Mikhail Frunze was born in 1885 in Pishpek (now Bishkek). This is followed by an ideal biography for the Bolshevik.
In 1904, he entered the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, joined the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party. In November, for the first time he was arrested for his revolutionary ideas.
On Bloody Sunday, 9, January 1905, participated in a demonstration on Palace Square in St. Petersburg, was wounded in the arm. Later, Mikhail Vasilyevich recognized that it was this event that led him to the "generals from the revolution."
During the years of the revolution 1905 – 1907 led the party work in Moscow, since May - in Ivanovo-Voznesensk and Shuya (under the pseudonym Comrade Arseny), a member of the committee of the RSDLP. One of the leaders of the Ivanovo-Voznesensk general strike of textile workers (May - July, 1905). At the head of the military squad of Ivanovo-Voznesensky and Shuya workers participated in the December Xprx armed uprising in Moscow. In 1905, the delegate of the IV Congress of the RSDLP in Stockholm from the Ivanovo-Voznesensk district organization.
For the murder of police 23 September 1910 of the year, as indicated by Wikipedia, "sentenced to death, replaced under pressure from public opinion on 6 years of hard labor. After being imprisoned in Vladimir, Nikolaev and Alexandrovsky penal prisons in March, 1914 was sent to the permanent settlement in the village of Manzurka of the Irkutsk province ”.
And here I do not understand anything. Under Stolypin, people were executed by the thousands, often for nonsense.
Here, for example, 18 December 1906, a bomb exploded in the room of the Kiev hotel “Kupecheskaya”. It was prepared by the terrorist Garsky. After an accidental explosion, he escaped, but his injured 16-year-old girlfriend was captured by gendarmes. Evidence of guilt girls no! But she was sentenced to be hanged, replacing the penalty later with eternal penal servitude. And so Fanny Kaplan was serving on penal servitude until February 1917.
What kind of "public" saved Frunze? Bolsheviks? They did not lift a finger, for which they are exposed by the current "democratic" authors.
Mikhail Vasilyevich was saved by his sister Lyudmila, who wrote a letter to Professor Maxim Kovalevsky. His efforts replace the death sentence at first with six years in prison, and just four years after the sentence was passed, Frunze went to fresh air in Siberian exile. It is curious why the “royal satraps” did not act so liberally with other terrorists and the worst enemies of the empire?
I was not lazy and inquired. Maxim Maksimovich Kovalevsky was not only a professor, but also a member of seven (!) Masonic lodges, including “Capitul Astraea”, “Polar Star”, “Revival”, etc. He had extensive connections with foreign Freemasonry. In July, 1906 headed the Duma delegation at the International Inter-Parliamentary Conference in London. In 1907, he was elected a member of the Council of State. But this is serious!
In August, 1915, our hero runs, or maybe just leaves (?) From exile to Chita.
There incognito (the name has not yet been clarified) provides him with a passport in the name of VG Vasilenko.
Frunze works as a statistician at the Migration Board and at the same time as the editor of the Zabaikalskoe Obzorie newspaper. I will note, the newspaper is legal - you cannot lead revolutionary propaganda.
In March, 1916, Frunze goes to Moscow with a passport in the name of P.S. Bagrina. Then he arrives in Petrograd, where the parents of his friend Mikhail Alexandrovich Mikhailov allegedly give him a son's passport. Mikhailov de sent a subpoena to the army, but he disappeared somewhere. Well, Frunze calmly takes that passport, without fear that he will be detained for desertion in time of war.
In December, the 1915 of the Frunze year leaves for the Western Front. In what capacity and for what purpose - история is silent. But already in April, 1916, Mr. Mikhailov works as a statistician in the Office of the Zemstvo Union of the Western Front. I note that the Zemstvo Union was under the complete control of the Masonic lodges. Personnel trained personnel for the future administration of the Provisional Government. And this good deed was done mainly due to the budget of the Russian Empire.
I would have tried Frunze to conduct a Bolshevik agitation in the Zemstvo Union, they would have been expelled from Zemgusars in an instant and sent to the front line or "to places not so distant."
