Military Review

Attempt by John and Peter's fleet. The story of the birthday of the Russian Navy

15
At the Russian Navy fleet There are two main dates in the holiday calendar. This is the last Sunday of July - Day of the Russian Navy, and this is today's date. On October 30, the Russian Navy celebrates its birthday - historical the fact of the creation of a navy in the country. The event in question occurred in 1696. It was then that the Boyar Duma (the then advisory body to the sovereign) approved the decision to create a combat-ready formation new for the country. The formation, which in the end will not only ensure the security of the state from the sea and superiority over, as they would say now, a real and potential adversary, but will also make Russia an empire.


Despite the fact that the official date of birth of the Navy of Russia is considered to be 30 of October of 1696 of the year, it cannot be said that no hints of the fleet existed in Russia before. Historical science suggests that attempts to create a military fleet were taken under the Rurikovich. In particular, it is quite possible to attribute to the milestones in the formation of the military fleet the events of the epoch of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible, when the exit of the Russian State to the Baltic shores in the Narva region began to dictate the need to protect these lands not only from land, but also from the sea. Moreover, to protect Russian trade in that number, which began to actively develop in the North-West (on the Baltic) precisely with access to the sea routes in the 1558 year.

For obvious reasons, Russia's neighbors were far from enthusiastic about the fact that a growing state both in the east and in the west, led by Ivan IV, is able to fill the treasury with the help of funds derived from trade relations with the major sea powers of that time.

And the neighbors decided to introduce "sanctions" against Russia. Quite a real sanction. In the Baltic at the end of the 50-x-60-s of the XVI century, the appearance of the letters of marque, the captains of which received from the European governments received security certificates for the possibility to damage Russian trade by sea at any cost, became commonplace. In fact, we are talking about pirate fleets, which robbed (or first robbed, and then drowned) most of the merchant ships (those that “could” be robbed) heading towards Russia. The Kingdom of Poland was especially zealous, which in 1569 was “integrated” with neighboring Lithuania, forming a state called the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In addition to Poland, Sweden was actively involved in the attacks of ships going to Narva.

According to historians, up to 80% of the Baltic trade, related to Russia's trade and economic activities in the period mentioned, Russia itself was losing. Losing it "thanks" to the neighbors with their pirated "sanctions".

What decision in this situation is made in Moscow? The decision, in fact, the only possible way to maintain access to the sea in the North-West. An understanding of the measures taken is provided by Tsar Ivan IV's security certificate of March 1570:
... by force of the enemies to take, and to find, hook and destroy ships according to our Majesty's ships with fire and sword ... And our commanders and clerks of that chieftain Carsten Rode and his skipers, comrades and assistants in our shelters on the sea and on the ground to save and honor to keep, stock or what they need, how to bargain raise, sell and not offend.


So, Ivan IV announces the preparation, in modern terms, for counter-sanctions. And the main part of the responsibility for solving this issue rests with the aforementioned Carsten Rohde, a German who was a subject of the Danish crown. By and large, Rode himself was a pirate, but after 1570, he became the sovereign in the Baltic. Its main task, as evidenced by the above text of the security certificate, is to form a force capable of withstanding the "power of the enemy." This can be considered a step in creating a protective fleet of the step taken by the then head of the Russian State.

The agreement with Rode assumed the seizure of enemy ships in such a way that every third ship was to be delivered to Narva in fact for the formation of a Russian flotilla in the Baltic.

The first ship that was attacked by Karsten Rode’s ship was the Swedish tiger, which was loaded with salt and herring. The attack was successful - "kontrsanktsii" earned. The cargo was sold in the same place where he became prey to Rode - on the island of Bornholm. Within a week, Rode carried out a seizure of a warship. It was a Swedish flute. For a couple of months - more than a dozen ships.

