Military Review

Nazi "space"

83
September 8 1944 on London fell the first German long-range ballistic missile V-2 (from the German V-2 - Vergeltungswaffe-2, weapon retaliation). She hit a residential area, leaving after the explosion of a crater with a diameter of approximately 10 meters. As a result of the rocket blast, three people were killed, another 22 man received various injuries. A day earlier, the Germans launched a rocket with a warhead in Paris. These were the first combat launches of Hitler's “miracle weapon”.


Earlier, even 13 June 1944, the Germans for the first time massively used the V-1 projectile aircraft (cruise missiles) to strike London. However, unlike the traditional bomber aircraft and its predecessor, the Fau-1 projectile, the V-2 rocket was already a fundamentally new type of weapon - the world's first ballistic missile. The flight time of the V-2 to the target was no more than 5 minutes, and the Allied alert systems simply did not have time to react to it. This weapon was the last and most desperate attempt of Hitler's Germany to turn the course of the Second World War in their favor.

The first launches of missiles, also known as A-4 (Aggregat-4), were to begin in the spring of 1942. However, 18 April 1942, the first prototype of the rocket under the designation A-4 V-1 exploded directly on the launch pad during engine preheating. The subsequent reduction in allocations for the implementation of this project postponed the start of complex testing of new weapons for the summer months. An attempt to launch the second prototype of the A-4 V-2 rocket was made by 13 June 1942 of the year. The Luftwaffe inspector General Erhard Milch and the German Minister of Arms and Ammunition Albert Speer came to see the launch. This attempt also failed. On the 94 second flight of the rocket due to the failure of the control system, it fell 1,5 kilometers from the launch point. Two months later, the third prototype of the A-4 V-3 was also unable to reach the required range. Only the fourth launch of the A-4 V-4 prototype, which took place on 3 on October 1942, was considered successful. The rocket flew 192 kilometers at an altitude of 96 kilometers and exploded 4 kilometers from the intended target. After this launch, the missile tests went more and more successfully, until the end of 1943, the 31 launched the V-2 missiles.


To some extent, the launch of the 3 October 1942 prototype rocket of the year was decisive. If it ended in failure, the program could be closed, and the team of its developers simply disbanded. If this happened, it is not known in what year and in what decade mankind managed to open its way to space. Perhaps the closure of this project would have an impact on the course of the Second World War, since the enormous funds and forces that Hitler Germany spent on its rocket "miracle weapon" could be redirected to other goals and programs.

Already after the war, Albert Speer called the entire program for creating V-2 rockets a ridiculous idea. “Having supported this idea of ​​Hitler, I made one of my most serious mistakes. It would be much more productive to concentrate all efforts on the release of ground-to-air defensive missiles. These missiles were created in 1942 year, codenamed "Wasserfall" (Waterfall). Since we could produce up to 900 large offensive missiles every month, we could easily have produced several thousand smaller and costly anti-aircraft missiles that would protect our industry from enemy bombardment, ”Albert Speer recalled after the war.

The long-range V-2 long-range ballistic missile with a free vertical launch was designed to hit areal targets at predetermined coordinates. The rocket was installed LRE with a two-component fuel turbopump. The controls of the rocket were gas and aerodynamic control surfaces. The rocket control is autonomous with a partial radio control in the Cartesian coordinate system. Autonomous control method - stabilization and program control.


Technologically, the V-2 rocket was divided into 4 main parts: warhead, instrument compartment, fuel compartment and tail compartment. The fuel compartment occupied the central part of the rocket. Fuel (75% aqueous solution of ethyl alcohol) was in the front tank, the oxidizer (liquid oxygen) - in the lower tank. The division of the rocket into the 4 main parts was chosen based on the conditions of its transportation. The battle charge (the mass of explosive in the head of the rocket was approximately 800 kg) was located in the conical head compartment. In the upper part of this compartment was located pulse pulse fuse. Four stabilizers were attached to the tail section of the rocket by flange joints. Inside each stabilizer there was a shaft, an electric motor, a chain drive of an aerodynamic steering, and a steering wheel deflecting the gas steering wheel. Each V-2 ballistic missile consisted of more than 30 thousands of individual parts, and the length of electrical equipment wires used in it exceeded 35 kilometers.

The main units of the V-2 ballistic rocket were a combustion chamber, a steam and gas generator, a turbopump unit, hydrogen peroxide tanks and sodium products, and a battery of 7 compressed air cylinders. The rocket engine provided thrust of the order of 30 tons in a rarefied space and around 25 tons at sea level. The combustion chamber of the rocket had a pear shape and consisted of outer and inner shells. The controls of the V-2 ballistic missile were aerodynamic controls and electric rudders of the gas rudders. To compensate for the lateral demolition of the rocket, a radio control system was used. Two special ground-based transmitters radiated signals in the firing plane, and the receiver antennas were located on the tail stabilizers of the ballistic missile.

The launch mass of the rocket was 12 500 kg, while the mass of the unfilled rocket with the warhead was only 4 000 kg. Practical firing range was equal to 250 kilometers, maximum - 320 kilometers. The speed of the rocket at the end of the engine was about 1450 m / s. The mass of the head of the rocket was equal to 1000 kg, of which 800 kg accounted for ammotol (a mixture of ammonium nitrate and TNT) explosives.


During the 18 months of mass production in Germany, 5946 V-2 rockets were assembled. Until April, 1945, when the last launch sites of ballistic missiles were in the hands of the Allied forces, the Nazis managed to launch their ballistic missiles 3172. The main targets of the attacks were London (1358 missiles launched) and Antwerp (1610 missiles), which became an important supply base for the allied forces in Europe. At the same time, the reliability of V-2 ballistic missiles throughout the operation was low. More than a thousand rockets exploded either at the start or already at different stages of the flight. Many of them have significantly deviated from the course and fell in deserted places, without causing any harm. Despite this, multiple hits of V-2 rockets resulted in huge human casualties. The largest number of deaths was brought by the rocket, which hit the crowded Rex cinema in Antwerp, then 567 people died. Another V-2 hit the Woolworth department store in London, killing 280 shoppers and store employees.

