Military Review

Bashkir-Meshcheryak army serving Russia

52
Bashkir-Meshcheryak army serving RussiaThis year marks the 460 anniversary of the completion of Bashkiria’s voluntary entry into the Russian state, which began after the conquest of the Kazan Khanate by Russia in 1552 and stretched for several years - up to the 1557 year. In 2019, the Republic of Bashkortostan will mark the centenary of its creation, and the anniversary events in the republic are already beginning. One of the terms of the treaties of the Bashkir tribes with John IV the Terrible, in whose reign Bashkiria became part of Russia, was the military service of the Bashkirs to the Tsar. And since then, Bashkir warriors have become part of the Russian military storiesparticipating in many wars and campaigns of the Russian army. The need for the military use of the Bashkir batyrs prompted the Russian state to eventually form a whole irregular army of them and Mishars, thus streamlining the former military organization of the Bashkirs. It seems to the author that on this anniversary year for Bashkortostan it will be interesting to recall the history of this unique army for our country.


BY TYPE OF COSSACK TROOPS

The Bashkir-Meshcheryaksky (Bashkir-Misharsky) army is an irregular army formed by the Cossack type in Russia at the very end of the 18th century by Emperor Paul I (1796 – 1801). The army was formed from Bashkirs and Tatar-Mishars, a subethnos of Tatars of the Middle Volga and Ural regions, speaking the Mishar dialect of the Tatar language and residing both then and now in the territory of the modern Republic of Bashkortostan and the vast adjacent territories of the neighboring Russian regions. Many of these territories along with the territory of modern Bashkortostan and, of course, the Orenburg region in the XVIII – XIX centuries were part of the Orenburg province, which was the frontier before the beginning of the large-scale Russian conquest of Central Asia in the second half of the XIX century and often referred to unofficially in literature and in common Orenburg by the edge.

In the XVI century, the Bashkirs voluntarily form part of the Russian state. The terms of entry were as follows: the Bashkirs retained the patrimonial right to the land, Islam and local government. Instead, they had to pay tribute and carry on military service. In the reign of Empress Anna Ioannovna (1730 – 1740), the Orenburg Territory and the Orenburg Border Line are formed. The Russian government actively attracts not only regular, but also irregular troops to protect it. Initially, the Cossacks carried the border service on the Orenburg line, but gradually, by the middle of the 18th century, Bashkirs were brought to military service on the line, who, according to the schedule approved in 1755, were annually sent to 1969 people. At about the same time, other local peoples began to engage in military service on the line: Meshcheryaks (Mishars) and Kalmyks.

The emperor Paul I, who ascended the throne in 1796, carries out a serious reform in the administration of the Bashkirs and mesheryami (Mishars). 30 January 1797, the Bashkirs and Mishars were transferred to the military department with subordination to the military governor, and 10 on April 1798 introduced the cantonal control system. It was created 11 Bashkir, 5 Mishar cantons and 5 cantons of the Orenburg Cossacks. The cantons had no special names, they were distinguished by their serial numbers. The cantons were divided into yurts or teams. At the head of the cantons were canton commanders, at the head of the yurts - the yurt elders, subordinate to the first. Both those and others were appointed from representatives of the Bashkir and Tatar feudal elite. In total, Bashkirs were obliged to annually place 5413 people in the service. One exhibited on the line was almost at the 4 yard. Although Bashkirs were officially listed as “people” and not as troops, in reality, the last name, which generalized Bashkirs and Mishars, was instilled, so the army created from them was called Bashkir-Mescheryak, as both these people carried the same linear service and had the same structure.

STRUGGLE AGAINST BREAKERS

The main task of the Bashkir-Mescheryak army was, along with the Orenburg and Ural Cossack troops and units of the regular Russian imperial army, to protect the Orenburg line and internal service, mainly in the Orenburg province, which for the most part included modern Bashkortostan. However, at the beginning of the 19th century, the regiments of the Bashkir-Meshcheryaksky forces were also brought in for external service and began to take part in the wars that were then fought by the Russian Empire. For the external service, the first two regiments were formed in the 1811 year. After the beginning of World War 1812, the formation of Bashkirs and Mishars of new regiments begins. They were formed 20, and the Bashkirs and Mishars most actively responded to the call of the authorities to join these regiments and enrolled in them in droves. Considering the specifics of the light irregular cavalry, the command of the Russian army actively used the regiments of the Bashkir-Mescheryak army in partisan actions that were deployed in the rear of the Great Army in the second half of 1812. It was there that the Bashkirs and the Mishars achieved great success in the hostilities and gained undiminished fame. Subsequently, the regiments of the Bashkirs and Mishars went along with the Russian army all the way from the Russian border to Paris.