Team Carsten Rode grew. Over time, Arkhangelsk Pomors, who also knew a lot about the sea, became its foundation. In addition, the team was assigned to the archers and gunners of the so-called Pushkarsky order. The formed squadron was originally based in Narva and Ivangorod. Then, after the expansion due to the "acquired" ships, its parts began to be based also on Bornholm and even in Copenhagen. The reason that Copenhagen was among the bases of the Russian Baltic Flotilla was that the Danish monarch was at that time one of the main allies of Russia in Europe. These are the kings of the Oldenburg dynasty, among whom was the monarch Frederick II.

Carsten Rhoda’s flotilla in the Baltic was actually a real hunt. The main "hunters" - the Swedish and Polish ships. But Rode’s military career in the service of Denmark and Russia was stopped not by the Swedes or the Poles. It rolled due to the decision of the aforementioned Frederick II, who, after conducting economic calculations, came to the conclusion that maintaining the flotilla in alliance with Russia cost the treasury dearly, and the activity of the flotilla itself began to bring less and less profit. Added effect and the fact that Frederick warmed up (if in this situation, you can apply such a term) relations with Sweden. As a result, Rode was removed from the flotilla and placed in a Danish prison as a pirate.

After that, Europe began to say that the Danish monarch Frederick II "leads a merciless war against piracy, which is a blow to the promotion of piracy by the Russian tsar." The fact that piracy in its form at that time was supported quite officially by literally all the maritime powers was not accepted to be voiced. It was also not customary to voice the fact that it was precisely those who suddenly rejoiced over the “cleansing of the eastern Baltic from the Rode flotilla” began attacking the merchant fleet leading to contacts with Russia. Something it reminds of today's day ... In general, our "eternal friendship" with Europe.

An interesting fragment of a letter from Ivan IV to Frederick II from 1576 of the year (a letter that remained unanswered):
For five years or more, we sent Karsten Rode to the sea on ships with military men for the robbers who broke our guests from Gdansk to the sea. And that Carsten Rode at the sea of ​​those robbers thugs ... the ship's 22 went, and he came to Borngolm, and then the Swede king was taken off by the people. And those ships that he caught, and our ships he caught, and the price of those ships and goods five hundred thousand efimki. And that Carsten Rohde, hoping for our agreement with Frederick, fled from his people to Kopnog. And Frederick the King ordered him, after catching him, to put him in jail. And we are quite surprised ...


Such a story, which could end with the fact that the Navy was created precisely by Tsar Ivan the Terrible. However, this did not happen.

