transfer and supply of the army.

But here we also depended on Western "friends", do not be surprised with quotes, we wanted to take a loan for this event from England. That same country, which almost 10 years ago helped the opponents of Russia.

Wars always start unexpectedly, and it can be said that the Russian Imperial Army was ready for war, not by 100%, but ready. But why she suffered defeat in a number of major battles - a topic for another conversation.

In any case, even despite the fact that the reforms in the Russian army were not brought to the end, it was far from the army that was fighting near Mukden and at Port Arthur. Unpleasant lessons were learned, and RIA embarked on the path of evolution.

In the next article, we will take a closer look at the weapons and ammunition of the infantryman of the Russian Imperial Army arr. 1914 of the year.

Sources of
Cornish N. Russian Army 1914-1918
Samsonov A. The Russian Imperial Army and the Strategic Plan of Russia on the Eve of the First World War
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 30 October 2017 07: 44
    +1
    Well, we are waiting for the continuation ...
    1. Vend
      Vend 30 October 2017 08: 50
      +2
      Article are huge +
  2. Boris55
    Boris55 30 October 2017 08: 05
    +2
    Quote: Alexander Prokurat, Roman Skomorokhov
    100 years of Russian glory.

    Just 100 years? wassat
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 30 October 2017 08: 59
    10
    It is not said about one of the main circumstances: at the time of the beginning of the Second Patriotic Army and Navy underwent rearmament, which was to be completed by 1917. The Russian Army was becoming invincible for Germany. It is this circumstance that began. In May 1914, the General Staff called Moltke one of the causes of the war: to defeat Russia earlier than this moment, then it was not in the strength of Germany ..

    Another point: not only Russia, but no one (except Germany) was ready for war.
    The British and French also imported weapons into the war.

    Articles in this series are absolutely necessary, thanks to the authors hi
    1. creak
      creak 30 October 2017 09: 44
      +3
      Quote: Olgovich
      It is not said about one of the main circumstances: at the time of the beginning of the Second Patriotic Army and Navy underwent rearmament, which was to be completed by 1917.

      By a strange coincidence, the main measures for the reorganization and rearmament of the Red Army were supposed to end in 1942. This was the transition to new equipment and weapons and the formation of the main striking force of the SV -mechcorps and the completion of the construction of SD on the new border, etc.
      In Germany, machines and equipment for the military-industrial complex were purchased, new types of weapons ... Cooperation with Italy was established in the field of construction and design of ships for the Navy - since the capacity of domestic shipbuilding was not enough ...
      Despite all the visible differences in historical conditions, the situation on the eve of the Second World War resembled what happened in Russia on the eve of the WWII ....
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 30 October 2017 09: 46
        +4
        Quote: ranger
        Despite all the visible differences in historical conditions, the situation on the eve of the Second World War resembled what happened in Russia on the eve of the WWII.

        "In fact, there is no difference between them." V.V. Putin
        1. avt
          avt 30 October 2017 10: 21
          +4
          Quote: Olgovich
          "In fact, there is no difference between them." V.V. Putin

          bully Just the same
          Quote: ranger
          creak

          You have no right! Senior ordered! bully
          Quote: San Sanych
          objective article, without blackening, but also without embellishment

          That sho-o-o-o-o? The title slogan is not cheats?
          100 years of Russian glory. Russian Imperial Army on the eve of the First World War
          Gistoria ,, glory "from 1817 reluctant to refresh? Well, the Crimean campaign there, the Russian-Japanese, and in fact the most" glorious "page - the First World War with the arrest of the Supreme and the proser of the Empire itself. Let me guess - Bolsheviks, they are pranksters! They, they dispersed the Constituent Assembly .... so that they stood up with the CPs and the Mensheviks and left, leaving those who remained without a quorum. bully “They dispersed” ponimash. But the bakers only told you about the sailor who was tired and dispersed the rest, they would tell you, but Eisenstein’s films would show me a piece, well, as documentary evidence, of the storming of the Winter Palace.
          Quote: ranger
          to complain

