This story is about Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel.
FIRST STEPS IN THE ROCKET INDUSTRY
After completing the sixth grade, 15-year-old is going to Moscow. He settled in a hostel where 20 girls and boys lived, studying, working, holding volunteers and competitions, arguing and dreaming.
Mikhail joined the Komsomol in 1925 year, became the leader of the youth at the factory. There he was given a ticket to the Moscow Aviation Institute. He combined studies with active social work. They sent a graduate to the famous "king of fighters" N.N. Polikarpov. Visited overseas; at the largest aircraft and machine-building plants in the USA, he familiarized himself with the production, talked with his colleagues, concluded contracts for the supply of equipment.
Yangel came to the rocket industry as an experienced engineer from the workshops and design bureaus of Polikarpov, Mikoyan, Myasishchev. He came after the Victory, when a former ally had already planned nuclear strikes on the USSR from bases in Italy, Turkey, Korea and Japan. And we had neither bases near America, nor heavy bombers. To create a “balance of fear”, it was decided to use a new type of weapon, which received a powerful feed from the state.
By order of the Minister of Arms D.F. Ustinova, who can rightly be considered the founder of our rocket and space industry, a scientific design and production organization, the Scientific Research Institute-88, was formed near Moscow. There in the department of S.P. The queen created the first combat missiles P-1 and P-2. Putting them into service in 1950 – 1951 years, the drawings were transferred for serial production in Dnepropetrovsk, to the former car plant. The auto industry minister tried to object, but Stalin said: “If we have rockets, then there will probably be trucks too, and if there are no rockets, then maybe there will be no trucks”.
Of all the graduates of the Academy of Aviation Industry, Ustinov selected for rocket affairs two of them - M. Yangel and S. Okhapkin, both to the Queen. Yangel was appointed Head of Management Systems. The authority of the novice grew rapidly, a year later he was among the deputy chief designers.
Then in the rockets liquid oxygen was used as an oxidizing agent. Preparations for launch are difficult, time consuming, and it is impossible to store a loaded rocket without oxygen. As a result, low combat readiness. Meanwhile, NII-88 also studied the possibility of using high-boiling fuel components. When the director of the scientific research institute ordered Korolev to start developing a rocket using such fuel, Sergei Pavlovich and all his deputies, except Yangel, fought off in every possible way: no one wanted to develop a product with a range and warhead like the P-1, but with a very aggressive fuel.
Mikhail Kuzmich supported the point of view of the military and took up the topic. Delighted Korolev handed him a draft - and the rights of the chief designer of the product. The result of self-development was an effective machine, proven by many years of operation. Based on the upgraded P-11, the following were created: P-11FM for submarines, geophysical P-11А, operational-tactical complex P-11М with nuclear charge. In the descriptions of the P-11 appear two main designers - Korolev and Yangel.
The first in the person of the second received a staunch and consistent opponent with different views on the future of military rocket production. Moreover, in 1952, he, the second, became the director of the Scientific Research Institute-88, having turned from a former subordinate to a chief. But two major designers with fundamentally different ideologies of rocket production could not be directly dependent on each other: this was detrimental to the common cause. Moreover, Mikhail Kuzmich was well aware that being a manager, a dispatcher was not his calling. Even in a letter from the United States, he wrote: “What the hell did I go to America for, if here I would sit on administrative work?”
In February, 1953 of the year, the terms for the development of new projects Р-5, Р-11 and Р-12 were determined, the head organization approved by the Scientific Research Institute-88. This decision really hurt the queen: how can the government's decision to include the development of P-12 on high-boiling components? In his opinion, the use of such fuels for carriers with a range of more than 1000 km is "irrational and unpromising." The choice of nitric acid instead of liquid oxygen created such a “bunch” of problems that neither the Germans during the war years nor the experts NII-88, who created anti-aircraft guided missiles, could fully solve.
In the spring of 1954, the design bureau of the plant in Dnepropetrovsk, where P-1 and P-2 were made, was converted into OKB-586 (later - Yuzhnoye OKB) ... The third month went, and the enterprise lived without a head. Ustinov, on the other hand, waited for the completion of the second stage of the P-11 flight test design; such in May 1954 of the year confirmed the advantage of "acid" missiles over "oxygen". The future will put it in place: for space carriers - liquid oxygen, for combat missiles - high-boiling components.