Soviet sources claimed that the 4 of March 1917 of the year, the Bolshevik Frunze, headed the workers' militia of the city of Minsk. A small amendment: I myself saw a photocopy of the document, where it was said: “March 10, an employee of the Zemstvo Union, Mikhail Mikhaylov, was appointed the head of the Zemstvo police department (!) In the city of Minsk”. And these are “two big differences” - the Soviet workers' militia and the militia, created by the Provisional Government and controlled by freemasons.
Interestingly, from 1910 to the spring of 1917, neither Soviet nor anti-Soviet sources mention any contacts of Frunze with the Bolsheviks or even with the Mensheviks. Only by the autumn of 1917, comrade Frunze guesses where the “trunk line” of Russian history passes.
For success on the fronts of the September 20 Civil War 1920, Frunze was appointed commander of the Southern Front. He was tasked with ending the year with Baron Wrangel. And now the troops of the Southern Front under the command of Frunze break through the line of field fortifications of Wrangel on the Crimean isthmuses. Concrete constructions on Perekop existed only on the pages of Soviet and emigre publications.
On November 11, the battle for the Crimean isthmuses was completely over, whites fled and no longer offered resistance. Well, what do the "red heroes"? After all, they had two whole cavalry armies and several separate cavalry units. Total 40 – 45 thousand sabers, 57 armored cars and several hundred trucks.
Chop whites in cabbage! So it was, but only in the movies. See “Two comrades served”, “Running”, etc. There horse lava red cavalry smash retreating white carts, beautiful cavalry felling of red and white. In "Run" on the pier in Sevastopol Artbuchte, fleeing Wrangelmen shoot from the Maximov at the red cavalry rushing towards them.
However, after the White positions on Perekop and Ishuni, the Red divisions ... disappear from the Soviet and current "democratic" sources from the middle of the 1930's and until the beginning of the XXI century. Official Soviet and liberal sources immediately go from storming Perekop to evacuating whites. Emigrant authors wrote about this period briefly and unclearly. General Slashchev wrote: "The Reds did not press, and the withdrawal took place in peacetime conditions." More, while in the USSR, he could not write.
Compare with the opinion of the modern “democratic” author: “However, it was not possible to prevent the evacuation. The Reds were also exhausted by the battle (at Perekop. - A.Sh.), losing 10 thousands of people. They were able to start the pursuit only in a day. The whites have broken away from them. ”
In fact, what happened unprecedented in the history of wars. The army, which had multiple superiority in personnel, broke through the enemy defenses and went out into the operational area, suddenly stopped.
According to the encyclopedia "Civil War and Military Intervention in the USSR" (Moscow, 1983), by the beginning of the assault Frunze had 146 thousand bayonets and 40 thousand sabers, and Wrangel had 23 thousand bayonets and 12 thousand sabers.
As for the losses, according to the Frunze report, the losses of the armies (6 field, 1 and 2 horse) of the Southern front in the battles over Crimea in the autumn of 1920 amounted to all 10 344 people - killed, wounded, missing and so forth (see table).
I note that this is a loss not only in the battle for Perekop, but also in previous battles in the fall of 1920. The Makhnovists are not included in the table.
Note that of the 40 thou. Red cavalry, the vast majority did not participate in the battles for Perekop at all. Behind Ishun, whites did not have any fortifications all the way to the Crimean ports. Wrangel, however, was going to defend Sevastopol along the line of fortifications 1854 – 1855, but things didn’t go further than idle chatter.
Portions of the whites fled to where — to Evpatoria, Sevastopol, Yalta, Theodosia, and Kerch. It is not difficult to guess that the red cavalry literally rushed into battle. They did not have enough ammunition, food, families were starving at home. And ahead was literally Klondike.
Ah, all the same, all the riches of the whites would go to the Red Army! Only a well-groomed professor of the history department can argue this way. But in fact, other parts, the Crimean Tatars, partisans, etc., could have taken the booty away.
Nevertheless, after a breakthrough in the steppe Crimea, Frunze ordered both cavalry armies to rest. It turns out some nonsense.