In general, the effect of German retaliatory weapons was insignificant. In the UK, 2 people were killed by Fow-2772 ballistic missiles (almost all of them were civilians), in Belgium - by 1736 people, in France and Holland - several hundred more. The 11 V-2 missiles were fired by the Germans at the German city of Remagen captured by the Allies, the number of casualties resulting from this attack is unknown. In general, we can say that the “miracle weapon” of the Third Reich killed several times fewer people than the number of dead prisoners of the underground concentration camp “Mittelbau-Dora” who died while producing it. It is believed that around 1 thousands of prisoners and prisoners of war who worked in difficult conditions and practically did not rise to the surface (mainly Russians, Poles and French) were involved in the construction of Fau-2 projectiles and Fau-60 ballistic missiles in this concentration camp. More than 20 thousands of prisoners of this concentration camp died or were killed.

According to the estimates of the American side, the program to create and manufacture V-2 ballistic missiles cost Germany a truly “cosmic” amount equivalent to 50 billion dollars, that is, 1,5 cost more than the Americans spent on the “Manhattan project” and creating nuclear weapons. In this case, the effect of V-2, in fact, turned out to be zero. This rocket did not have any impact on the course of military operations and for one day failed to postpone the collapse of the Hitler regime. Launching 900 V-2 ballistic missiles per month required German industry 13 thousand tons of liquid oxygen, 4 thousand tons of ethyl alcohol, 2 thousand tons of methanol, 1,5 thousand tons of explosives, 500 tons of hydrogen peroxide and a huge amount of other components. Moreover, for the mass production of rockets, it was necessary to urgently build new enterprises for the production of various materials, semi-finished products and semi-finished products, many such plants were made underground.


Failing to fulfill its primary purpose, the V-2 ballistic missile did not become a retaliation weapon, but it opened the way for the stars to humanity. It was this German rocket that became the first in stories an artificial object that managed to make a suborbital space flight. In the first half of 1944, in Germany, in order to debug the rocket design, a series of vertical launches of V-2 rockets were carried out with a slightly increased engine operating time (up to 67 seconds). The height of the rocket at the same time reached 188 kilometers. Thus, the V-2 rocket became the first artificial object in the history of mankind, which managed to overcome the Karman line, the so-called altitude above sea level, which is conventionally accepted as the boundary between the earth's atmosphere and space.

Doug Millard is a space exploration historian and curator of the London Museum of Space Technology, who believes that the launch of trophy and later modernized V-2 rockets began both Soviet and American missile programs. Even the first Chinese ballistic missiles Dongfeng-1 also began with the Soviet P-2 missiles, which were created based on the design of the German V-2. According to the historian, all the first achievements in the field of space exploration, including the landing on the moon, were made on the basis of V-2 technologies.

Thus, it is not difficult to note the direct connection between the V-2 ballistic missile, which was created with the help of slave labor of prisoners of war and prisoners and launched against targets from the territory occupied by the Nazis in Europe and the first American space missions. Millard notes that Fow-2 technology has allowed the Americans to land on the Moon. “Was it possible to land a man on the moon without resorting to the help of Hitler’s weapons? Most likely, yes, however, it would take significantly more time. As is the case with many other innovations, the war managed to seriously spur the work on rocket technologies, accelerating the advance of the space age, ”said Millard.


The fundamental principles that underlie modern rocket technology have not undergone significant changes over more than 70 years since the end of World War II. The design of the rocket engines remains similar, most of them still use liquid fuel, and in the onboard control systems of the missiles there is still room for gyroscopes. All this was first introduced on the German V-2 rocket.

Underground concentration camp "Mittelbau-Dora":







Information sources:
http://www.bbc.com/russian/science/2014/09/140915_vert_fut_nazis_space_age_rocket
https://vikond65.livejournal.com/673035.html
https://vikond65.livejournal.com/673392.html
http://www.astronaut.ru/bookcase/article/article46.htm?reload_coolmenus
Open source materials
Author:
83 comments
Ad

The editorial board of Voenniy Obozreniye urgently needs a proofreader. Requirements: impeccable knowledge of the Russian language, diligence, discipline. Contact: [email protected]

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. avt
    avt 27 October 2017 15: 12 New
    11
    Thus, it is not difficult to note the direct connection between the V-2 ballistic missile, which was created with the help of slave labor of prisoners of war and prisoners and launched on targets from the territory of Nazi-occupied Europe and the first American space flights. Millard notes that Fau-2 technology subsequently allowed Americans to land on the moon.
    bully Digs a bit! bully Is it simple and easy to write that the Shurmbanfuhrer SS von Braun and his comrades lifted the space program right up to the shuttle, wouldn’t it be easier? Yes ALL of their space is a direct continuation of the Germans’s work, but already in the USA, with the ban to do something like that in the Bundes Germany.
    1. ICT
      ICT 27 October 2017 15: 37 New
      +4
      Quote: avt
      ? Yes ALL of their space - direct

      they themselves as if in the know
      1. maxim947
        maxim947 27 October 2017 21: 54 New
        +8
        The main reason for the high percentage of unsuccessful launches is the targeted marriage introduced by prisoners.
        V.B. Chertok, "Rockets and People"
    2. verner1967
      verner1967 27 October 2017 16: 10 New
      +7
      Quote: avt
      Yes ALL of their space is a direct continuation of the work of the Germans but already in the USA

      As, however, in the USSR. Only Brown was gone. By the way, on the eve of the flight to the moon, Brown and his comrades were suspended from the project and in the future he did not participate in the development of launch vehicles, but the ideas laid down by him continued to develop.
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 27 October 2017 16: 34 New
        +4
        And have the blood (NKVDshniki) replaced alcohol (hydrogen) with kerosene?
      2. avt
        avt 27 October 2017 16: 42 New
        +5
        Quote: verner1967
        As, however, in the USSR.