AT A NEW PLACE, IN A NEW QUALITY
In the summer of 1954, by order of Minister of Defense M.K. Yangel approved by the chief and chief designer of the OKB-586. This meant the end of monopoly in rocket development and the beginning of the struggle between two fuel directions - “low-boiling” and “high-boiling”.
First of all, it was necessary to update and strengthen the frames. Graduates of the best universities went to “Dnepr”, major scientists, talented designers, and production organizers came. In the shortest possible time, a team of remarkable professionalism and enthusiasm with an average age of employees is less than 30 years old.
The firstborn OKB-586 is a medium-range rocket R-12 (2000 km) with nuclear charge and for the first time with an autonomous control system. Adopted in March 1959. Technical characteristics and high reliability made it possible to solve strategic problems, and the relative simplicity and low cost of manufacturing ensured mass production: Omsk, Perm, Dnepropetrovsk, Orenburg produced more than 2 thousand pieces. By the time of the appearance of the Strategic Missile Forces in the same year, the P-5M Queen Design Bureau and the P-12 Design Bureau at Yangel were in command. The use of high-boiling fuel components allowed the “twelfth” to be in the charged state for 30 days (Royal could withstand 20 minutes without oxygen and 5 hours - with feeding).
The Twelfth was a decisive factor in nuclear deterrence during the Caribbean crisis, changing the military-strategic situation. For the first time, Americans felt fear: something was aimed "point-blank" at a third of the US territory with the flight time 2 – 3 minutes. By agreement of Kennedy and Khrushchev, we removed the missiles from Cuba, they are Torah and Jupiter from Turkey and Italy. In general, the P-12 was in service for 30 years and was removed from service under the INF Treaty 1987 of the year.
... Work began on missiles for submarines - and on land, with a range of 4 thousand. Km. This P-14 was an advanced P-12 and demonstrated the maximum capabilities of a single-stage scheme. Since April, 1961 has been in the army for more than 20 years.
However, that year the USSR still lagged behind the United States: by the number of atomic warheads in 5 times, and by the way of their delivery - even more. The government instructs the OKB-586 to quickly create a rocket with a range of 13 thousand km. Earlier, Yangel was invited to the Kremlin to report on the P-14 and P-16 projects. Khrushchev then stated: “This is what we need. If P-16 is established, the country's defense will be put on a solid foundation. ”
TRAGEDY "AT BIRTH", BUT LONG LIFE
The P-16 had a very difficult fate. In preparation for the 24 October test launch of 1960, a terrible catastrophe happened - a second-stage engine started on the launch pad. There was a gigantic fire in which 74 people died, including the first commander in chief of the Strategic Missile Forces, Marshal M.I. Nedelin Yangel himself, who was all the time on the launch pad, miraculously survived: he left with a colleague to smoke for the bunker. As soon as he came to himself, he rushed towards the fire, tore off burning clothes running out of the flame, put out the fires, burning his hands, but did not leave until he was forcibly taken to a doctor. Later it turned out that the causes of the tragedy were the rush and error of the developers of the control system from Kharkov.
Yangel immediately called and reported the incident. When he said that Nedelina was not found, and among the dead was the chief designer of the control system, Glushko’s deputy and two of his own deputies, Khrushchev sternly asked: “Where was the technical test manager at that time?” Mikhail Kuzmich took the question as distrust of himself and said to his deputy: “I do not know what will happen to me. I ask the staff about one thing - save this direction. ”
On the night of the test site, a commission headed by L.I. Brezhnev, then - the secretary of the Central Committee of the party responsible for the "defense". The first thing that Yangel said: “I ask you not to blame anyone for what happened. I am guilty of everything as the chief designer who could not keep track of all accessory companies. ” Speaking at a meeting of servicemen and representatives of industry, Brezhnev said that the leadership of the USSR would not punish anyone: and so everything was punished. We must continue to work, because in such an international situation, the country needs powerful intercontinental missiles. We must prepare a new start and a rocket.
The moral and physical condition of the chief designer was terrible; he had not only to shoulder a huge responsibility for what had happened, but also to find the strength to finalize the rocket and prepare for launch. From the landfill, he flies to a report to V. Scherbitsky, the head of the Ukrainian Communist Party, and from there to Dnepropetrovsk. In the regional party committee he became ill, a heart attack is already the second. Again and again analyzing what happened, he sends a letter from the hospital to the Design Bureau.
Even then, his conviction in the correctness of the chosen direction did not leave him. With confidence and business approach he inspired all the project participants. God only knows where he took strength, what it cost.