However, already in the course of the participation of the Bashkir and Meshcheryak regiments in the Napoleonic wars, it became clear that they, by the standards of that time, have low combat effectiveness due to their backward weapons and outdated tactics. In the clashes on the Orenburg line with the steppe men, armed and fighting about the same as the Bashkir-Mescheryak army, it was fully combat-ready, but it was very difficult for him to fight with the European troops, especially in open battle, despite all courage and bravery Bashkir and Meshcheryk warriors. In essence, the Bashkir-Meshcheryak army was the real medieval army at the end of the XVIII - beginning of the XIX centuries - at the very height of the modern era!

The warriors of the Bashkir-Mescheryaksky army carried military service with their weapons. It was very diverse, with cold weapons being actively used - swords and pikes. In the role of small arms, they often used bows and arrows, quite archaic at the end of the 18th - first half of the 19th centuries. There were Bashkirs and Mishars and guns. Since each soldier was in service with his weapon, the Bashkir-Mescheryak army did not have a precise regulation of the types of weapons used and even more so - their samples and tactical-technical characteristics.

Uniforms and equipment, as well as weapons, each Bashkir and Mishar had to buy at their own expense, so there was no strict regulation of not only weapons, but also uniforms and equipment. As far as we know, there was no provision for a special military uniform in the Bashkir-Mescheryak army, so it can be assumed that the uniform of the ranks of this army was close to the national everyday clothes of the Bashkirs and Mishars.

After the end of the Napoleonic wars, the Bashkir-Mescheryak army continued to carry the border service on the Orenburg line. At the beginning of the 19th century, there were thousands of irregular troops serving there. In quantitative terms, they were presented as follows: 10 thousand Orenburg Cossacks, 2 Stavropol Kalmyk, 400 thousand Bashkirs and Mishars. As you can see, most of the irregular border guards were made up of the latter.

TRAFFIC REFORM

The military-technical backwardness of the Bashkir-Mescheryak army, in fact, its medieval weapons and tactics, forced the authorities from the beginning of the 19th century to think about its reforming. The reform projects are a separate and very interesting topic that is being developed today in academic circles by the Ufa military historian Ramil Nasibullovich Rakhimov.

On the whole, it is possible to trace certain trends in the development of projects for reforming the Bashkir-Mescheryak army. Over the course of 30 years, 10 conversion projects have been proposed. Conventionally, they can be divided into two groups. The first is projects that offer to create an army identical to the Cossack troops. These are the projects of Peter Kirillovich Essen, Peter Aleksandrovich Tolstoy, Nikolai Petrovich Beklemishev and Vladimir Afanasyevich Obruchev. The second group consists of projects that offer to keep a smaller part of the Bashkir-Mescheryaksky army in a martial state, and a large part to pass to the civilian department. These are the projects of Pavel Petrovich Sukhtelen, Viktor Pavlovich Kochubey and Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky. Such inconsistency was associated with the absence of Emperor Nicholas I, in whose reign (1825 – 1855) most of these projects were proposed, a stable point of view on this issue.

Despite the military-technical backwardness of the Bashkir-Meshcheryak army, its low cost, since the military mostly acted on duty at its own expense, made it quite suitable for the border service on the south-eastern borders of Russia and participation in the combat operations of the Orenburg Corps troops against Central Asian States, given that the latter’s armies were then no less retarded in military-technical terms. Bashkir warriors also participated in the well-known campaign of the Orenburg Governor-General Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky against the Kokand fortress Ak-Mosque, its successful assault and capture by Russian troops in the summer of 1853. During the years of the Crimean War 1853 – 1856, parts of the Bashkir-Meshcheryak troops were sent to the Baltic region, where they participated in covering the north-western, Baltic regions of Russia.

TRANSFER TO CIVIL CONSOLIDATION

By the middle of the 19th century, it had finally become clear that the Bashkir-Mescheryak army in the form in which it was then was completely and irrevocably outdated. His fighting ability was still rated low. This inclined the authorities to abolish it. At the same time, they hesitated about whether or not to do it anyway. It was clear that with the transfer of the Bashkirs to the civil estate there would be inevitable trials of land. In addition, the Bashkir-Mescheryak army was a source of free labor in the Orenburg region, especially in the 30 – 50-ies of the XIX century, which, of course, was very beneficial to the authorities. Yes, and the governor-generals of Orenburg were prestigious to have subordinated several irregular troops, including the Bashkir-Mescheryak army, which raised their status and favorably distinguished them from other governor-generals of the Russian Empire.