The famous émigré historian Vasily Pavlov wrote: “The last battle of the Russian army units ended on the 18 of 30 in October (12 in November)”. 2 Cavalry Army Commander Philip Mironov echoed him: “The Second Horse's battle near the Kurman-Kemelchi station was the last battle of the Soviet troops in the Crimea. And we have the right to say that the last guns that spoke in the Crimea were the guns of the Second cavalry army. The last dying ray of the sun witnessed the last artillery shot of the red 12 of November 1920 of the year. ”
AVIATION And the fleet is idle
The most curious thing is that from November 11 red aircraft ceased to fly. Frunze had a 51 operational aircraft in the Perekop area, including the four-engine Ilya Muromets four-engined bombers. In his memoirs, the red volelet Aleksey Tumansky claimed that 8 of September 1920 of the year on “Murom” he flew beyond Dzhankoy, and there at the airfield Fedorovka destroyed four De Haviland bomber.
Let's leave the destroyed "De Havillands" on Tumansky's conscience. The main thing for us is that the Reds flew behind Dzhankoy even before the assault on Perekop. In the "History of the Soviet Army Air Force" (Moscow, 1954) it is said: "The Soviet pilots made over a thousand sorties with Wrangel's troops with a total raid over 2 thousands of hours."
Later, Frunze praised: “After the Soviet divisions broke into the Crimea, I ordered the front aviation officer V.Yu. Jungmeister will organize strikes against enemy ships in the ports of Yevpatoria, Theodosius, Yalta and Sevastopol in order to prevent him from evacuating his troops by sea. ”
A "villain" Jungmeisetr did not fly into the air a single aircraft, while Wrangel safely left for Constantinople. Yes, for such a thing - to the revtribunal and against the wall! And Jungmeister went on increasing. So Comrade Frunze, to put it mildly, is cunning.
There was another opportunity to prevent the evacuation of the Wrangel troops. In September, the first Soviet submarine AG-1920 entered service in Nikolaev 23. The boat of the newest design, is made in Canada and collected in Nikolaev. Its armament: 4 nasal 457-mm torpedo tubes and one 47-mm gun. The range of the boat - 2700 miles, surface speed - 12,8 node.
Thus, AG-23 could catch any Wrangel ship on the surface, including the battleship General Alekseev, which actually launched 6 – 7 units. And the cruising range allowed her to cruise in the Black Sea for a whole month. Meanwhile, Frunze ordered to send the AG-23 into the sea only on November 12! And she went to sea only 13-th. 15 November AG-23 has already cruised off Sevastopol, but the whites have long been gone.
The rhetorical question is why the commander-in-chief of Frunze ordered the launch of the boat into the sea only on November 12, when the first ships with the Wrangelians were already leaving Sevastopol? Well, Mikhail Vasilievich overslept! Forgot about the boat. So November 12 could be ordered to go not to Sevastopol, but to the Bosphorus. The boat would surely surpass the Wrangel armada and sink several ships. But the main thing - panic among inexperienced naval officers and sailors (among the latter there were no more than 10% of professionals) would inevitably lead to rams and navigation accidents. Well, "under the guise of" some vessels could turn around in Sevastopol.
In Stalin's time, Comrade Frunze for such a thing would have landed in the NKVD. And there was not even an investigation into the omissions of the 1 and 2 of the cavalry armies, aviation and submarine AG-23.
October 23 (November 4) ships of the Red Azov flotilla tried to go to the Sea of Azov, but could not because of freezing. But 16 flotilla aircraft? Who prevented them from bombing the whites? Ice too?
The width of the Kerch Strait from 4,5 to 15 km. Why didn't the aviation of the red Caucasian army bomb white ships and the ports of Kerch and Theodosia?
In April, 1920, in the captured Novorossiysk by the Reds, was created the “Sea Forces of the Eastern Black Sea”. They consisted of Turkish gunboats “Aydin Reis” and “Preveza” and several armed merchant ships. They naturally could not intercept the white fleet, but at night they could put up minefields in the areas of Kerch and Feodosia. Moreover, the order to start mine performances from Moscow arrived, but someone on the ground canceled it.
And now I will make a small digression, which is interesting to us both from the point of view of the struggle for the Crimea, and from the point of view of the capabilities of the 9 Army aviation, based on the Taman Peninsula.
May 1920 of the year began with raids of red airplanes on the Kerch Peninsula. The 9 th Kuban army consisted of 4 th, 34 th, 35 th and 37 th reconnaissance units, which were based in Ekaterinodar. Of these, the Combined Combat Division, which flew as a part of several aircraft to the airfield near Temryuk, was allocated. This part was armed with Sopvichi, Newpore-17 and captured De Havillands.