        And no! Precisely because
        Quote: verner1967
        Only Brown was gone

        Yes - many experts were taken out and at Seliger they worked on control systems. But Beria still entrusted the Soviet program to his domestic designers. So, German developments and experts accelerated significantly, as in the atomic project, the information obtained under the leadership of Sudoplatov from the direct creators of the Manhattan project, but Soviet rocket science went its own way. And in the USA, von Braun really developed their material base YOUR ideas.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 28 October 2017 01: 00 New
          +5
          Quote: avt
          And no! Precisely because

          Agreeing with your comment and recalling the work of the GIRD, I’ll say that before the creation of the RNII, Korolev never considered alcohol as fuel, only derivatives of oil. During the Second World War, the first LRE appeared, in which nitric acid was used as an oxidizing agent.
          And not in the subject, but close to it. The shortage of non-ferrous metals led the Germans to have to install reinforcement made of ordinary steel instead of stainless steel. And not only that. The shortage of heat-resistant steels in Germany led to the fact that it was necessary to switch from 96% alcohol to 76-78% alcohol, which was revealed already at the first tests of the FAU-2 in the USSR.
    3. rubin6286
      rubin6286 27 October 2017 23: 24 New
      +2
      The “German trace” can be found in the post-war developments of Soviet scientists both in the field of rocketry, aviation, tank building, radar, automobile transport, and in metallurgy, shipbuilding, synthetic rubber production, chemistry, medicine and so on. Drop deeper and you will probably find out about it.
      1. avt
        avt 28 October 2017 09: 53 New
        +2
        Quote: rubin6286
        Drop deeper and you will probably find out about it.

        It’s possible to dig up ..... here’s the type of Nart, the Pete # 1 lathe did what? ,, Russian trace "in the whole world machine tool industry? wassat And about
        Quote: rubin6286
        radar

        just ask what Axel Berg did and when.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 27 October 2017 15: 34 New
    +3
    To some extent, the launch of the 3 October 1942 prototype rocket of the year was decisive. If it ended in failure, the program could be closed, and the team of its developers simply disbanded. If this happened, it is not known in what year and in what decade mankind managed to open its way to space. Perhaps the closure of this project would have an impact on the course of the Second World War, since the enormous funds and forces that Hitler Germany spent on its rocket "miracle weapon" could be redirected to other goals and programs.

    The first part of the question can be answered this way: for a short while. The German missile program sharply moved both Soviet and American rocket science forward, but in the USSR and in the USA, work was also carried out on the liquid-propellant rocket and on missiles and rocket-planes before WWII.
    Hitler’s order influenced the course of the entire WWII. The Third Reich had a large number of innovative military and scientific developments.
    “However, in the fall of 1940, Hitler, hoping for an early end to the war, made one of his fatal mistakes by issuing an order according to which it was forbidden to further improve those types of weapons if they could not be introduced into the army within one year. So, for example, the development and combat use of the world's first jet aircraft [4] and missile “retaliation weapons” were delayed for a year or more, and work such as the creation of the A-9 / A-10 intercontinental missiles on the America project was not completed and the Silbervogel Partially Orbital Bomber, nuclear weapons and a number of other projects.
    The main direction of research and development work in Germany was to meet the needs of the military industry and increase the combat efficiency of the army. "Quote from the wiki, but I read about this order several times.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 27 October 2017 16: 03 New
      +3
      Nikolay, but at the same time many of the samples taken into production were "raw" and unfinished. As far as I understand, at first they didn’t want to launch the He-177 into the series, then, realizing that strategic aviation is still needed, they launched it, but it got the nickname .. "flying fireworks"! And it was more dangerous for pilots than for the enemy. Same story with Me-163. request I'm certainly not an aircraft manufacturer, but it seems to me that Silbervogel is still a utopia. what
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 27 October 2017 16: 42 New
        +2
        Quote: Mikado
        Nikolay, but at the same time many of the samples taken into production were "raw" and unfinished. As far as I understand,

        Yes. You're right. Remember the Soviet espionage novel "Stormphogel without a swastika" about the refinement of "Me-262." But the problem here was that they did not know about pulling into a dive
        With the Me-163 EMNIP there were problems with fuel. At least I read that for the captured Me-163 there was no fuel and these planes flew like gliders, behind the plane by a towing vehicle. "
        https://topwar.ru/15394-messershmitt-me163-raketn
        yy-istrebitel-perehvatchik.html A mixture of 80 percent hydrogen peroxide and a liquid catalyst (a mixture of methanol, hydrazine hydrate and water or a solution of potassium permanganate) was supplied to the engine. "In the combustion chamber of the engine, hydrogen peroxide decomposed with the formation of a large amount of superheated gaseous mixture, which provided powerful jet propulsion."
        But basically yes, it was, the rush led to the adoption of unverified decisions
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 27 October 2017 16: 54 New
          +2
          and the very concept of the Me-163 seems to be somehow flawed, or something. "Missile interceptor" .. what Like, no one else did this? looked at the German (Nazi) torment and decided - "well, to hell with it!" laughing but no! ours, like, also made Bi-1 on the same principle. That is, only the Germans launched a similar instance into the series, apparently from hopelessness.
          1. Eight
            Eight 27 October 2017 17: 57 New
            +5
            "Yes, and the very concept of the Me-163 seems somehow flawed or something." The missile interceptor ".. what, like, no one else did this?"