But the systemic sociopolitical crisis after the defeat of Russia in the Crimean War caused the need for a radical transformation of all spheres of the Russian state, including the military sphere. The new Russian emperor Alexander II (1855 – 1881) begins the policy of the Great Reforms, which also affected the army.

At this time, Russia begins a large-scale conquest of Central Asia, and the Orenburg province soon turns from the border into the inner province of the Russian Empire, and, therefore, now it does not need border protection. That is why the Orenburg line was abolished then. All the above factors definitively predetermined the fate of the Bashkir-Mescheryak army: soon after the Crimean War, it was abolished, and the Bashkirs and Mishars were turned into a civil class.

The history of the emergence and existence of the Bashkir-Meshcheryaksky army has many glorious pages and, I think, needs further research and understanding. It is a vivid and interesting episode in the history of Bashkiria and the Orenburg Territory, and with them the whole of the Southern Urals.
Author:
Originator:
http://nvo.ng.ru/history/2017-10-27/14_971_bashkir.html
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  1. Cartalon
    Cartalon 28 October 2017 06: 52 New
    +4
    Um, in theory in the Napoleonic era, the bow was supposed to be an effective weapon, the rate of fire was high, and the accuracy and range were certainly no worse than that of a smooth-bore gun, there wasn’t any armor, so it’s an order of magnitude.
    1. Seal
      Seal 29 November 2017 19: 24 New
      0
      It was very diverse, and edged weapons were actively used - sabers and peaks. In the role of small arms, they often used a bow and arrow.

      To the delight of historians of the XNUMXth and XNUMXst centuries, they sometimes lost their spears and arrows, or simply used them for hunting or something else (to drive thieves off the highway). And all this that was found, historians of the XX and XXI centuries joyfully declared "Tatar-Mongolian". laughing
  2. Cat
    Cat 28 October 2017 07: 16 New
    +6
    The story of the "volkolovye" in the service of the Russian Empire is designed for the topic!
    One of the comments to the author. Unfortunately, I did not see the forerunner of the creation of the irregular Bagkir army, but they are interesting in themselves.
    In short. The first ideologist to create the Bashkir irregular army according to the Cossack model was the notorious V. Tatishchev. But unfortunately his memos, as it happens with us, were “put on the cloth.” All the more surprising is the fact that out of nonexistence the idea of ​​V. Tatishchev was returned by G. Potemkin, who was the initiator of the reforms to transfer the Bashkir Territory to an irregular army. The army was officially registered during the reign of Paul I, but this is a statement of fact. Most importantly, this idea found a lively response in the hearts of the Bashkirs and they faithfully served Russia.
    Now, in terms of the fighting efficiency of the "volkolovyhs", you did not wonder why the fortresses Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, Chebarkul, Klinovskaya were built in the Urals? Or who was the basis of the peasant troops of E. Pugachev, who periodically "hollowed out" regular troops! I will say more, a number of the history of the Ural factories begins with the words "ten years after the invasion of the Bashkirs"! So, the assessment of distant Petersburg is one thing, and the Bashkirs and Tatar close to the Urals are another. By the way, after the creation of the irregular army, the need for neighbors in the fortresses in the Middle Urals has become obsolete.
    1. captain
      captain 29 January 2018 10: 33 New
      0
      Dear Kotische. I agree with you, the author did not indicate the beginning of the creation of the army (it was called the army at one time). According to a brief chronicle of "Cossack troops and irregular units," from the "reference book of the Imperial Main Apartment", the Bashkirs were first brought to the service of the emperor of Russia on June 3 1714. The same Bashkirs participated in the Seven Years War. Further, the author is right, just like the army of Bash.-Meshch. was formed in 1736. Voisko was initially divided into 3000 cantons, later 1798. . The composition of the army included the indigenous population of those places; Bashkirs, Meshcheryaki, Teptyari. I did not find information about the inclusion of the Orenburg Cossacks in the army. They took an active part in the 12 war. 28 of five hundred regiments was exposed. Denis Davydov (war hero of 1812) respectfully recalled the Bashkirs in his writings. The army was not liquidated in the 20 year, it was renamed Bashkir, and in the 1812 it was transferred to the Ministry of the Interior and was disbanded.
      But thanks to the author anyway. Though they began to remember the history of Russia.
  3. moskowit
    moskowit 28 October 2017 07: 16 New
    +3
    Very interesting and informative material .... In Paris, representatives of this glorious army was nicknamed "Cupids" for armament ....
    1. avt
      avt 28 October 2017 10: 28 New
      +1
      Quote: moskowit
      In Paris, representatives of this glorious army was nicknamed "Cupids" for archery ....