In the summer of 1920, the Red War bombers regularly bombed the city of Kerch and the white battleship Rostislav in the Kerch Strait. The latter had no progress and was used as a floating battery. White newspapers painted the terrible scene of the bombing of the city "red devils."
A natural question arises, why didn’t the Crimean warriors bombed the port and ships during the evacuation of Wrangel in November? Was there a long booze? Gone on vacation? Or received a criminal order Frunze not interfere with the evacuation of Wrangel?
And in general, there was some kind of fantastic action. Why in 1919 – 1920, 1 and 2, the cavalry armies showed miracles of heroism and made deep raids to the rear of the enemy; Red warfare before 11 November; 1920 regularly bombed the Crimea; the Red Army on the Caspian Sea, near Odessa and Ochakov, as well as on the Sea of Azov, laid about 5 thousand mines, on which dozens of white and interventionist ships were blown up.
But after November 11 they all became mediocre and lazy.
Obviously, there was an agreement between Frunze and the French command in the person of Admiral Carl Dumeneil. Later, the French claimed that Dumenil threatened to bombard Sevastopol or other ports of the Black Sea. But in any case, the French could not seriously damage the shelling. The shelling of cities would be the biggest ideological victory of the Bolsheviks both in Russia and in Western Europe, and the French government would have serious trouble with its own people.
So, Frunze and his chief Trotsky made a criminal mistake. The destruction of Wrangel's army in the Crimea and the seizure of at least half of the fleet would drastically change the further course of history. It was possible not to send 2 million rubles to Mustafa Kemal. gold and even more so not to give the Kara region. Britain and France would have lost their trump card - the 60-thousand white army "in exile" and would quickly normalize relations with Soviet Russia, etc. etc.
So, after the breakthrough of the Perekop fortifications, the 1-I and 2-I mounted armies, which barely participated in the battles, were put to rest. I read the memoirs of a combat participant published in 1920's. An orderly resorts to Budyonny somewhere at Dzhankoy: “Simferopol on the wire! - What, whites surrender thought up? “No, Simferopol Revkom asks, where did the 1-I horse go?”
During the rest of the Reds, the Wrangelians broke away from them for two day transitions. All without exception Tankswho participated in the battles were loaded onto railway platforms and sent to the rear. Later, the Reds will capture five tanks in Feodosia and seven in Sevastopol, since the White did not know how to load tanks on ships.
November 10 (October 28) in Simferopol Partisan Detachment A. Skripnichenko and the workers of the factory "Anatra" revolted and seized power in the city. The Revolutionary Committee headed by a member of the underground Bolshevik Regional Committee V.S. Vasiliev (subordinate commander of the Crimean rebel army AV Mokrousov).
And only on November 13 in 18.00 the units of the 2 Cavalry Army entered Simferopol. The funny thing is that according to the plan, Frunze Simferopol should have taken the 1-I horse. As a result, Semyon Budyonny, with his advanced units, arrived at Simferopol 15 (!) In November and was extremely indignant when he saw the 2 th cavalry army of Mironov. So, in the capital of Crimea, the 3,5 of the day was ruled by the Revolutionary Committee, then for two days - by the Revolutionary Committee together with the command of the 2 horse. Until now, historians can not understand what 5,5 days (working week) was engaged in Semen Mikhailovich with his famous 1-th horse army?
“Just think, five days!” The theoreticians grin on the soft couch, grinning. But look at the map of the Crimea. From Dzhankoy to Simferopol 87 km! For the Soviet cavalry, forced day march in 100 km is not a problem. I'm not talking about the "Suvorov crossings", and not cavalry, but infantry.
A typical example. October 20 1942 of the Year near Stalingrad The 4 Cavalry Corps was introduced into the breakthrough. During the day, he passed about 70 km over rough terrain. And with the battles with German troops, and not pursuing fleeing Wrangel.
Well, in Sevastopol, already November 11 (October 29), panic began. Wrangell allegedly ordered not to destroy. Whether there was such an order, but officers ignored him, or is this another lie of the baron, I do not know. In any case, the white tactics of the scorched earth continued. Railway stations were turned out to be out of order, arrows, trains at full speed were driven into a dead end or dumped into the water. The latter took place in Sevastopol in Kilen bay. By the way, in almost the same way, the Germans destroyed the locomotives and wagons at the same place in April 1944 of the year.