Two months later, 28 December 1960, a second rocket was sent to the test site, and a test team headed by the chief designer left. Start was normal. It was a victory for a new direction: the first intercontinental was born on high-boiling fuels. In the summer of 1961, Khrushchev, who arrived at the enterprise, said at the rally: “If I hadn’t been brought, I would have come here on foot to worship you and say thanks for what you have done for our people.”
HIDE THE MINE - AND HIT FROM IT
All three missiles of the first generation became mass strategic - and with nuclear warheads. The task of special importance was a significant increase in their security. So there were mine launchers (silos). In 1959, the first of the chief designers, Yangel used the P-12 mine launch, and in 1964, they adopted the silo for all the OKB missiles.
By the beginning of that year, 54 heavy Titan-2 missiles were in the mines in the mines (the first American ICBM on high-boiling components capable of delivering a high-power charge to a range of 10200 km). Our P-16 was inferior to her in nuclear power and firing accuracy. However, as Khrushchev stated, the USSR had a super-powerful thermonuclear charge. It was necessary to “just” have a carrier for it. At the same time, dramatically increasing the shelf life of the rocket in the refilled state, increasing the survivability of the complexes being created, providing for their ability to overcome someone else's missile defense system.
In the context of increasing the release of missiles, the question arose: what to do with those that served the warranty period? Pereplavlyat? Destroy? So did we and the Americans. Isn’t it better to convert them into space carriers? The idea of conversion was approved by the Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Defense. And on the basis of the P-12, adding the second step, the designers create a cheap and easy-to-use carrier for large-scale space programs. In March, 1962, the TASS agency announced the launch of a satellite under the Cosmos program. Both the satellite and the carrier have developed themselves. "Cosmos-1" became the ancestor of many enterprise spacecraft.
Subsequently, all the combat missiles here were turned into space. Even the most intimidating Р-36М - to the peaceful "Dnepr", "sling" for satellites. The economic gain was huge. And the new center for the creation of space technology was approved, where the Intercosmos, Cyclone, Zenit carriers, new natural resource, alignment and other satellites appeared.
Another academician, VN, decided to create a competition for Koroleu and Yangel in space and defense. Chelomey. His OKB-52 actively entered the arena of the rocket-space activity by the start of the 1960-s, with the arrival of MEI graduate Sergey Khrushchev, the son of the head of state. Overnight Myasishchev Aviation Bureau in Fili ceased to exist. Chelomey received a team of high qualification, which lacked only one thing - experience in working with rocket technology.
After a detailed acquaintance with the development of Korolev in the OKB-52, the Almaz orbital station is being designed - almost a copy of the Salyut, but it seems for military purposes only. They recruit a detachment of "their" astronauts, develop a heavy "Proton". So as not to depend on foreign carriers, why not (and at the same time combat rockets) not to make them? And there is a resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers “On rendering OKB-52 assistance in the development of launch vehicles and to gain experience in the development and development of strategic missiles”. The designers of the Yuzhniy are obliged to familiarize Cheloomeans with all the technical documentation of interest. Categorical indication: "Show all". Send to study the three ready-made P-14, take the landing of foreign specialists, show the latest developments: the documentation on the P-36 and the small-sized intercontinental P-37.
The project of the latter was particularly interested in the guests: nobody in the world had developed such a thing. They began to de facto copy the scientific and technical reserve of the Dnipro people. Having invented the designation "UR" (universal rocket), Vladimir Nikolaevich began to design the MBR UR-100, ICBM UR-200 and UR-500. Chairman of the Scientific and Technical Committee of the Strategic Missile Forces (1979 – 1989) Lieutenant-General V.M. Ryumkin, who worked in the military acceptance at Chelomey, remarked: “Between him and Yangel there was a constant struggle recorded in the secret files of particular importance, which can now be raised and verified ... A small rocket, which began to be created in Dnepropetrovsk, thanks to Nikita Sergeyevich, family ties, Sergey Nikitich - all Yangelev developments were transferred to the Chelomey KB.
In February, the 1963 of the year in Fili held a meeting of the Defense Council. Yangel reported on P-37, Chelomey - on UR-100. The one whose drawings were redrawn from the Yagelevans. Sergey Khrushchev wrote: "... rockets (Р-37 and УР-100) were extremely similar to one another, as often happens in technology, the same level of knowledge, the general technology, willy-nilly, similar thoughts come to the designers." Still would! No wonder that Chelomey’s envoys carefully studied all the documentation in the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau. Yes, and all the "stuffing" of missiles made the same accessory. The head of state liked Chelomey’s proposal more, but he wanted to hear confirmation. Kozlov and Brezhnev received consent (and how could it be otherwise?).