      Yes . Truth to laugh at
      Quote: moskowit
      "cupids"
      stopped immediately as they met in battle.
      1. moskowit
        moskowit 28 October 2017 11: 42 New
        +1
        It was the Parisian inhabitants who called them that .... And whoever experienced the weapons of these glorious warriors called them the "Northern Cupids" ...
  4. Amurets
    Amurets 28 October 2017 07: 23 New
    +2
    Thank. Interesting stuff. Moreover, my paternal grandfather was an Orenburg Cossack. After the suppression of the "Boxer Rebellion" and the liquidation of the Manchurian wedge, the village of Nikolaev, the Amur Cossack army was created. For this village, Cossacks first began to relocate from the Kuban and Don Cossack troops, and since 1903 the main settlers were from the Orenburg Cossack army. My grandfather was from the village of Orenburg. And for me it was interesting to read about what was happening, in the old days, in the homeland of my grandfather.
  5. Korsar4
    Korsar4 28 October 2017 08: 13 New
    +5
    Interesting. And again, Paul I had a hand. The Sovereign, who had so many attacks, managed a lot.
    1. Cat
      Cat 28 October 2017 08: 30 New
      +3
      Earlier, I noticed that the idea of ​​creating an irregular Cossack army in Bashkiria belonged to V. Tatishchev. G. Poteykin-Tauride revived the idea. Paul only completed what was begun half a century ago, although this does not beg his merits.
  6. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 08: 47 New
    +1
    Let me remind the author that Russia went from St. Petersburg, only with Petra1go it developed further, crushing Muscovy in the War of 1812 and further to Persia and Siberia.
    1. moskowit
      moskowit 28 October 2017 09: 48 New
      +4
      But Ermak, Atlasov, Khabarov, Dezhnev and many others, when there wasn’t a trace of Peterburg, it’s so easy to "take a walk" ...
      1. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 09: 55 New
        0
        Well, firstly, if you know something about Ermak, what is his name, surname and what he was doing, let me know, because there is no information.
        In addition, the borders were not closed and any of your expeditions will be allowed to go anywhere. Again, how far will you go.
        Catherine, as you know, burned the cities of Muscovy, and rebuilt them according to European projects, prepared for herself.
        I thought up and carried out an epidemic of smallpox in Muscovy, having previously vaccinated myself and my guard. If you find it interesting to find the Archive logo from Igor Grek.
        1. moskowit
          moskowit 28 October 2017 10: 31 New
          +2
          Well, if I was preparing an “Expedition” for “SEB”, then it’s understandable why “Russia went from St. Petersburg” ... But did Min Hertz come to St. Petersburg from where? Naturally from Holland ... And the national flag was made up of the colors of the Dutch flag .... And our "fool-historians" believe that Russia originated from ancient times, and Muscovy from Daniel began .... Here are the "idiots" ... It turns out that everything started from St. Petersburg ... More recently ...
          1. Settlement Oparyshev
            Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 10: 39 New
            0
            Here you are right. The Oldenburgs launched their tentacles in all directions of the world. But you don’t have to do Petersburg, a war of 12 years, the navel of the Earth. This is just an eastern episode. In the same year there was a similar War in America, from the Hudson to the Great Lakes. Flag of Peter the Oldenburg , there couldn’t be another. By the way, the flag of the DPR is the same as Oldenburg. Someone wisely acted.
            1. moskowit
              moskowit 28 October 2017 10: 55 New
              +1
              Thank you very much. You "opened my eyes." It turns out I, all my conscious life, was mistaken ... Here it turns out, where you can draw "true" knowledge ... I just want to exclaim, like Socrates: "The more I know, the more I become convinced that I know nothing" ....
            2. moskowit
              moskowit 28 October 2017 11: 04 New
              +2
              And you, mon ami, actually know that the Russian pre-Peter’s calendar kept its chronology from the Creation of the World ???
              1. Settlement Oparyshev
                Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 11: 27 New
                +1
                Do not call the word "Russian" the pre-Petrine peoples of Eurasia. Then there were many different peoples "Ushkuytsy" for example, the ancestors of the Cossacks.
                In order to call the Russian land from the Dniester to Chukotka, you need a commonplace single control, communication, transport unity. If you stop pulling on the current management capabilities at that time, it will be easier for you to understand the structure of the peoples and states of those times.
                1. moskowit
                  moskowit 28 October 2017 11: 35 New
                  +3
                  "ushkuytsy" for example, ancestors of the Cossacks.