Attempt by John and Peter's fleet. The story of the birthday of the Russian Navy


The sovereign, who created the Russian Navy, will be, as is known, Peter I Romanov. It was from his era that the fleet officially counted its historical steps, reaching today, as one of the main components in protecting the borders of the Fatherland.
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  1. hohol95
    hohol95 30 October 2017 08: 56 New
    +2
    That's what WIKIPEDIA says -
    “In March 1570, Ivan the Terrible issued a security certificate to Karsten Rode, in which it said,“ ... to take the power of enemies, and to find, hook and destroy the ships with fire and sword according to our majesty ... And to our governors and ordered people of that chieftain Karsten Rode and his skippers, comrades and assistants in our haven on the sea and on land, to be cherished and held in honor. ” According to the agreement, Rode had to sell the captured goods in Russian ports, to deliver to Narva for the needs of Russia every third captured ship and, according to the best gun, from the other two ships, a tenth of all captured booty. He also pledged to "exchange prisoners or get a ransom for them," to hand over to the clerks and other clerks in the ports. The marque crew did not have the right to prey, but received a salary of six thalers per month.
    Within a few months, Rode seized 22 vessels with a total value, together with cargoes of half a million Efimk silver.
    Meanwhile, Rode was in no hurry to fulfill the terms of the contract with Ivan the Terrible and sold most of the spoils and trophies at Bornholm and Copenhagen. The activity of the Rode squadron was so high and caused such harm to the Polish and Swedish merchants that Sweden and Poland sent special squadrons to search and capture Rode, but were unsuccessful.
    Rohde was kept in the castle of Gall. Any relationship with the outside world was forbidden for Carsten Rode, but kept him “with honor”: settled in a decent room of the castle, well fed. Ivan the Terrible offered to send Rode to him so that “he would find everything about him here, that he would write to you afterwards”, but did not receive an answer. In the summer of 1573, Frederick II personally visited Gall Castle and ordered Rode to be transferred to Copenhagen.
    There is no information about the fate of Carsten Rohde. "
    1. vodkinmotors1
      vodkinmotors1 5 November 2017 12: 12 New
      0
      Become more comfortable !!
  2. hohol95
    hohol95 30 October 2017 09: 00 New
    +2
    Karsten Rode - Ivan the Terrible Pirate
    moiarussia.ru
    Karsten Barber
    Before serving with the Russian Tsar, Rode drowned Swedish ships for the glory of the Danish crown. At the same time, Karsten Rode was an extremely pious and God-fearing man. He could easily throw a blasphemer and a hollow sack “into the oncoming wave” so as not to incur the wrath of God on the ship.
    An interesting fact - Rode was extremely demanding on his own image - he was a barber-barber in the service of his pirate ship.
    In Hamburg and Kiel, a pirate was sentenced to death, but he did not intend to go to Hamburg and Kiel. A wide-profile specialist seconded to Russia went straight to the Aleksandrovskaya Sloboda.
    Documentary evidence about the circumstances of the death of the first Russian pirate did not survive, which made it possible for writers to put forward several fantastic versions. So, in Vitaliy Gladkikh’s novel “Pirate Pendant”, Karsten Rode becomes one of the pirates of the legendary Drake.
  3. Monarchist
    Monarchist 30 October 2017 09: 10 New
    +3
    Alex, thanks for the story about Rod. It was interesting and informative to me.
    Regarding what to consider the beginning of the Russian Navy. Let us recall Veliky Novgorod: their lobby was not only capable of fishing. If now at 21c. on the sea, anything can happen, but at that time there was completely lawlessness. Naturally, the Novgorod lodges were universal. Yes, and Pomeranian Kochi could turn into a battle.
  4. avt
    avt 30 October 2017 10: 08 New
    +1
    Such a story, which could end with the fact that the Navy was created precisely by Tsar Ivan the Terrible
    no Yes, never! Vanya number 4, of course, clearly calculated the need for a struggle in communications. BUT it didn’t lay the ships; he did not build the shipyard. Well, there was no attempt to engage in marine shipbuilding. So rather Lesha, “The Quiet”, and specifically Ordin-Nashokin, which Laurenti bully Pulls on the founder. But the scope and consequences of course do not let go. Although the same Black Sea aka “Orel” did not remain from Petrusha, something remained in the Baltic and Arkhangelsk, including the shipyard.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 30 October 2017 12: 51 New
      +2
      Navy and NOT Smell! Neither shipyards, nor shipbuilders ... Narva was finally given to SWEDISH! That's the whole song about the Fleet of the Terrible King ...
  5. San Sanych
    San Sanych 30 October 2017 10: 13 New
    0
    Once I happened to read the book of Konstantin Badigin "Corsairs of Ivan the Terrible", there, too, is told about him
  6. hohol95
    hohol95 30 October 2017 12: 48 New
    0
    Science and life. No. 12, 2003.
    In the summer of 1573, King Frederick personally visited Gall Castle and ordered the transfer of Rode to Copenhagen. In the capital, the conditions of the prisoner’s detention were significantly softened: he could live in a private apartment at his own expense, being under the supervision of the authorities and not having the right to leave the city. Moreover, by his decree Frederick announced to Rode that he would be immediately released if he paid “compensation to the crown” - a thousand thalers. Rode's money should have been found: according to the documents, it means that he managed to capture 22 ships carrying goods worth half a million yefimkov. But, hoping for the intercession of Tsar Ivan, Rode refused to pay.
    It is known that he remained in captivity for another three years. This can be judged by the letter of the Russian tsar to Frederick sent to Copenhagen in 0, apparently after the request for help from Rode himself reached Moscow. Just as Rode was in no hurry to comply with the “clauses of the contract” with the Russian Tsar, so Tsar Ivan was not very zealous in releasing Rode from captivity.
    After 1576, there is no information about Kirsten Rod.
  7. Antares
    Antares 30 October 2017 14: 25 New
    +1
    Private work under Grozny is understandable, but there is very little about Peter’s fleet (although it’s clear that this is the official date of birth)
    Maybe it should be divided, the history of the Russian fleet and the Russian Imperial?
    At the first, flotillas from 200 to 350 (Askold and Vladimir) can be considered sufficient for the fleet.