          Samsonov wrote here on the website, though with respect to Russian-Japanese,
          Well, Russia once again, according to the apt and caustic remark of one Soviet general, met a war with lowered pants. As always, they didn’t finish it, didn’t finish it ...
          request Alas, but a fact.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 30 October 2017 10: 45
            +4
            Quote: avt
            One, they dispersed the Constituent Assembly .... by standing up with the CPs and the Mensheviks and leaving, leaving those left without a quorum

            poor Ulyanov request ... it never occurred to him about the quorum (although he himself invented it) ... I had to suck out rubbish in the decree on the dissolution of the Constitutional Court. Only a hundred (!) Years before the Leninists realized fool lol And that's not it. .
            Mensheviks who left the US, it would be interesting to know, a hundred years ago there were none belay
            1. avt
              avt 30 October 2017 10: 57
              +1
              Quote: Olgovich
              Mensheviks who left the CSS

              It’s of course to look under a small scope, piece by piece, Then pity the Mensheviks, as well as the RIGHT CPs, we cross out Well, by decree
              ...... The Constituent Assembly opened on January 5 gave, by virtue of well-known circumstances, the majority of the party of the Right Social Revolutionaries, the party of Kerensky, Avksentyev and Chernov. Naturally, this party refused to accept for discussion the absolutely accurate, clear, no-doubt proposal of the supreme body of Soviet power, the Central Executive Committee of the Soviets, to recognize the program of Soviet power, to recognize the "Declaration of the Rights of the Working and Exploited People", to recognize the October Revolution and Soviet power. Thus, the Constituent Assembly broke all ties between itself and the Soviet Republic of Russia. The withdrawal from such a Constituent Assembly of factions of the Bolsheviks and Left Socialist Revolutionaries, which now constitute the obviously vast majority in the Soviets and enjoy the confidence of the workers and the majority of peasants, was inevitable.
              Outside the walls of the Constituent Assembly, the parties of the majority of the Constituent Assembly, the Right Social Revolutionaries and the Mensheviks, are conducting an open struggle against the Soviet power, calling in their bodies to overthrow it, objectively thereby supporting the exploiters' resistance to the transfer of land and factories into the hands of the working people.
              It is clear that the rest of the Constituent Assembly can only play the role of covering up the struggle of the bourgeois counter-revolution for the overthrow of the power of the Soviets.
              Therefore, the Central Executive Committee decides:
              The constituent assembly is dissolved.
              There is no quorum - the meeting was dissolved. By the way, he dismissed the one who secured the MAJESTY himself; he simply had the power to make a decision and could force it to be implemented. The rest is the sophistry and tyagomotin of political impotent people who puffed up in the act of depicting their own power from February 1917. When exactly the same impotent people from the authorities forgave their own monarchy, and it’s quite for themselves, including members of this monarchical family that are facing the front against Nikolashka. So moaning about the dissolution of the founding party is the same stupid thing as discussing the legality of the booze in the 1991 Viskuly.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 30 October 2017 11: 54
                +3
                Quote: avt
                It’s of course to look under a small scope, piece by piece, Then pity the Mensheviks, as well as the RIGHT CPs

                you still can’t cross out the truth.
                Quote: avt
                Quorum lol but no - the meeting and dismissed

                WHERE about quorum in the Decree on dissolution? belay lol Not a word ... Ulyanov knew why not. You are not.
                Yes and
                Quote: avt
                Everything else is sophistry and tyagomotin of political impotent people who puffed up in the act of depicting their own power

                since October 1917.
          2. Gopnik
            Gopnik 30 October 2017 11: 33
            +4
            Quote: avt
            Gistoria ,, glory "from 1817 reluctant to refresh? Well, the Crimean campaign there, the Russian-Japanese


            As well as Russian-Persian, a couple of Russian-Turkish and Russian-Polish

            Quote: avt
            the most glorious page - World War I


            Yes, WWI is tragic and glorious in the history of Russia. It is a pity that the Bolsheviks lost it, although even the Romanians managed to win. But the Bolsheviks did not aim at the victory of Russia

            Quote: avt
            got up with CPs and Mensheviks and left


            Oh how. Why not learn new.