                  Ushkuyniki, cher ami, ear-pots ... That was the name of Novgorod pioneers, who sometimes hunted and robbed ....
                  1. Settlement Oparyshev
                    Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 12: 03 New
                    0
                    Preventing the Horde from carrying tribute from Muscovy. Well, we figured out that there were no Russians then.
                    1. moskowit
                      moskowit 28 October 2017 12: 21 New
                      +2
                      Lord have mercy! What tribute ??? If the Horde is Muscovy .... You, my dear, decide ... Jumble in the set of "higher knowledge" of charlatans from history, at least systematized ...
                      Zosim, au revuar, I already spent so much time on pointless conversations ... I wish you success in further "historical research" ....
                      1. Settlement Oparyshev
                        Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 12: 31 New
                        0
                        Will you really leave me? I will take a breath. You have sowed doubts with me. Maybe we are writing about different times? Once the Horde was separate from Muscovy, when everything was one.
                2. Weyland
                  Weyland 28 October 2017 21: 30 New
                  0
                  Quote: pp to Oparyshev
                  "ushkuytsy" for example, ancestors of the Cossacks.

                  Yeah ... and there were also "ears" - so those are generally real animals! laughing
                  And in the truest sense (ear - this is a polar bear)
                  1. Akuzenka
                    Akuzenka 29 January 2018 11: 57 New
                    0
                    Oshkuy - a polar bear.
                3. Nagaibak
                  Nagaibak 6 March 2018 19: 44 New
                  0
                  Crew Oparyshev "various peoples" Ushkuytsy. "
                  Specific nonsense. Ushkuytsy, Nanai and Indians.)))
        2. co-creator
          co-creator 30 October 2017 18: 19 New
          0
          Quote: pp to Oparyshev
          Catherine, as you know, burned the cities of Muscovy, and rebuilt them according to European projects, prepared for herself.

          What are these cities? Anyway, what is the name of how many cities there were in stone before Catherine in Russia?
  7. Operator
    Operator 28 October 2017 10: 42 New
    +2
    Translated into Russian, the Bashkir-Mishar "batyrs", as they were ballast in the army, remained until their disbandment.
    1. Cat
      Cat 28 October 2017 12: 13 New
      +5
      In the winter company of 1812-1813, the “foreigners” of the Bashkirs, Kalmyks and Tatars showed themselves from the very best side as irregular cavalry. And without conceding anything to the Cossacks of the Don and Kuban. Moreover, to hang up stamps about the useless weapons of the Bashkirs, I think it is not appropriate. Volunteers armed with a yurt, giving the best. So in terms of melee weapons, the Bashkirs were head and shoulders superior to the same Orenburg Cossacks and combat dragoon regiments. Since the Bukhara blades and other eastern blades from Damascus steel were an order of magnitude higher quality than regular ones. By the way, the superiority of regular cold steel weapons over individual weapons was achieved only half a century later, with the construction of the Zlatoust plant and the advent of cast damask technology. Even the poorest Bashkirs were armed with trophies of the Pugachev region. It is also a mistake to assume that the Bashkirs lacked firearms. Especially considering the proximity of the Ural factories. It was a weapon, but a bow if you are trained to use it from childhood is a much more terrible and effective weapon. Now about the horses. What horses do you think our Cossacks fought on? Curtain on similar steppe horses. Donchiki and Orliks ​​were just taking their first steps towards fame. And here again, the peculiarity of the formation of a "gunman" from the yurt gave precedence to the ordinary Bashkir, Tatar and Kalmyk in front of the ordinary cavalry of the regular army.
      Well, the last, all of the above explains the reason for the decline in the quality of Bashkir military contingents in peacetime. Tayonam - roads are not prestigious to build! Well, if "to rob," then they are right here, "weapons, horses"! Motivation however.
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. Cat
          Cat 28 October 2017 17: 11 New
          +3
          Pushkin’s contemporaries thought differently!
          By the way, Hagan Azars, Beks of the Bulgars, khans and temniks of the big and golden hordes appreciated the "volkolovye" no less.
          And read about the Bashkirs at Tatishchev, Minkh, Neplyuev. Miller and Davydov have something about them that, militarily, the Bashkirs were always on top. In the year of uprisings and riots, they destroyed military teams more than once, burned fortresses and factories. The reason why the initiators of the unrest were mainly the authorities, and not the Bashkirs themselves. Well, what I advise you to start with the Captain's daughter. A.S. Pushkin.
          1. Operator
            Operator 28 October 2017 23: 03 New
            0
            Quote: Kotischa
            Hagan Azarov, Beks of the Bulgars, khans and temniks of the big and golden hordes appreciated the "volkolovye"