Summing up, he reassured Yangel: "We are now rich - we will give the opportunity to develop two options." As a result, the project P-37 ... was soon put on the shelf, forgot about it.
But the competition continued. Around the other missiles of two companies - UR-200 and P-36. Among the party officials and the military, the ministries began to speak almost openly: Yangel exhausted himself, his design bureau needed to be covered ... “In January, 1964 was invited by Serbin, head of the Defense Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU,” he recalled B.I. Gubanov, designer and secretary of the party committee of the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau. - Yangel offered to go together. We spent two hours in the waiting room ... And then - talking in a “business” language: “The guillotine hangs over you, it will not be able to disperse the design bureau shortly. The resolution is being prepared ... ”
Twice the Order of Lenin "South" was ... unnecessary. What to do? Assemble the Council of Chief Designers? But it can interfere Minobosh. Fortunately, the decade of the Design Bureau was approaching, no one decided to cancel the anniversary supported by the region. So many guests came to the city, so many congratulations came that even the ministry had to give a positive assessment of the work of OKB-586. Passed and the Council of the main. To liquidate the enterprise did not work ...
Starting to develop a second generation of missiles, Yangel handed over part of the projects to other organizations, arguing that a multi-lightness had formed in the design bureau. The developments in the sea direction were transferred to the Makeyevka design bureau, the Meteor meteorological reserve was supplied by the Research Institute of Electromechanics, the carrier Kosmos-2 (based on P-14) and the Strelka and Bee special communication devices to the Siberian OKB M.F. Reshetnyova.
A government decree on the development of a strategic complex with a heavy P-36 was issued in April 1962. The project was planned in two versions: ballistic and orbital.
Never in stories OKB flight tests were not as difficult as with the P-36. At the factory bench tests, Glushko’s engines showed excellent results, and they exploded at the test site in the first seconds of the flight. It’s just some kind of mysticism ... The head of the workshop, in which it was necessary to refine the units connected with the launch of the engines, managed to cope right on the test site - and the rocket began to fly.
September 24 The next Defense Council was held at Baikonur on September 13, 1964. It was necessary to resolve the confrontation between P-36 and UR-200. The first to report Chelomey. It was not without surprises: reporting on the status of work on SD-100, SD-200 and SD-500, he began to talk about the novelty - SD-700, intended for the landing of two astronauts on the moon. Unlike Brezhnev, Ustinov, Smirnov, Korolev, who saw the project for the first time and didn’t know how to react, Nikita Sergeevich shone directly: his protege was again on top. And then he gave instructions to prepare a resolution of the Council of Ministers on P-700.
Looking ahead, it is impossible not to mention the Crimean meeting of the 1969 Defense Council of the year, where the strategy of rocketry was determined - and the concepts of Chelomey and Yangel again came up. And on the eve of the first department of the ministry has disappeared ... a document with a stamp of "special importance" - a draft of the report of Yangel with amendments and clarifications. Moreover, in the tube sealed by the head of the same department, brought to show the posters of the OKB, instead of the two most important, there were drawing papers ... outside organization. Some honestly could not compete.
But back to the fall of the year 1964. On the second day, three F-16Us alternately launched from the mine launchers. All three reached a predetermined part of the Pacific Ocean. Then came the turn of the P-36. She went to the maximum sighting range (14 500 km) - also in the Pacific Ocean. When Khrushchev was brought the launch data, he read it and handed it over to the Minister of Defense without comment. Deviation from the target - just 1,3х0,9 km - a brilliant result! This accuracy did not have any ICBM country. It turned out to be more powerful and energy. The UR-200 was sent to Kamchatka (the range of 6300 km), the launch did not make a proper impression.
In service adopted a rocket Yangel. Three weeks later, Khrushchev was dismissed. But it could happen that then the “daughter” of P-36, the famous “Satan”, would never stand in defense of the Fatherland. In any case, there would be no launch from the “ampoule” ...
... The Ministry of Defense required that the P-36 be on duty in the filled state for at least five years. First-generation rockets (P-12, P-14 and P-16) - no more than 30 days, and then just five years!