            BI (BI - Bereznyak-Isaev, or the Near Fighter, also known as "BI-1") is a rocket plane, the first Soviet aircraft with a liquid rocket engine.
            The idea of ​​creating such a fighter was first proposed by S.P. Korolev back in 1938 in the process of working on the RP-218 rocket plane. He suggested that the LRE with its huge specific fuel consumption (4-6 kg of fuel per second with an engine thrust of 1000 - 1500 kgf) could be most effectively used on an air defense fighter-interceptor, taking off from the standby position at the airfield when the enemy aircraft was visually detected in area of ​​the protected object. The low weight and high thrust of the rocket engine provided a maximum horizontal flight speed of the missile interceptor of 800 - 850 km / h. But most importantly, such an interceptor would have had an enormous rate of climb at that time, almost 10 times the rate of climb of the best fighter with piston engines. Due to the high speed and rate of climb, the missile interceptor at the active stage of the flight with a working liquid propellant rocket engine could quickly overtake an enemy aircraft, attack it on the fly and shoot it down with powerful cannon fire. After the engine stopped working, the interceptor had to leave the battlefield and land with an idle engine as a glider, which should not have been difficult, given the significant decrease in aircraft mass after running out of fuel and using up ammunition. S.P. Korolev considered the main drawback of such an aircraft to be a short flight duration. Military experts positively appreciated the proposal of S.P. Korolev and in his conclusion emphasized that the short duration of the flight allows the practical use of such aircraft.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 27 October 2017 19: 42 New
              +1
              S.P. Korolev considered the main drawback of such an aircraft to be a short flight duration.

              absolutely right! such a device could be used as an airplane only in the form of a short-lived air defense fighter of specific objects near which they are located! request True, the Germans went further, and tried to develop a fighter ram "natter." laughing but it is generally from the category of "need forced." laughing
            2. Settlement Oparyshev
              Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 13: 48 New
              0
              The flight duration was increased by installing two rocket engines of different thrusts. Weak to maintain evolutions in the air.
          2. Settlement Oparyshev
            Settlement Oparyshev 27 October 2017 18: 58 New
            +1
            The arrows on the American bombers were shocked when something incomprehensible with crosses flashed past them, shelling a bomber.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 27 October 2017 19: 38 New
              +2
              when something incomprehensible with crosses swept past them.

              in the cockpit of an obscure crucifixion sweeping past, an obtrusive tense pilot sat with difficulty trying to steer .. belay
              1. Eight
                Eight 27 October 2017 19: 56 New
                +3

                The concept of such an interceptor was first put forward by Werner von Braun in a memorandum to the Technical Department of July 6, 1939. Those. and Brown and Korolev came to their ideas almost simultaneously. Von Braun considered an airplane with a takeoff mass of about 5000 kg with one rocket engine with a thrust of up to 10 tons. The plane was supposed to take off vertically using 6m guides. A combat altitude of 8000m was gained in 53 seconds! Although this scheme was rejected by the RLM as difficult to implement, the concept itself captured the imagination of Bachem, technical director of Gerhard Fieseler Verke, who developed a number of projects under the general designation Fi.166. These projects were also rejected by the RLM, but Bachem continued to maintain contact with Von Braun and monitored work on rocket engines in Peenemuende. When in the late spring of 1944 The RLM issued requirements for a small, low-cost object-based air defense fighter, Bachem, and proposed its project under the designation BP.20 “Nutter” - “Viper”.
                But the Americans did not see the perplexed pilots due to the fact that the "natters" were not used in combat conditions.
                A total of 36 "Natters" managed to finish, and they tested 25, with only 7 in a manned flight. In April 1945, 10 A-Series Natters were stationed at Kircheme near Stuttgart to repel the raids of American bombers. But the tanks of the allies, who had waited before the bombers, did not give the brainchild of Bakham to the battle. The Natters and their launchers were destroyed by their own calculations.
              2. Settlement Oparyshev
                Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 00: 53 New
                +4
                Are you sure that you are overgrown? And with the empty intestines the pilots did not fly? You personally would have been scattered before the start, sitting between the acid tanks.
                In fact, do not be sarcastic about the real brave heroes of the pilots.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 28 October 2017 12: 31 New
                  +4
                  You personally would have guessed even before the start, sitting between the acid tanks.
                  In fact, do not be sarcastic about the real brave heroes of the pilots.

                  Mr. Oparyshev (Colonel). Maybe I would have guessed. I will not judge you, as you can see, each judge is his own. "Brave Heroes Pilots" - Are you talking about the Nazis? That is, for you they are heroes? There is a recognition of military merit, and there is an ethical component. After the Nazis perpetrated on our land, the concept of “hero” cannot be appropriated to them a priori, for ethical and patriotic reasons. The Germans - for God's sake, they may have their own view, and their own concepts. Hearing this phrase from Russian is strange. hi okay, maybe i got excited. But you understand that it was difficult to fight on the Me-163. It seems to me that this is a dead end branch, if we take aviation.
                  1. Settlement Oparyshev
                    Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 12: 37 New
                    +1
                    [b] [/ b] Do not be a snob. Your point of view, rejection and destruction, I have already passed in the distant past.
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 28 October 2017 13: 16 New
                      +2
                      happy for you. You see, Alexey, I just do not consider myself a snob. Take a look sometimes, what kind of discussions are there in upholding one or another point of view, how many copies break, how many asses and fingers crack from a strain. drinks I have wonderful relationships with people with both points of view, because I strive to understand everyone. Except for one topic: I believe that a genius can not do evil. stop taking into account the "track record" of the Nazis, from my point of view, the concept of "heroism" by Russians cannot be applied to them - they have done too much evil. I live in St. Petersburg. It is enough to look at Wikimapia in the Leningrad Region - for each village it is necessary for the same, destroyed, and not reborn. We will not argue, I understand you, you too. hi
                      1. Settlement Oparyshev
                        Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 13: 38 New
                        0
                        Peter is an interesting topic. The lion's share of industry worked on the 3rd Reich during WWII.
                  2. NIKNN
                    NIKNN 28 October 2017 20: 00 New
                    +2
                    Quote: Mikado
                    are they heroes for you? There is a recognition of military merit, and there is an ethical component. After the Nazis perpetrated on our land, the concept of “hero” cannot be appropriated to them a priori, for ethical and patriotic reasons.