            This is because at the disposal of the Khagans, Beks, Khans and Temniks there was no Russian army.

            they destroyed military teams more than once

            With a ratio of forces of 100 to 1.
      2. Weyland
        Weyland 28 October 2017 21: 43 New
        +2
        Quote: Kotischa
        So in terms of melee weapons, the Bashkirs were head and shoulders superior to the same Orenburg Cossacks and combat dragoon regiments.

        Support! drinks
        About the Bashkirs, too, forget not a trace. These completely settled long before ours in these places.
        The people, of course, are not rich, and they had such a horse and damask steel that you won’t forget the century. Sometimes such a pattern of ancient craftsmanship on a knife or saber will show that at night you dream about that pattern for a long time. (P. Bazhov, "Ivanko Krylatko")
        In a number of respects, good European Damascus even exceeded damask steel - but in the same Zlatoust it was only begun at 1816m - and precisely because Russian edged weapons showed themselves not in the best way in the 1812 campaign ...
  8. Monarchist
    Monarchist 28 October 2017 10: 54 New
    +3
    Quote: Korsar4
    Interesting. And again, Paul I had a hand. The Sovereign, who had so many attacks, managed a lot.

    I absolutely agree with you: Paul was much smarter than we used to think.
    For example, they said to me at school: Pavel Byak, he oppressed Suvorov, he is so bad.
    Who knows what our history would have been like if: Palen had swollen, and Toothboxes had lost their snuffboxes.
    1. Cat
      Cat 28 October 2017 11: 41 New
      +2
      Here, I agree with you Paul I is one of the underestimated Russian sovereigns. But before praising or scolding him, you must remember that he was primarily a man of his time with all the pros and cons. In this connection, Paul’s deeds must be approached carefully and soberly!
      1. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 12: 05 New
        0
        With your finger in the sky, Mr. Mr. Obviousness, all your comments are valuable precisely for this.
  9. Cat
    Cat 28 October 2017 11: 16 New
    +5
    OPARYSHEV I urge you to common sense! Your idols a la Grekov, Nasonov, Fomenko have already "tormented" mother history with their altranative "delights"! There were no horseshoes in Europe, and all the knights, heroes, petty bourgeois, merchants and nobles - rode on donkeys like "cartoon Alyosha Popovich." That Cossacks under the arms "gulls" and plows are carried through the Ural Mountains. Is that ......?
    According to the chronology of your problems!
    Who is Ermak! Ermak is a “woodpecker” which, contrary to common sense, reason and reason, is for some reason (no one knows, not the Strogonovs, not Ivan the Terrible, let alone me and you), he ran across the Cossacks to Siberia (well, as if to a disco in the neighboring deoyevna, or to women when their men (Tsarevich Ali and the Pelym prince and the best people) themselves went for a gulp (siege of Orel). They carried no plows under the arm, they didn’t sail for three years before Isker (Siberia), having thrown the largest plows along the line between the Serebrennaya River and the Tagil River. Gulnuli Cossacks have been known for three years They beat him with a steel muzzle, but they folded their heads themselves. They fled back across the Ob on the plows, after the chieftain died. But they laid a strong path to Siberia and left little glory for themselves. Some Yermakov stones (fighters), caves, tombs, etc. on Chusovaya If you discard myths and fairy tales, then in the archives of the ambassadorial and Kazan orders there are fairy tales petitioned by Yermak’s close associates. Indirect evidence of the existence of Yermak can serve as the information of the "Polish intelligence" where among the governor at the last stage of the Livonian war, Yermak is the last to be mentioned as the "commander" of the ship’s rati. All this is well described by Skrytnikov. You can argue about the biography of the chieftain, but the authenticity of his existence is stupid and not productive.
    Now about chips number two. In the museums of Moscow, St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg there is an interesting coin "copper ruble." A sort of copper ingot with a small frying pan. They minted it at the Yekaterinburg Coin Plant during the time of Tatishchev. Everything is there, which refutes your speculation about a separate Muscovy and St. Petersburg.
    Good day!
    1. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 11: 33 New
      0
      I congratulate you for your cursory knowledge of the history of the “winners.” But there is also the history of the losing side.
      Here's how you connect tens of thousands of “star” fortresses across Siberia, connected in line, with the campaign of the respected Yermak. Waving a saber to the right: a thousand fortresses collapsing, waving to the left, another thousand as it never happened. You applaud standing. The remains of these star fortresses can be seen from airplanes.
    2. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 11: 36 New
      +1
      Concerning coins. Yes, in the middle of the 19th century, the mass of coins of medals and badges was reprinted, according to the story that you admire. A bad thing is not tricky. Another thing is to kill the soviet Lochowski in itself. It's time.
      1. moskowit
        moskowit 28 October 2017 12: 05 New
        +1
        Another thing is time to already kill in yourself the soviet Lochowski. It's time.

