Military Review

Chess game of the Bolsheviks

89



When it comes to the Great October Socialist Revolution, it is rightly recognized historical the significance of this greatest event for our country and humanity, as well as the economic and political consequences, is the appearance of the Soviet Union on the world stage. However, unexplored and unreasonable issues remain that are of particular importance in the XNUMXst century.

Was it possible to avoid a revolution in Russia (as it eventually happened in Europe), despite the maturity of the social and political situation and the presence of a multitude of political, economic, spiritual and moral prerequisites? Is it right to further among the factors of victory in October 1917 of the year to recognize only the role of Lenin's strategy, or is it time to evaluate the tactics of the uprising? Is the plan developed and implemented by Petro-Soviet unique or non-universal, that is, suitable for different countries and social and political situations?

Among the foreign authors who were among the first to publish their work on the October Revolution in Russia were John Reed, a popular witness of events, author of the book “Ten Days That Shook the World”, which showed special attention to detail, American Researcher William Chamberlin, who wrote hot on the heels of the multivolume work “The Russian revolution 1917 – 1921”, as well as the Italian political scientist Kurt Zukkert, who came to the USSR in 1929 a year to meet with October events in its membership and to review the documents, including the informal, which will continue to publish the most interesting work on the technique of a coup d'etat.

Where did the government look?

On the eve of the decisive events, the St. Petersburg and Moscow newspapers of the Menshevik and Social Revolutionary group were filled with alarming materials: “Where does the Kerensky government look?”, “What measures are being taken to protect Russia from the Bolshevik danger?”, “Why have Lenin, Trotsky and other members of the Central Committee of the Party still haven't you been arrested yet? ” The questions were legitimate, because the Bolshevik party could not (or did not see the point) hide the preparation of the uprising. His day is close, the leaders of the RSDLP (b) at the factories and in the barracks loudly declared. But society’s impression of the inaction and apathy of the Kerensky Cabinet is refuted by numerous facts.

Thanks to 20, thousands of Cossacks and Junkers were taken under the protection of strategic objects. Taken diverse measures to ensure the security of the government. The entrance to the Mariinsky Palace, where the Council of the Republic met, was guarded by the Cossacks. Before the Winter were placed two batteries 75-mm guns. The passage to the General Staff building was blocked by two rows of military vehicles.

By order of Kerensky, army units took control of the Winter and Tavrichesky palaces, ministries, telephone exchanges and telegraph, bridges, railway stations, intersections of the busiest central streets, and most importantly, the General Staff. And that is not all. The cadets of the cadets, loyal to the government, patrolled Petrograd round the clock, the newest military equipment, including armored cars, was brought to the streets. On the roofs of houses along Nevsky Prospect, at the beginning and at the end of all city arteries, there were machine guns at the entrances to the square.

Moreover, the head of the Provisional Government moved from military-police actions to political ones, enlisting the support of some influential forces and achieving the neutrality of others (in particular the largest trade unions).

Urgent measures to restore order were taken by the military commander of Petrograd, Colonel Georgy Polkovnikov. They signed orders prohibiting demonstrations, rallies and threatening to arrest deserters. A cold shower for many revolutionaries and a factor in stabilizing the situation was Polkovnikov’s promise to arrest 200 thousands of deserters and clean up the streets. Nevertheless, the situation in the city remained alarming.

Could Kerensky do something else under those conditions? Unlikely. As numerous studies show, if the leaders of England, France, and Italy appeared in its place, they would act like the head of the Provisional Government of Russia.

The image of the weakling and the destroyer of the state, which accompanied the politician down to his deathbed, was firmly attached to Kerensky (because of which even our compatriots abroad refused to accept the coffin with his body at the Russian cemetery in New York). However, one should remember the fact that it was this man who with a decisive hand suppressed the uprising of soldiers and deserters in July of 1917, and in August he broke off the adventure of General Kornilov (not afraid to ask for help from the Bolsheviks). It was then that Lenin dropped: "We must fear Kerensky - he is not a fool."