                    No one denies the atrocities perpetrated by fascism. However, one should not take into account their national ability to overcome the fear of death and fly on this type of AT, in addition, there were Germans who made assassination attempts on Hitler ... There was resistance, there were soldiers honorably fulfilling their military duty to their homeland, and kept the oath of oath (by the way, this is the national trait of the Germans). So that I would not be ironic over the pilots either, because the profession itself requires a conscious ignoring of danger .... For example, I respect the Luftwaffe pilots, as in general all the pilots in the world ... hi
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 28 October 2017 23: 11 New
                      +3
                      For example, I respect the Luftwaffe pilots, as in general, then to all pilots in the world ...

                      there can be no respect for Luftwaffe pilots. Half are Nazis, without any heroism. am Hartman “filled” his victories with an attack of an enemy who did not see him; he did not get involved in serious fights with aces. As for the number of his victories - a big question. Enough "to fight for the Germans." They do not deserve it. Neither they nor the Finns did too much evil, too many peaceful people and prisoners of war were savagely killed. So before the rehabilitation of Bandera and the "forest brothers" nearby. No offense. My great-grandfather died, I personally think the Germans' question is unambiguous. Once again - no offense.
                2. Doliva63
                  Doliva63 28 October 2017 18: 18 New
                  +7
                  Quote: p-k Oparyshev
                  don't be sarcastic about the real brave heroes of the pilots

                  Are you talking about jackals from the Luftwaffe? Damn, whom only the Russian land does not wear.
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 28 October 2017 00: 29 New
        +1
        Quote: Mikado
        Silbervogel

        About the Silver Bird? The project is implemented, but when? Check out this article from PM magazine. https://www.popmech.ru/weapon/8278-serebryanaya-p
        titsa-tretego-reykha-na-rakete-v-nyu-york /
        Senger came up with the concept of an aircraft that anticipated the American Space Shuttle and our Energy-Buran system.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 28 October 2017 12: 33 New
          +1
          interesting article. thank! hi
    2. rubin6286
      rubin6286 27 October 2017 23: 31 New
      +1
      The works of Soviet scientists in the prewar years on rocket engines, rockets and rocket launchers were very primitive and cannot be compared with German ones. The Germans had a foundation, we, sadly, handicraft, but managed to do something. The manufacturing technology of the so-called "long" ballistic checkers - the powder charge of the famous Katyusha. The Germans could not do this to their 6-barrel mortar. therefore, its firing range was significantly lower.
    3. rubin6286
      rubin6286 28 October 2017 00: 00 New
      +1
      What an orbital bomber, what intercontinental missiles. You need to read more and get used to thinking deeper. By the autumn of 1940 England was not defeated and preparations were underway for an attack on the USSR. Before the Reich loomed the prospect of a war on two fronts. for which Germany was not ready. She had a qualitative superiority in certain types of weapons and took steps to increase their quantity. The ban extended in the sense of adoption, but he did not stop the development of military science. Remember what Stalin did and imagine, think and decide what you would do.
  3. mariusdeayeraleone
    mariusdeayeraleone 27 October 2017 16: 37 New
    +3
    And now imagine a modern war between Russia and Germany without Yao.
    1. Sharansky
      Sharansky 27 October 2017 17: 15 New
      +3
      who will take Poland first?
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 27 October 2017 19: 36 New
        +4
        German biathlon team, when accidentally carried away at competitions .. drinks but what to take from them, nerdy, only an arrogance of flawed ones. No. However, not all! Suppose Rokossovsky was a Pole. soldier and not only him. He served together with me, a Pole - a wonderful person, and managed to do the service in the "hot spots". That is, there is an unhealthy national idea imposed from above, and there are wonderful people! hi
    2. rubin6286
      rubin6286 27 October 2017 23: 34 New
      +1
      In the last century, Germany never dared to fight alone with Russia. She always needed allies and their material and human resources.
      1. Sharansky
        Sharansky 28 October 2017 12: 42 New
        +3
        The converse is also true. Russia also never fought Germany alone.
  4. padded jacket
    padded jacket 27 October 2017 18: 51 New
    +1
    There is an educational film on this subject.
    Peenemuende missile project or how FAU missiles were created in Nazi Germany
  5. Settlement Oparyshev
    Settlement Oparyshev 27 October 2017 19: 04 New
    +3
    There is an opinion that the Germans are very smart and literate people. BUT! Only thanks to the shameful and obvious shoals of these same Germans did they lose the war. From FAU 2, another hack. The whole sky above the Reich was bombarded with bombers, and the Germans somehow didn’t very much. It’s more important to get to London. Reprofile factories, under anti-aircraft missiles and clear your sky. But they bomb you, they didn’t stubbornly shoot at Antwerp. There’s no sense in the actions of the Reich
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 27 October 2017 19: 52 New
      +1
      This supposedly nonsense continues to this day. Scud missiles and similar ones. They have no more strategic sense than in V-2. To get into the city is to kill several dozen civilians. But the psychological and propaganda effect is great: "we hit the enemy, we got to their capital, we won. We are cool."
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 27 October 2017 23: 15 New
        +2
        This is not entirely true. In the Soviet Union, the 8K14 Scud missiles were equipped with nuclear warheads. CVO (circular probabilistic deviation) from the target for these warheads was 1-1,5 km. A warhead with a capacity of 20 Kt, flying a distance of 200-250 km, falls at this distance from the target. It's a direct hit! In a non-nuclear version, warheads of such missiles are suitable for firing on areas, have the appropriate design and are equipped in a certain way. Further, in the sense of such designs, I look forward to your flight of fantasy. Such warheads were not handed over to our “brothers in the class” either for money or “as a sign of eternal friendship”, otherwise Israel would have slurped dashing from the same Hamas or Saddam Hussein.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 28 October 2017 01: 08 New
          +2
          Nuclear warheads are a completely different matter. Here I completely agree with you.
          I suppose that Hitler was going to equip the FAU-2 with nuclear stuffing. But the SS men, his assistants in the atomic project, apparently fooled him, simply stealing money.
          And taking them out to Latin America.
          But the Führer almost until the last day believed in “miracle weapons”.
    2. AUL
      AUL 27 October 2017 20: 12 New
      +2
      Do not mix German politicians and German techies! It is hard to disagree that the “Shadowy Teutonic genius” then far outstripped the development of other world powers in many areas, the highest production culture made it possible to produce very high-quality weapons, there was an excellent system for training specialists (Pilots, submariners, etc.). German military science (strategy, tactics, rear organization, etc.) was also very high. Germany lost the war due to the adventurism of political leadership and lack of resources. All the more significant is the feat of the Soviet people in victory over such a powerful enemy!
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 27 October 2017 23: 40 New
        +1
        Try mentally putting yourself in Hitler's place in 1938. Even if Hitler was an adventurer, then in his environment there were many sensible and educated people, to whose advice he listened. Not all archival documents have been declassified, and to this day we don’t know much. Without the resources of Europe, he would not have decided on this war and. for sure, something else was promised to him. Time will come and maybe our children will know whether their grandchildren promised who and what exactly.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 29 October 2017 11: 03 New
          0
          "then in his environment there were many sane and educated people,
          to the advice of which he listened "///