            Quote: avt
            Onet ,, broke up the Constituent Assembly


            Well, yes, we dispersed the DC, which we lost in the elections. Thus leaving, first of all, the Russian people of him. As a result, then for all the years of the USSR there were no real free elections at all. The Bolsheviks deprived of the right to choose the Russian people.

            Quote: avt
            Alas, but a fact


            The saddest thing is that this taught nothing. And 2MV USSR met not only with his pants down, in general with a bare backside and bent back
          3. San Sanych
            San Sanych 30 October 2017 12: 04
            +2
            /// Well, the Crimean campaign there ... /// tell mercy bully which country did not have defeats? The same Americans had Pearl Harbor and Vietnam, the French had Sedan, the Japanese had Soviet-Japanese, I won’t even talk about Germany, I don’t need to remind whose army was in Berlin in 1945. Be that as it may, Russia was constantly expanding its territories, the population was also increasing, and industry was also developing at a steady pace. So there is nothing to complain about the title of the article.
          4. Dart2027
            Dart2027 30 October 2017 20: 38
            +1
            Quote: avt
            Well Crimean campaign there
            This is when the coalition of all European states fell upon one RI and as a result, all the plans announced by Lord Palmerston were covered with a copper basin?
            Quote: avt
            Russian-Japanese
            What are the names of those who venture internal unrest during the war?
      2. bistrov.
        bistrov. 30 October 2017 10: 00
        +1
        Quote: ranger
        the situation on the eve of the Second World War resembled what was happening in Russia on the eve of the WWII

        And even now, the international situation is sharply aggravating precisely at the moment when rearmament began in the Russian army, and especially in the fleet. And due to a “strange circumstance”, Russia is forced to buy machine tools and many components for this abroad, from its probable opponents. And for a “strange circumstance”, these “partners” declare “sanctions” to Russia, which impede and slow down the rearmament of the Russian army. What, in general, are the FSB, GRU and SVR combined? Why aren't all these curls, Chubais. Bulk and dog dogs still shot, or at least not waving kyle in places not so distant? The people would not have to pay again for all these miscalculations and a mess with their blood.
    2. soldier
      soldier 30 October 2017 10: 16
      16
      Yes, a lot is not said or touched in passing
      But the main thing is ideology - isn't it? The approach so to speak ...
      And the Russian army was at the pan-European level.
      And even in some ways superior to the enemy
      No wonder I fought with several at once and on the same front
      Thank you hi
      1. bistrov.
        bistrov. 30 October 2017 11: 22
        +2
        Quote: soldier
        But the main thing is ideology - isn't it? The approach so to speak ...

        One thing surprised me that in 1991 more than 90% of the Ukrainian SSR population voted to secede from the USSR! This is despite the fact that out of 52 million people of the Ukrainian SSR, at least 12 million (more than 1/5 !!!) were ethnic Russians who ended up in Ukraine in different ways, but mostly they were qualified specialists sent there by the central government. They also voted to exit? Now these people with Russian surnames and their descendants are almost the most active ukronationalists, and many of them are fighting in the Donbass in nationalist battalions, on the side of the oligarchic Bandera government. How to explain this? Falsification of the 1991 referendum? Maybe, but not to the same extent!
        Ideology? An approach? Red political officers and political officers did their job badly. They ate folk bread for free.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 30 October 2017 14: 24
          +2
          Quote: bistrov.
          I was surprised by one thing: in 1991, more than 90% of the population of the Ukrainian SSR voted for secession from the USSR!

          And six months before this, in March, 90% for the USSR!
          And the point was, in raising the question, there was NOT a favor / against the USSR, but it was "do you support all the good against all the bad?"
          many were sure that it was a sovereign urkain within the USSR!
          Quote: bistrov.
          Red political officers and political officers did their job badly. They ate folk bread for free.