November 13 (October 31) in the Sevastopol Bay rose French heavy cruiser Waldeck Russo and the destroyer. On the same day, November 13, by General Wrangel, High Commissioner Count de Martel and Admiral Dumenille, a convention was signed, according to which the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army "transfers his army, navy and his supporters under the patronage of France, offering France as a payment the proceeds from the sale and civilian fleet. "
In the port is feverishly loading ships. Loaded already and counterintelligence. Meanwhile, in the center of Sevastopol in 100 meters from the South Bay in the house number 2 on Pushkinskaya street gathered communists, left SRs and anarchists of Sevastopol. After a brief discussion, the first Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee was elected: Ivanov (chairman), Golubev (deputy), Kozlov, Knorus - all communists, Kozlov (left SR), Tverdunov (anarchist) and Kirlas (left SR).
And on November 14 the first issue of the newspaper “Bulletin of the Revolutionary Committee” (edited by Novoretsky) was released. Only six issues of the newspaper were published.
At the same time, an order of the Revolutionary Committee No. 2 was issued on the appointment of the commandants of the Sevastopol fortress and the head of the garrison of Sergei Knorus, and the head of the city’s security, Pivovarov.
By orders No. 3 and No. 5, merchants were asked to open stores and shops and resume normal trading.
And where is our heroic baron all this time? Sits on the suitcases in the hotel "Kist" literally 30 meters from the pier.
Only 14 November in 14 h. 50 min. Baron Wrangel boarded the “General Kornilov” cruiser. The cruiser raised anchors and left Sevastopol Bay, escorted by the cruiser “Waldeck Russo” and the destroyer “Algerian”.
Well, the Red Army arrived in Sevastopol only on November 15. It is curious that the large armored car “Harford” called the “Antichrist” drove into the city first.
Lying illiterate filmmakers. There were no fights for the city. Budyonny himself acknowledged this in his memoirs “The Traveled Path”: “At dawn, Klement Efremovich and I drove to Simferopol. They drove into the city, on the streets are Wrangle soldiers on the streets. All are dressed in new English uniforms, on the chest are red bows ... They contacted the Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee of the railway station. We were informed that land enemy units that did not lay down weaponin the city there is no. Anyone who did not have time to sit on the court surrendered to the revolutionary committee. Some ten thousand prisoners. ”
Naturally, Budyonny, Voroshilov, and Blucher would prefer a solemn meeting of at least a small exchange of fire with the whites. A Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee for them as an awl in a famous place.
In the evening of 3 (16) in November, the city held a joint meeting of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 1 and 2 th cavalry armies, which was attended by the highest army ranks: Budyonny, Blyukher and Voroshilov. Having heard the report of the Sevastopol Revolutionary Committee, they thanked its members for the work done and ... dismissed the revolutionary committee.
The power in Sevastopol for five days passed to the military, and then a new ideologically sustained revkom appeared, brought to the city because of Perekop in the 1 horse train.
So, irrefutable facts show that, contrary to Lenin's order, Frunze deliberately released the entire army and fleet of Wrangel from the Crimea intact. This was a great harm to the Soviet Republic. But this is a topic for another story.
But who led the deal Frunze and Dumenila? The commander was cunning and intelligent, but not a strategist, as the Soviet historians painted him. Well, Admiral Dumenil - just a servant. Wrangel, on the other hand, was held by the “boob”.
But at Dumenile he was a translator, a consultant, oh, I'm afraid to even utter, the mason Zinovy Peshkov is a puppeteer. Yes, the brother of the late chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov, and the adopted son of the great proletarian writer Maxim Gorky (Peshkov).
Later, both French and Russian officers claimed that Dumenil was doing everything that Zyama Peshkov told him. Moreover, the White Guards were offended that Peshkov personally conducted a selection of refugees — who would be allowed into the French courts, and who was not.
I note that the captain of the French army, Peshkov, began his diplomatic career in Russia in the summer of 1917, when he was seconded by the French government to the Provisional Government. Then he was seconded to Kolchak. Practically all historians consider Zyam to be a high degree freemason, and Sergo Beria and some historians of special services claim that Peshkov was a secret secret agent of the Soviet Union.