        Kindly explain! As far as I understand, you, a victim of the current "education" .... Which, unlike the Soviet, "Loch", the proper level (average value) of education and knowledge, does not give you at all ... I feel sorry for you. You absolutely do not know basic things that are axiomatic .... There is still time to learn, use while there is TIME !!!. Remember! Each past day reduces the ability to learn and know what's new ....
        1. Settlement Oparyshev
          Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 12: 20 New
          0
          Although you felt sorry for me, my tears came. And I’ll explain to you the difference between Sovkovsky and the present. At that time I wouldn’t have much knowledge and had no knowledge of life. Experience, swearing. I could officially say that and I believed so. There was no other, and I wouldn’t have mastered so much.
          Now I have enough experience and insight that I will tell you right away what is real and what is tales and fantasies. I will figure it out with ambiguities looking for details. There is a choice where you can see what is adequate and what is not. I come up from the bottom with trifles, it’s more true .
          1. moskowit
            moskowit 28 October 2017 12: 28 New
            +2
            When you contact someone, you are capitalized. "You". Or did you also not study this ???
            1. Settlement Oparyshev
              Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 12: 33 New
              0
              Valuable remark: It’s time to pacify your pride.
              1. moskowit
                moskowit 28 October 2017 12: 40 New
                +1
                Well, that’s good that you realized. Believe me, there are so many interesting things in Cognition ... "Yes, and the truth will be revealed to you!"
                1. Settlement Oparyshev
                  Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 12: 48 New
                  0
                  Already opened. Here you see, the adequacy of me and rushing. Now I will strangle TIov with renewed vigor!
  10. Cartalon
    Cartalon 28 October 2017 13: 08 New
    +2
    Settlement Oparyshev,
    I will disappoint you when neither Muscovy nor any Muscovites existed.
    1. Cat
      Cat 28 October 2017 18: 39 New
      +3
      Oh, Michael? But how can you expose the faith of Commissar Oparyshev to Muscovy and Muscovites! Go to the store for the Bible ...... "history book" edited by Grekov and into the corner, until you learn it !!!
      And now seriously, Dear Mikhail, I ask you to sincerely forgive me if I “offended” offended you above.
      What I like about our “new shakers of history” is that after grabbing two or three “half-facts” from the sources, they begin to tailor it for themselves. And why do they systematize, study, compare, compile, etc. "garbage ...." it's easier to blame everything that contradicts fake! My tear is already welling up when I imagine what the Miller’s followers did, and they dug up horses' bones on the territory of Eurasia, drew horses on rocks and old frescoes, now I found out that they faked coins. For example, the “entot” copper ruble coinage of the Yekaterinburg Mint weighing 1/10 pounds.
      The seals of which simply crumble into the rubbish the theory of Muscovy separately from St. Petersburg, led by the king of Tobolsk !!!
      But the most killing in pseudo-historians is the desire “to spread one’s own truth” with mud in one’s own country! Just answer why? Maybe you get paid or a hand on the street "mutts serve"!
      If there is a desire in our history there are so many topics for debate, then our picks "about the little brothers Bonaparte and Alexander" are nothing ....... there is a desire to swear, but you can’t be banned!
      Really, if we think up a glorious story for ourselves, then we will win from this! I doubt it?
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 6 March 2018 19: 51 New
        0
        Kotische "But more than me in pseudo-historians the desire to" douse one’s dirt with one’s own truth kills me! "
        For me it’s such a normal ideological diversion. Abroad, it somehow does not smell like them.)))
    2. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 23: 07 New
      0
      Do not disappoint, try again.
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. Weyland
    Weyland 28 October 2017 21: 26 New
    +2
    In the role of small arms, they often used a bow and arrow, quite archaic in the late XVIII - first half of the XIX centuries
    Yeah ... at the beginning of the attack of the Bashkir archers, the Napoleonic soldiers held their bellies with laughter ... and a few minutes later they fled in panic! The rate of fire of a bow is several times higher than that of a flintlock gun, and the aiming range too!
  13. captain
    captain 29 October 2017 11: 59 New
    +3
    Quote: Kotischa
    Pushkin’s contemporaries thought differently!
    By the way, Hagan Azars, Beks of the Bulgars, khans and temniks of the big and golden hordes appreciated the "volkolovye" no less.
    And read about the Bashkirs at Tatishchev, Minkh, Neplyuev. Miller and Davydov have something about them that, militarily, the Bashkirs were always on top. In the year of uprisings and riots, they destroyed military teams more than once, burned fortresses and factories. The reason why the initiators of the unrest were mainly the authorities, and not the Bashkirs themselves. Well, what I advise you to start with the Captain's daughter. A.S. Pushkin.