          The fact of the matter is that he did not listen. He walked from victory to victory,
          all the time convincing the people that this is by no means a world war.
          And after Poland, and even after France, Hitler claimed in his speeches that
          these are local European conflicts with brilliant German victories.
          So - gradually - he found himself with very limited natural and human
          resources against the whole world: the USSR, the USA and the British Commonwealth.
          The difference in industrial potential, stocks of raw materials and mobilization reserves was
          10 times. And suddenly it turned out that they only hoped for the "super" weapon.
          Engineers were on top and came up with a lot. But the opponents did not clap their ears.
          The Americans, as always, approached the matter strategically: the Manhattan project was
          started against Hitler. It was planned to drop the bomb on Berlin and end the war immediately.
          But they were half a year late.
      2. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 00: 47 New
        0
        "Great system for training pilots" In Germany, played a cruel joke with them. When Asses were beaten, it turned out that there was no one to fly.
      3. alex86
        alex86 27 July 2018 23: 03 New
        0
        Quote: AUL
        because of the adventurism of political leadership

        Let me look like a “grandmother at the entrance”, but the political leadership of the “brains” is always less than the people involved in a specific business - apparently, for the reason that the “political leadership” is good for nothing but chatter . And that applies to everyone.
    3. Amurets
      Amurets 28 October 2017 00: 19 New
      +1
      Quote: p-k Oparyshev
      Reprofile factories, under anti-aircraft missiles and clean your sky. But they bomb you, no, they stubbornly fired at Antwerp. There is no sense in the actions of the Reich

      Yes, there is no nonsense. Purely psychological impact, because nobody managed to create small-sized, reliable guidance and navigation systems at that time. There are many reasons, but this must already be understood with the state and production of both electronics and micromechanics. Still, the author correctly noted that no one canceled the gyroscopes, and the accuracy of guidance depends on the accuracy of the manufacture of gyroscopes and bearings of gyroscopes.
      1. Settlement Oparyshev
        Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 00: 49 New
        +1
        Could not create "This fortune-telling in the thick. If the Germans invested and tried in a timely manner, that would have happened.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 28 October 2017 02: 05 New
          +2
          Quote: p-k Oparyshev
          Could not create "This fortune-telling in the thick. If the Germans invested and tried in a timely manner, that would have happened.

          There is a series of brochures, once they were secret, now they have been declassified. Here, in one of the brochures, German missile guidance systems were also considered.
          Sorry, I do not have a scan of this brochure.
  6. Old26
    Old26 27 October 2017 22: 51 New
    +1
    Quote: pp to Oparyshev
    There is an opinion that the Germans are very smart and literate people. BUT! Only thanks to the shameful and obvious shoals of these same Germans did they lose the war. From FAU 2, another hack. The whole sky above the Reich was bombarded with bombers, and the Germans somehow didn’t very much. It’s more important to get to London. Reprofile factories, under anti-aircraft missiles and clear your sky. But they bomb you, they didn’t stubbornly shoot at Antwerp. There’s no sense in the actions of the Reich

    Anti-aircraft missiles were also far from a masterpiece. It would be hard to say whether they would play any role.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 28 October 2017 00: 01 New
      +1
      Quote: Old26
      Anti-aircraft missiles were also far from a masterpiece. It would be hard to say whether they would play any role.

      Volodya, hello. Agree with you. M.M.Lobanov, one of the major specialists in our radar, writes, yes, you and I two years ago. Corresponded on this topic that already in the WWII years, both active and passive were widely used. When he was on a business trip, in Germany, after the Second World War, he noticed that in some areas of Germany, the land was completely covered with stanolev tapes. So the allies "blinded" the German radar.
      And another problem: although the Germans made a breakthrough in the field of a centimeter range of radio waves, they failed to create reliable radio control systems. I will give a conclusion from the 7th report on trophy equipment. "German radar lamps"

      Unfortunately, the USSR faced the same problems when creating the SA-75 Dvina air defense system. That is, there were no anti-interference systems. And the second aspect of the problem is the inability to create compact guidance and homing and navigation systems, and they are needed not only for anti-aircraft missiles but also for ballistic missiles.
  7. misti1973
    misti1973 27 October 2017 23: 20 New
    +1
    50 lard $ at the time, an astronomical amount! And the quality is bad because the prisoners of concentration camps worked. I understand that if ordinary workers worked there, then this toy would have cost even more.
    1. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 30 October 2017 12: 04 New
      0
      Quote: misti1973
      50 lard $ at the time, an astronomical amount! And the quality is bad because the prisoners of concentration camps worked. I understand that if ordinary workers worked there, then this toy would have cost even more.