          Their task was to create a Ukrainian nation. And they completed it. True, they thought that she would be an ally in the class, but a completely different one was born ....
        2. The centurion
          The centurion 30 October 2017 18: 27
          +3
          Quote: bistrov.
          I was surprised by one thing: in 1991, more than 90% of the population of the Ukrainian SSR voted for secession from the USSR!

          To the great shame of the Russians living in Ukraine, as well as in other Soviet republics, they were severely infected with parochial chauvinism and in restructuring they voted for local nationalists. And attempts to consolidate the Russian population of the union republics (including the Ukrainian southeast) on the basis of Russian nationalism failed. Since the southeast is populated not by Russians, but by Russian speakers. And this is a big difference. For the most part, these are either Russified Ukrainians, or not fully Ukrainized Russians, that is, “Creoles” or Russophones, often striving to be “holier than the Pope of Rome”. Often, the most desperate Ukrainian nationalists are people with purely Russian surnames. In the most innocent case, they just dutifully jump along with Svidomo, at worst, join the local nationalists. In an effort to curry favor, they are doing the dirtiest work, for example, bottling Molotov cocktails. In general, such is the typical politsaishchina and Vlasovism. But God is not fraer, he sees everything and distributes everything according to merit. Life puts everything in truth and the perpetrators of confusion, collapse and devastation generously punish. As a result, instead of cheese in oil, Ukrainians found themselves in complete guan, and the collapse of illusions is a terrible force. But the desire for freebies even more terrible and irresistible force. For example, how do Western Ukrainians actually differ from Eastern ones? Westerners consider that the European Union should maintain them, while the Easterners consider that the Customs Union, or rather Russia, should support them. Only that is the difference. In this case, who would be better to maintain, to give up. But contain 40 million. Nobody wants parasites, neither the European Union, nor the Customs Union, if only because it is an unbearable burden on the budgets of friendly countries. Moreover, everyone knows that they will repay for it, as always, with black ingratitude. So if anyone has a great desire to take them on the hitch, prepare your pockets, you have to greatly facilitate them. In these conditions, Ukrainians need to find the guilty. As a result, they begin to hate EVERYONE. First of all, the Muscovites, only now, because they were abandoned, poorly maintained, little help and sponsor, do not give free oil and gas. Well, over the centuries, we have already become accustomed to such a "gratitude of the fraternal peoples", although we could already learn to think more adequately. But the most fierce hatred from the Ukrainians expects the West and America. They will hate them fiercely because they have been deceived. So it was already. In 1596, the Brest Church Union was invented for the Ukrainians. It was another attempt to merge the Catholic and Eastern churches, as a result of which part of the Eastern Church recognized the authority of the Pope and the Vatican. The Uniate Greek Catholic church, used the Byzantine rite, but at the same time, obeyed and paid taxes to the Vatican. The Uniates hoped that now the Poles would recognize them as their own, but they miscalculated. The Poles from them needed only unconditional obedience and, of course, taxes. It was then that the inhabitants of western Ukraine held a grudge against the Russians, whom they had betrayed, and the Poles, who had deceived them. It seems that now the story will repeat. Only now Europe will deceive all of Ukraine and they will hate all of Europe.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 31 October 2017 09: 22
            +2
            Quote: Centurion
            To the great shame of the Russians who lived in Ukraine, as well as in the other Union republics, they were greatly infected by small-town chauvinism and voted in favor of local nationalists during perestroika

            We never voted for Natsik.
            Quote: Centurion
            And attempts to consolidate the Russian population of the union republics (including the Ukrainian southeast) on the basis of Russian nationalism failed.