Getting to work, the academician said: "Before creating a reliable structure, we must create new materials." No one imagined that such changes would occur in the design, technology, metallurgical production, control methods, which had no precedent in scale - and resulted in a genuine scientific and technical breakthrough. The time spent on duty on duty was increased first to 5, then to 7 ... 20 and more years. World rocket practice has no such examples.
The highlight was not only the mortar launch, but also the first on-board complex of means to overcome the enemy's missile defense system, based on the use of false targets. This effective asymmetrical response neutralized the longstanding US efforts to build its missile defense system.
The ballistic version of the Р-36 was adopted on 21 June 1967. It was the first rocket of the second generation of the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau. And in November of the 1969, the P-36 orb, unprecedented in its strength and effectiveness, was put into operation. Flying in the orbit of an artificial satellite of the Earth, it was capable of hitting any targets on the surface of the globe, nullifying the US missile system created. After all, the orbital warhead (then three) could appear from any side, including from the south, where the Americans did not have missile defense elements. Thanks to this rocket, in the 1972 year, treaties were signed between the USSR and the United States on the limitation of missile defense systems and on the limitation of strategic weapons (SALT-1).
... When in the middle of the 1960-ies of the United States began the development of a missile with split heads (MUV), the response of the USSR did not take long. The premiere of the R-36P with an experienced three-block “head” took place just a week after the test of the first American MFR. And our product was put into service in 1970 year.
With the commissioning of the P-36 missile systems, the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau completed the creation of second-generation missiles equipped at the time with warheads - single-block, orbital, and split.
NEW "DAUGHTERS" AND "VNOCHKI"
Under the leadership of Yangel five principles of third-generation rockets were developed: the highest degree of protection of launching sites and missiles from the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion; MSS with high power units and increased accuracy of fire; transition to industrial methods of construction of silos and gearboxes, to advanced technologies for assembling, testing and transporting missiles; increase in warranty periods on combat duty; autonomy of the complexes, their independence from stationary power systems.
The key to the implementation of these principles, Yangel considered fully ampulized missiles placed in transport-launch containers - and a mortar launch from the TPC. The huge net about 30 m in length and with a starting mass over 200 had to be “pushed” out of the TPC, and at the time of the hangup (!) To start the first-stage liquid propellant rocket engine.
The idea caused a real shock: no one in the world did this. There were no supporters even among their own. When the chief was on treatment (after the fourth heart attack), his first deputy V. Utkin, not believing in the possibility of creating a mortar launch, issued an order to stop work. Of course, it was canceled immediately after the return of Yangel. Despite the enormous and all-round opposition, he did not retreat a single step, clearly presenting the emerging prospects and believing in the abilities and talent, as he said, "of his children." And I was not mistaken: the very first launch of the 22 October 1971 throw test program confirmed that the 200-ton colossus perfectly flies out of the container in the mine.
Three days later, the academician died suddenly from a fifth heart attack at the hands of colleagues and friends who came to Moscow to congratulate him on the 60 anniversary.
... Miniature digital computing devices, high-precision instruments of control and aiming systems, nuclear charges with high specific characteristics, more advanced propulsion systems, new silo silage systems appeared. All this served as the basis for the creation of the third generation ICBMs (the proposals were developed by Yangel and his team back in the 1968 year) in the form of the P-36M; RK were developed with separable warheads of individual guidance (up to 10 blocks of 1 Mt). The fourth generation also appeared - P-36М2 "Voevoda" (able to start under the influence of a nuclear strike on a positional area with the task of a retaliatory strike). And to this day they protect our peace.
True, today it is difficult to talk about the work and plans of the design bureau and the Yuzhmash plant; projects with Russia are closed, the remnants of Zenith missiles are without components, maintenance is done by Voevod by the Makeevites ...
... A bronze figure of the founder and chief designer of the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau rises in the factory park. Monuments, busts - in Zheleznogorsk and Baikonur (though not on the Alley of Heroes of the cosmos). In Ukraine it is written comprehensively - S. Konyukhov, V. Platonov, L. Andreev, in a collection edited by A. Degtyarev. This should not create the idea of twice Hero of Socialist Labor, the winner of the Lenin and the State Prizes as a kind of peripheral personality for Russia. His work, school, heritage belong not to Ukraine, not Siberia, not Moscow. They belong to the Great Motherland, the security of which is M.K. Yangel with his comrades secured reliably. His covenant is now faithful to “unswervingly and in every way strengthen the defensive might” in order to avoid a world nuclear missile war.