      The figure is called from the ceiling - actually an order of magnitude smaller.
      Research program funded on a residual basis.
      A certain amount of funds was invested in the deployment of production - but not as huge as described in the article - for underground factories or the existing mines and workings, simply expanding + slave labor of prisoners of war, were used. And the spent materials for the production of missiles - did not intersect with the nomenclature of conventional weapons or would go to the detriment of the production of other weapons.
  8. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 28 October 2017 01: 33 New
    +2
    Why did they paint them so - in black and white? Why is a 75% solution of ethanol, and not 100% - why carry 1/4 of the ballast with you? FAU-2 turbopump unit is different from the one on today's unions?
    PS: a good article.
    1. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 08: 38 New
      +2
      In black and white, to see a rocket at a higher altitude, as well as to look for a fallen rocket.
      100% ethanol does not exist. 75 cheaper and apparently more stable.
      TNA is different. The rocket carried fuel + a launch pad for it. Later they began to use fuel components to operate the turbine. They abandoned the launch squib and in some places they made an extrusion system without TNA with a surplus fuel component.
      They also abandoned the oxidizer tank insulation.
      the first rockets had wings to increase their range, but flutter often destroyed them and the wings were abandoned.
  9. Monarchist
    Monarchist 28 October 2017 10: 05 New
    +3
    Quote: rubin6286
    The “German trace” can be found in the post-war developments of Soviet scientists both in the field of rocketry, aviation, tank building, radar, automobile transport, and in metallurgy, shipbuilding, synthetic rubber production, chemistry, medicine and so on. Drop deeper and you will probably find out about it.

    Indeed it is. Kisunko read about it
  10. Mikado
    Mikado 28 October 2017 13: 42 New
    +4
    kennel Oparyshev,
    Peter is an interesting topic. The lion's share of industry worked on the 3rd Reich during WWII.

    Am I raving? or did you seriously say that? belay
    1. Settlement Oparyshev
      Settlement Oparyshev 28 October 2017 13: 53 New
      0
      “There is an opinion” It’s impossible to go past it. The power of the submarine production plants in the 3rd Reich was enough for 3oo pieces. Is there a mystery at whose shipyards the remaining 700 pieces are made? I don’t insist, but you can keep your ears open and not let in hints of similar circumstances.
  11. Eight
    Eight 28 October 2017 14: 09 New
    +5
    kennel Oparyshev,
    Could you explain a little your maxim about Peter and industry in WWII.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 28 October 2017 23: 06 New
      +4
      rave. I am silent. I don’t even want to answer. I want to believe that a person was mistaken with a geographical name. Although, as you can confuse Peter .. Brad .. answered you.
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 28 October 2017 23: 22 New
          +3
          I am silent again. And you are silent. We are silent. Otherwise, they will ban us, not him, but I can’t - I write articles on the site; You know, a lot of new ideas.
          1. The comment was deleted.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 28 October 2017 23: 31 New
              +5
              I’ll quote from the science fiction writer Alexander Tyurin: “Now even small children do not distinguish between the words“ brave ”and“ stupid. ”Nobody needs extra heroism. See the“ not your ”interlocutor in front of you - do not mess. Silly. Calculation - he doesn’t will not, he will continue to hang out on the site and flog nonsense. But a valuable and intelligent interlocutor will go to the ban. Calculation, facts, only calculation and facts!
              and I thought that during the war Leningrad repaired tanks, made SU based on the T-26, produced armored cars, and other weapons, sometimes handicraft production .. that half of the sailors were in the trenches. But it turns out that the lion's share of Leningrad industry worked for the Germans .. (modernization is sarcasm about some statements). Lord, how to live scary on the site ..
              1. Eight
                Eight 28 October 2017 23: 39 New
                +4
                Yes, in general, I did not get involved. So, he clarified the position of the miserable of this.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 28 October 2017 23: 41 New
                  +3
                  No, there is only one miserable on our site, and he is proud of it. Yes, and I am glad to communicate with him - with Anton, 3x3save. Do not use this word. We are silent. We are silent!
    2. mat-vey
      mat-vey 29 October 2017 13: 45 New
      +2
      Quote: Eight
      Could you explain a little your maxim about Peter and industry in WWII.

      I wanted to ask the same thing, but I restrained myself ... So I join the question ...
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 29 October 2017 15: 12 New
        +2
        So I join the question ...

        do not. stop Forgot. I’ll join myself for some more expensive questions, I advise how a relatively smart person to a smart person hi
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 29 October 2017 15: 32 New
          +2
          But there’s just not any gate, here I’d like to find out the reason - out of curiosity, simple human ... although recently it turned out that I could go and see what a man who could save the Russian Empire from collapse and put it on new tracks put not curiosity , and an act of religious worship ...
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 29 October 2017 15: 52 New
            +2
            Matvey, I recommend the "history" section. drinks What is there, what points of view and theories! fellow Come, read. yes I’ll just tell you my point of view, from the experience of discussions - if a person defends the “conspiracy theory”, the teachings of some new pseudo-historians, etc. "alternative" him do not convince. Sooner or later You break in your attempts to convince emotions, and You quickly banned - and he will continue to disseminate its “visions” on the site. It’s easier not to react .. hi
            1. mat-vey
              mat-vey 29 October 2017 16: 09 New
              +2
              And God bless them, although they are not gods, far from gods .... And the site is not the whole universe is not a great loss - although the gods do not understand this ... how they sometimes look ...
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 29 October 2017 16: 14 New
                +1
                go to the "history" section more often. drinks there are many good interlocutors. hi
                1. mat-vey
                  mat-vey 29 October 2017 16: 17 New
                  +2
                  Well, because "history is a science about the future" there are more provocateurs ...
                  1. Eight
                    Eight 29 October 2017 16: 36 New
                    +3
                    And in the "History" section of these inhabitants of meat products that have passed fermentation, it has already divorced, as in a zebra a week ago.
                    1. mat-vey
                      mat-vey 29 October 2017 16: 47 New
                      +2
                      What allegories do you have (with envy) .... although bears really like such products ...
                      1. Eight
                        Eight 29 October 2017 17: 26 New
                        +2
                        It just so happened that I met with zebras more often than with bears, whom I saw only five times outside the cage, maybe even white ones.
                    2. mat-vey
                      mat-vey 29 October 2017 17: 32 New
                      +1
                      I finally didn’t understand it, it’s like zebras and polar bears - they are on different continents ... I have never been intrigued ... Thank God, I didn’t see a bear in the vicinity either, otherwise I would have treated a bear disease for a long time. says - well, that only I saw him (in the wake a good knife and a palm fits in length) ... laughing .
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 29 October 2017 19: 59 New
                        +1
                        and you talk to him more, he still will not tell about something ... and especially about wild monkeys!
                      2. Eight
                        Eight 29 October 2017 20: 18 New
                        +2
                        That's right, I saw polar bears in Yamal, and zebras in South Africa and in Ngorongoro. And since zebras are much larger than polar bears, I saw them more often.
  12. Mikado
    Mikado 29 October 2017 19: 57 New
    +1
    Eight,
    you see, those possessed by those who are in the "history" section are well known to us, and we know with whom to communicate, with whom not. Therefore, you should not pay attention to them, but .. replenish with new smart people!
  13. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 30 October 2017 11: 21 New
    +1
    The controls of the V-2 ballistic missile were aerodynamic rudders and electric rudders of gas rudders.