    Dear Kotische, do not argue with the great Ukrainians and the followers of Trotsky, it is useless. These people all that happened in Russia hundreds of years ago causes a feeling of hatred and nothing more.
    1. Cat
      Cat 29 October 2017 13: 42 New
      +3
      More than 160 peoples and nationalities live in the Middle Urals, more than 180 in the Russian Federation.
      Over two centuries ago, my ancestors back from the Hamayun region near Kaluga, by force, drove to the lands of the Bashkirs to build Serginsky plants. The territory bought from the Bashkirs by Demidov, according to one version for 21, according to another for 100 gold pieces, is slightly less than the area of ​​the state of Israel. The alien gamayuns had to get along with the Tatars, Bashkirs, Mordovians, Udmurts, Zyryans and Mansi. Yes, and with the local Kerzhak-Old Believers must live skillfully. Having survived its 10-year-old uprising, Pugachevschina, the iron and pestilence of the late 90s of the year before last, emancipation, two domestic and two world wars, the Romadanov hammocks left their descendants two Serginsky (Lower and Upper), two Ufaleysky, Mikhailovsky, Kaslinsky, and Atigsky factories. And 2000 pre-settlers turned into 1/3 million living in the Perm Territory, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk and Kurgan Regions. But the most important thing is that for 275 years in the Urals, the Gayayuns managed not to quarrel with anyone. Everyone who lived in the Gamayunschina before the arrival of the Russians live now! There is a desire, you can see how the Tatars live, in the oldest village of the Middle Urals - Arakayevo, Bashkirs - Akbash, Mari and Mordovians welcome to Old Bukhara, Chuvash, Mansi, etc.
      You can continue for a long time, but perhaps this is the value of being able to live next to each other and at the same time not to interfere with each other. What will be my glory if I offend a Tatar neighbor, saying about the inability of the Tatars to fight? A saber of great-grandfather weighs on his wall ....... grandfather, and I have a bayonet from the three-ruler of the Kaslinsky factory. He knows his ancestors up to the 16th tribe and erects himself from Genghis Guides, and I am only seven from my father and five from my mother. Khan Kuchum brought his ancestor to this land 15 years before Yermak’s campaign, and my N.N. Demidov, in shackles after a century and a half. Meaning is measured against him in something, he already acknowledges my superiority, because I am a root hamayun, and I can rely on the neighbor of a root picnic in everything.
      I have the honor!
    2. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 31 October 2017 03: 01 New
      0
      Those who are not friends with logic live in Traditional History, while those who are friends with logic, for example, the Logistic theory of the development of civilization (Igor Grek), they prefer Alternative History. The same is Sundakov. Why do the Tistorics always prove their theories by insults, sarcasm, that for a normal man is not acceptable.
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 6 March 2018 19: 52 New
        +1
        c. Oparyshev "Those who are not friends with logic, they live in Traditional History."
        And who is not friends with the head they live in your alternative insanity.)))