            That is yes. Everyone was for internaciolism, which meant loving everyone, but Russians in the last place ..
        3. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 30 October 2017 18: 49
          0
          bistrov. "This is despite the fact that out of 52 million people of the Ukrainian SSR, at least 12 million (more than 1/5 !!!) were ethnic Russians who ended up in Ukraine in different ways, but mostly they were qualified specialists sent there by the central power. "
          The bulk of Russians (Great Russians) lived mainly on the lands of New Russia. This is almost half of the territory of modern Ukraine. I'm not talking about Slobozhanshchina.))) So the lands of Novorossia were mastered jointly by the Great Russians and Little Russians, it was the peasant colonization of the Wild Field. Therefore, it’s ridiculous to say that the Russians came to Ukraine. They lived there originally resettled in the 18-19 centuries. And who is fighting against their own .... so there they have been treated since the 1990s in hatred of Russia. This is perhaps the only achievement independent, you can be proud.)))
    3. Dzmicer
      Dzmicer 31 October 2017 13: 58
      +1
      The British and French also imported weapons into the war.

      The US is now buying Italian "Beretta" and German "H&K" - and what does this say that they are a technologically backward state? Of course not.
  4. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 30 October 2017 09: 07
    +4
    Without an advanced defense industry, no army can fight effectively.
  5. bistrov.
    bistrov. 30 October 2017 09: 20
    +3
    The soldiers were trained in the Russian imperial army well. The decisive role was played by non-commissioned officers, who were very highly qualified, professional military men. They commanded the squads and platoons, were sergeant major (foremen companies). It is not for nothing that almost all the prominent military leaders of the USSR of the pre-war period and the Second World War period left non-commissioned officers. The process of educating and training new recruits in the tsarist army during the First World War is described very well in N. Brykin’s book “On the Eastern Front of Change” and is based largely on documentary material. For example, the main character of this book is sergeant-major Novozhilov, although he is a thief and exhibited a little comedic, but undoubtedly is a very highly trained professional. He knows the entire Charter almost by heart! Can quote entire pages without errors! Those interested in the history of the Russian army, I advise you to read this work. Marshal Zhukov says little about the training of non-commissioned officers in his book Memoirs and Thoughts, which he himself went through this school, but is silent about the role of sergeants in the Red Army.
    The refusal of the institute of non-commissioned officers in the Red Army and the transition to recruiting non-commissioned officers as sergeants, in my opinion, is one of the main mistakes in the military construction of the Soviet government, which led to a sharp decrease in the level of training of both ordinary and non-commissioned officers, which subsequently led to huge unjustified losses during the Second World War. Even after the war, the proper conclusion was not made, which explains the appearance in the army of such a thing as "hazing", which put the army on the verge of degradation and self-destruction. The introduction in 1972 of the institute of ensigns facilitated the recruitment of only technical posts, but there was no fundamental change in discipline in the Soviet Army.
    Only today, work has begun in the Russian army to recruit sergeant positions as contract soldiers, and even then, in my opinion, this work was caused in many respects by the scientific and technological revolution, and not by the concern of the high command to restore discipline and order in the troops and to train the ordinary soldier. And "hazing", apparently, has not been eradicated.
  6. San Sanych
    San Sanych 30 October 2017 09: 31
    +2
    objective article, without blackening, but also without embellishment
    1. The centurion
      The centurion 30 October 2017 18: 40
      +2
      Quote: San Sanych
      objective article ??????? In March, 1909, General Vladimir Alexandrovich Sukhomlinov was appointed Minister of War, and military reform received priority status.