But in October, the situation changed radically. The efforts of the Provisional Government were faced with the Leninist strategy of preparing an armed uprising and with the tactics of Lev Trotsky, the chairman of the executive committee of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies, who formed the special Military Revolutionary Committee.

Slogans and numbers

In the Soviet party historiography, in the textbooks a lot was written about the Leninist plan of an armed uprising. And this is understandable. The role of Lenin as a brilliant strategist was fixed in Soviet historical science, which had a basis. However, after 100 years, there are many reasons for, without pathos and emotion, assess the relationship between strategy and tactics in the success of the October Revolution, the role of the various stages of the preparatory work and organization of the uprising.

Chess game of the BolsheviksLenin saw the need and the opportunity to raise the working masses against the Kerensky government, “to flood Russia with a wave of proletarian wrath,” to signal the whole society, to appear at the Congress of Soviets (forcing the Mensheviks to obey). Fearing accusations of Blanquism, preparing and conducting a conspiracy, Lenin did a lot to ensure the popular character of the uprising, "based on the advanced class, on the revolutionary upsurge ... when the activity of the front ranks is greatest."

Nevertheless, from our days, this strategy seems to be too generalized and not specific enough, despite the high degree of detail of landmarks and many activities. Although the Leninist plan for preparing the uprising was extensive and even with many important details, and the strategy of action covered considerable space and a wide variety of social groups, the necessary calculations were not envisaged, which led to schematism and abstract ideas, slogans instead of numbers. The abundance of managerial terms (“to organize, mobilize, distribute, surround, occupy, arrest”) could not replace the necessary specifics, which in the end resulted, in the opinion of Kurt Zuckert, many of the problems of the preparatory period.

We have to agree that Lenin, forced to watch the events from afar, did not always have the opportunity to understand and appreciate the contradictory situation in detail. Moreover, he was held captive by philosophically generalized ideas of Karl Clausewitz, the greatest German theorist of the war, which also prevented the necessary concreteness of the plan of revolution.

For example, four factors of success of the uprising, known to historians and political scientists for the “Left-wing Children in Communism” disease, were re-evaluated, namely the possibilities to combine the Bolshevik coup with the end of the imperialist war; to use for a certain time the struggle of two groups of powers, which in a different socio-political situation could unite against the Bolshevik revolution; endure a relatively long civil war due to the enormous size of the country and (partly) the poor state of the means of communication plus the existence of a bourgeois-democratic revolutionary movement among the peasantry.

However, a century later, let us ask ourselves: were these four conditions sufficient for the success of October and is it permissible to exaggerate in that victory the role of strategic guidelines and the socio-political background?

We must pay tribute to the initial chapter of modern Russian history and note the conditionality of the success of October 1917 of the year with two circumstances of extreme importance: the democratic and flexible structure of the Bolshevik organization and the exceptional popularity of the councils of deputies (as evidenced by the widespread slogan “All power to the Soviets”!). Nevertheless, the question is legitimate: is the strategy capable of guaranteeing the seizure of power? The question is theoretical and at the same time political, relevant in modern conditions. If all the same, yes, then why did the strategic vision integrating diverse activities not work, for example, in Italy in the 1919-20-years and in Germany of those years?

From the publications of Palmiro Tolyatti, Antonio Gramsci, the leaders of the Italian Communist Party, and her documents, you can see that the October success of the Bolsheviks was perceived in their country with great enthusiasm and that the Leninist strategy, which was fully applied there, was completely enthusiastic. Italy more than other European countries matured for the socialist revolution. For her, almost everything was ready:

the revolutionary situation in the country, the indignation and ferment of the proletarian masses, the "epidemic of general strikes";

the paralysis of economic and political life, which began with the seizure by workers of factories, and by peasants of landlords' lands;

the collapse of the army, the police and the state apparatus against the background of the apparent powerlessness of the executive branch and the ruling class as a whole. Moreover, the parliament was under the control of left-wing parties, trade unions were active. However, the revolution was exhausting itself in strategy, in the metaphorical language of Italian political scientists.