    That’s not right to say.
    Governing bodies are aerodynamic wheels and gas-dynamic wheels. Electric steering cars are drive unit governing body.
  14. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 30 October 2017 11: 40 New
    +1
    In general, the effect of the German retaliation weapon was negligible. In the UK, 2 people died from V-2772 ballistic missiles (almost all are civilians), 1736 people in Belgium, several hundred more in France and the Netherlands. 11 Fau-2 missiles were launched by the Germans in the German city of Remagen captured by the Allies, the number of victims as a result of this shelling is unknown. In general, it can be said that the “miracle weapon” of the Third Reich killed several times fewer people than the number of dead prisoners of the Mittelbau-Dora underground concentration camp factory who died during its production.


    Controversial statement.
    The direct effect is not always significant. What was the direct effect of the dreadnought armada in WWI - one battle of Jutland?

    Allied funds spent on defeating the launch sites of the FAU-1 FAU-2, bombers lost from the MZA and attack aircraft from fighter aircraft - why no one wants to count?

    For English pilots, it was not a more dangerous task to be aimed at attacking the launch positions, which were very tightly covered by MZA.
    Often, the losses of attackers reached 20-30% in one flight, since not only Typhoon attack aircraft, but also Spitfire and Tempest went to attack.

    BBC reporters interviewed a large number of London residents who survived the first wave of attacks by German V-2 rockets. People who were taken by surprise experienced shock and did not believe that the existence of such a radical air weapon is real. At the same time, clear evidence of how German missiles hit the target was rare. Most eyewitnesses spoke of a “luminous ball," the fall of which was accompanied by a "terrible crack."

    V-2 missiles appeared over London, "like thunder from a clear sky."

    Londoners were frightened by the fact that when they hit the V-2 with rockets, they did not have a sense of imminent danger and the opportunity to take some measures to defend themselves. There were no air-raid advertisements to which they managed to get used during the war years. The first thing that people were aware of during rocket attacks was the sound of an explosion. Due to the fact that it was physically impossible to declare an alarm on the V-2 rockets, people could not descend to the shelters, all they had to do was hope for their luck and luck.


    The problems of the Allies were aggravated by the fact that they did not always and with great difficulty determine the place and time of the launch of German missiles.
    Unlike the slow V-1 missile aircraft, the V-2 missiles hit targets from a very high altitude and at a speed that exceeded the speed of sound. Even if such a missile could be found even when approaching the target, at that time there simply did not exist any effective means of protection against it. The bombardment of starting positions seemed difficult.
    The German V-2 launch teams subsequently used mobile rocket pads, which represented a concrete base easily masked in the forest. Missiles were delivered to the launch pad by trucks
  15. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 30 October 2017 11: 57 New
    0
    Doug Millard, a space exploration historian and curator of the London Space Technology Museum, believes that both Soviet and American missile programs began precisely with the launch of captured, and later modernized V-2 missiles.


    Well, this is what schoolchildren know :)

    In our laboratory, we also have the A-4 and R-1 engine compartment in the context - borrowing is clear, despite some changes in the R-1 engine and the detachable warhead — this is the same FAU-2.
  16. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 30 October 2017 12: 16 New
    0
    Already after the war, Albert Speer called the entire Vau-2 missile program an absurd undertaking. “Supporting this idea of ​​Hitler, I made one of my most serious mistakes. It would be much more productive to focus all efforts on the production of ground-to-air defensive missiles. Such missiles were created back in 1942, code-named "Wasserfall" (Waterfall)


    What speaks of Speer, as a low specialist in defense.
    To establish the production of Wasserfall rockets - defensive, this is not a winning strategy. The characteristics of the Wasserfall rockets were very low and would not have led to a turning point in the war, their guidance system was subject to interference (like the control system of the planned bombs, it could be suppressed by jamming stations).
    And defense tactics are always losing.
    The Germans lost dominance in the air. And for his conquest, fighters were needed.
  17. Zloy
    Zloy 31 October 2017 11: 29 New
    0
    The author has inaccuracies with a description of the components used, namely:
    "hydrogen peroxide tanks and sodium products, a battery of 7 cylinders of compressed air"
    The “sodium products” cause rejection in the chemist — manganese sodium was used as a catalyst for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide — it actuated a combined cycle gas turbine that powered centrifugal fuel and oxidizer pumps. From the point of view of fuel, the 75% ethanol / oxygen system was of little value for use in space flights, especially when reaching the moon, due to its low energy value. Korolev initially opposed alcohol. His proposal is kerosene / oxygen and was used in the space race, incl. and on the 1st stage Saturn -5, the 3rd stage hydrogen / oxygen, the ship Apollo-Aerosin / nitrogen tetroxide. Aerosin 50/50 hydrazine and asymmetric dimethylhydrazine. From the point of view of economics, in my opinion today the most promising methane / oxygen system.