      Russia started the war, having only 950 shots per light weapon, and even less for heavy weapons. These meager prewar stocks and the norms of artillery shells and rifle cartridges were expended in the first months of the war. Russia was in a very difficult position. First, due to the relative weakness of its own defense industry. Secondly, after the entry of Turkey in November 1914 into the war on the side of the Central Powers, it was in fact cut off from supplies from the outside world. Russia has lost the most convenient means of communication with its allies - through the Black Sea straits and through the Baltic. Russia has two ports that are suitable for transporting a large amount of cargo - Arkhangelsk and Vladivostok, but the carrying capacity of the railways approaching these ports was low. In addition, through the Baltic and Black Sea ports, up to 90% of Russia's foreign trade was carried out. Cut off from the allies, deprived of the opportunity to export grain and import weapons, the Russian Empire gradually began to experience serious economic difficulties. It was the economic crisis triggered by the closure of the Black Sea and Danish straits by the enemy, as a very significant factor influenced the creation of a “revolutionary situation” in Russia, which eventually led to the overthrow of the Romanov dynasty and the October Revolution.
      But the main reason for the lack of firearms was related to the pre-war activities of the military ministry. 1909 to 1915 War Minister was General Sukhomlinov. He pursued an army armament course largely at the expense of foreign orders, to the detriment of domestic production, which led to an acute shortage of armaments and ammunition while reducing their imports. For example, on the eve of the war, the government order for rifles for the Tula Arms Plant was as follows: in January 1914 - five pieces, in February - as many, in March - six, in April - again five, in May, June, July - one rifle each. The source of information is quite authoritative, this is the tsarist, and later the Soviet, General Vladimir G. Fedorov, a member of the weapons department of the Artillery Committee. In his memoirs, he wrote: “A few days before the declaration of war, the largest plant produces one training rifle per month! That was how the War Department prepared for an armed conflict. ” And Fedorov in 1914 urgently had to go to negotiate the supply of rifles to Japan. For disrupting the supply of the army with weapons and shells and on suspicion of having links with German intelligence, Sukhomlinov was removed from his post as minister of war and was imprisoned in the Peter and Paul fortress, but then was practically acquitted and under house arrest. However, under pressure from the masses in 1917, he was put on trial by the Provisional Government and sentenced to eternal penal servitude. Sukhomlinov was amnestied by the Soviet authorities 1 in May 1918 and immediately emigrated to Germany.
      By the beginning of the war, in addition to the lack of gunshot supplies in Sukhomlinov's reforms, there were other major blunders. For example, the destruction of serfs and reserve troops. The serfs were excellent, strong parts, well knew their fortified areas. With their existence, our fortresses would not surrender and would not rush with the ease with which the random garrisons of these fortresses covered themselves with shame. Concealed shelves, formed instead of reserve ones, also could not replace them due to the lack of strong personnel and spikes in peacetime. The destruction of the fortified areas in the western regions, which cost a lot of money, also contributed greatly to the failures of 1915.
      1. San Sanych
        San Sanych 31 October 2017 11: 07
        0
        Centurion, do not use dubious sources. The Tula Arms Plant in 1914 produced 250 thousand rifles, and besides it there was also the Izhevsk Arms Plant, which since 1896 has produced 1000 rifles per day, so calculate how much it will be. There was also the Sestroretsk arms factory, which since 1884 had produced 100 thousand rifles a year. So many shells were produced in the Republic of Ingushetia that there was enough for the civil war, and even for 1941. In the USSR, in the 30s, submarine hulls were built from steel, which was prepared for the Svetlana cruisers from pre-revolutionary stocks. And the overcoats with budenovki were also from the royal stores, as well as leather jackets and pants for commissars. Do not write me to monarchists bully
  7. Nehist
    Nehist 30 October 2017 10: 25
    0
    The article is interesting, we look forward to continuing. There are also nuances. For example, about the railway road ... Oddly enough, there was an abundance of money in the treasury, so it was not necessary to take a loan from the British, but there would probably be another cut. But specialists for the construction of railways were sorely lacking. There’s no point in talking about production facilities since there was simply no such thing as a planned army and navy for large-scale rearmament
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 30 October 2017 14: 59
      0