    Separate period of Novgorod.
    You can also recall the history of the ship Frideric

    When Grozny
    During the Livonian war, Narva became a lively point of maritime trade of the Moscow state. During the Livonian war of 1558-1583. there was an urgent need to have a navy to protect trade and ensure the fighting of Russian troops on the coast.
    Military and merchant ships were built at domestic shipyards in Narva, Vologda, Zapadnaya Dvina, Arkhangelsk and partially bought abroad.
    For the construction of ships, Russia had all the necessary materials, and for their weapons and artillery, however, a protracted war prevented the creation of a strong navy in a short time. The Livonian war, which began with Livonia under unfavorable conditions for the Russian state and grew into a war of the Moscow state with a coalition consisting of Livonia, Sweden and Poland, ended unsuccessfully for the Russians. The war showed the whole need for a strong navy, and Russia's access to the sea became an even more historical necessity.
    So before the Empire, the Kiev / Moscow state only lost access to the sea. There was only White. And it was precisely Peter who got it. And it was he who was to make the state of Russia capable of not losing its outputs, but returning it. Blood, sweat, iron and gunpowder, lives ...
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 30 October 2017 15: 42 New
      0
      What is remarkable about the Frideric ship? By the fact that he could not even defeat the Caspian Sea and was thrown ashore by a storm in the Derbent region and plundered by local residents?
      Is this remarkable?
      And the flag on the "FEDA" was by no means Russian (Russian) -
      The Frederick was built 31 years earlier than the Eagle, which is traditionally considered the first Russian sailing ship of the Western European type.
      However, although the Frederick was built in Russia, but he went under the flag of Holstein. (N.A. Kuznetsov, 2012, p. 82; V.A. Dygalo, 1991, p. 12-13.)
      1. Antares
        Antares 30 October 2017 19: 53 New
        0
        Quote: hohol95
        Is this remarkable?

        an attempt to import production in local realities and raw materials.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 30 October 2017 20: 55 New
          0
          That's just an attempt!
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 30 October 2017 22: 38 New
          0
          And the attempt was only an attempt! The lead ship is broken, no design changes were made, there were NO subsequent ships with the flag of RUSSIA until Peter I !!!
          And all the remarkableness!
          1. nafanal
            nafanal 1 November 2017 06: 13 New
            0
            You are mistaken. The Russian fleet has always been there. Donors, however, like the Cossacks walked along the Black Azov and the Caspian at home. 1674, a detachment of ships under the command of Colonel Kasogov smashed the Turkish squadron in the vicinity of the Taganrog spit. Peter still walked under the table. there was a fleet. The Cossacks had a sickly fleet. On their seagulls they even went out to the Atlantic. 1646 Zaporizhzhya besieged Dunkirk Fleet Russia has always been
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 1 November 2017 09: 36 New
              +1
              Cossacks BRAVING DUNKERK in 1646 - were subjects of Moscow or Warsaw?
              All the flotillas you described did not belong to the STATE ARMED FORCES!