      I mean, at the beginning of the century, rearmament of light artillery went fine, now we were talking about howitzers in quantitative terms, they needed less so they could handle it.
  8. The comment was deleted.
    1. Dart2027
      Dart2027 30 October 2017 20: 40
      +1
      Quote: Eight
      urapatriotic education.
      Does it bother you?
      1. Eight
        Eight 30 October 2017 21: 52
        +1
        But does it bother you?
        1. Dart2027
          Dart2027 30 October 2017 21: 57
          +1
          Quote: Eight
          But does it bother you?
          That is worrying.
          1. Eight
            Eight 30 October 2017 22: 08
            +1
            Is this a question or a statement?
            1. Whispering in the night
              Whispering in the night 31 October 2017 01: 09
              0
              Obviously, it does not even bother, but upsets. Liberal or what? Or a communist?
              1. Eight
                Eight 31 October 2017 01: 17
                +1
                Something I lost a step. Spot the dots, please. Which of us is a liberal, who is a communist?
                1. Whispering in the night
                  Whispering in the night 31 October 2017 11: 17
                  0
                  Personally, I am neither one nor the other (pah-pah from both ranks)! But so, I asked you ..
                  1. Eight
                    Eight 31 October 2017 11: 19
                    +1
                    Those. You asked me liberal. or communist?
                    1. Whispering in the night
                      Whispering in the night 31 October 2017 12: 37
                      0
                      It was a rhetorical question, well, or a statement. For, only two of these categories of citizens in Russia are contorted like devils from incense by expressions of patriotism, patriotic education, etc.
                      1. Eight
                        Eight 31 October 2017 12: 54
                        +1
                        You, dear, confuse God's gift with fried eggs in your righteous anger. Perhaps - out of ignorance. Perhaps - did not think about it.
                        Patriotism is a natural need for a healthy society and any normal person. Urapatriotism is quite the opposite.
                        This is the difference: patriotism is a ministry, and urapatriotism is a career. Unfortunately, now the first is being replaced by the second. And you -
                        liberals, communists. And here just careerists, it seems.
  9. Whispering in the night
    Whispering in the night 31 October 2017 14: 07
    +1
    Eight,
    No need to invent new definitions of well-known concepts, dear. Patriotism is love for the motherland, and (I add from myself), love, regardless of the social system in the country. This article about the Russian army on the eve of the Great War (well, or the Second World War), in general, is quite positive and patriotic, so your remark about some “urapatriotism” (a vile liberal term, which, incidentally, the Communists do not disdain), in my opinion, generally out of place!
    1. Eight
      Eight 31 October 2017 14: 34
      +1
      And let's hear the loud “Hurray!”. If you don’t know any concepts or definitions, this does not mean that they are being invented. As I understand it, the fight against liberals and communists is your credo. Good luck.
      1. Whispering in the night
        Whispering in the night 31 October 2017 15: 12
        0
        I really can’t stand the liberals with the Communists, like the majority of the country's population, but my life credo is completely different, of course! Good luck to you in your hopeless struggle against urapatriotic phobias and phantoms.
        1. Eight
          Eight 31 October 2017 15: 19
          +1
          Thanks for the wish, but my comment was purely informative. Laurels of Don Quixote - this is not mine. Therefore, the fight against urapatriotism is not included in my priorities. The urapatriots themselves will fight its consequences. Then, when the lock.
  10. Paul Atreides
    Paul Atreides 2 November 2017 17: 44
    +1
    > In the attack of the infantry, intervals of up to 5 steps were used (more rare battle formations than in other European armies).

    What are you saying? And if you open the "combatant charter" of 1908, then in article 199 we read:

    "The extension of the battle order of a company along the front, if it is not determined by order, should be considered with the task assigned to the company, the nature of the terrain and the size of the company.

    "The average length for a company of wartime composition, not including patrols, can be considered 250-300 steps."


    But how about a company of about 200 people, even if there are only two platoons in the chain, to achieve an interval of 5 steps? But in the chain may be all four platoons.
    1. Ekzutor
      Ekzutor 24 November 2017 17: 39
      +1
      All right.
      A lot of bloopers
  11. Ekzutor
    Ekzutor 24 November 2017 17: 38
    +2
    Yes
    But there are so many works about the Russian army at the beginning of the war
    Learn, study and study again (to authors)
    And do not forget to write how spaceships plow the expanses of the Bolshoi Theater