There was a preparation for a decisive assault on the authorities, but how to conduct it, there were only the most general arguments. As a result, the monarchy was recognized as a serious obstacle to the uprising, sometimes called socialist to justify the helplessness of revolutionaries.
Nonsense? Alas, it was. Problems of tactics were not resolved not only in Italy, but also in almost all countries of Western Europe, which is recognized by many researchers.

Invisible Rehearsal Rebellion

Tactics - the condition for success. This military formula is filled with new meaning, if you look closely at Petrograd in October 1917 of the year and at the thorough preparatory work launched by the Military Revolutionary Committee formed by the Petrograd Soviet headed by Leo Trotsky.

According to the obtained plan of urban communications, the capital was divided into sectors, outlined strategic points and sent teams of specialist workers-soldiers to the places. Trotsky repeatedly emphasized that there should be a technician next to a man with a gun. On October 21, under the direct supervision of Antonov-Ovseenko, the secretary of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee, who was inseparably observing the training, the station was captured. Choice thousand sailors of the Baltic fleet and the proven proletarians of the Putilov and Vyborg factories, as well as the Latvian riflemen, from October 10, conducted classes on the ground, or rather, in the conditions of the city.

In the center of the capital, mingling with the crowds of deserters, the Red Guards penetrated the ministries, the General Staff, the post office, railway stations, telephone exchanges, the telegraph and other institutions, the barracks. A telegraph operator was assigned to each group to control the movement by rail. The sewer wells under the General Staff building were examined in order to cut it off from the army in a matter of minutes. With the help of two engineers and two workers, the sailors Dybenko were instructed to study the location of gas and water pipes, electrical substations, telephone and telegraph cables on the ground.

These events (as part of the general rehearsal of the October uprising) were carried out clearly and disciplined for two weeks, without causing suspicion among the heads of institutions, enterprises and even the special services.

Indicative of the case when visiting the three sailors of the power plant, located in the vicinity of the seaport. They managed to pass not only to the territory, but also to the boss himself, who took the visitors for envoys of the commander of the military district, who promised five days ago to provide reliable protection for an important strategic facility. There were no questions about the verification of documents and even those necessary in such cases. The arrivals assured the frightened leader that the power station was taken under reliable protection from the actions of the crowd.

Approximately in the same way, other groups of sailors took control of three more power stations of Petrograd, as well as Central Telegraph, which was guarded by fifty gendarmes and soldiers lined up in front of the building to repel the capture of the building.

This defensive tactic, still referred to as guarding and enforcing law and order, is vivid evidence of the stenciliness and even the nullity of police measures effective in pushing back a rebellious crowd, but useless when well-trained attackers are able to blend in unnoticed with rows of defenders, which is what happened at the Central Telegraph. Three sailors from the Dybenko team (who studied the building plan and visited it in advance) were able to get inside under the guise of their own, and another Baltic team made their way to the opposite house with minimal forces, so that if necessary, insure the gendarmes and soldiers with backshots.

The plan of operations was thought out by a former officer of the tsarist army, Antonov-Ovseenko, a political exile and revolutionary, a chess lover, that even Lenin acknowledged, stressing that the organization of the uprising was possible only for the master of the most ancient game. In a small room on the top floor of the Smolny Antonov-Ovseenko, together with Trotsky, played a chess game on the topographic map of Petrograd, and one late October 24 announced one to another: “It's done!”.

For almost 24 hours the situation remained confusing and even paradoxical.

The Bolsheviks, taking control of the entire technical structure of the city and announcing the seizure of power, left the government free rein, as if forgetting about the ministers. Kerensky was not overthrown, retaining power. However, the ministers gathered in the Winter Palace were no longer able to govern; the government was cut off from the rest of Russia. The means of communication were in the hands of the Bolsheviks, the exits from the city were blocked, even the General Staff was isolated from the outside world.

Under these conditions, the units guarding the city, one by one, began to pass into the subordination of the Military Revolutionary Committee. The Provisional Government tailored to Western manners (supported by the US Consul General John Snodgrass) were thrown off without much effort. Thus, a practical point was put in the theoretical debate of Trotsky with Lenin, Kamenev and Zinoviev.
Ten years later, this tactic was included in the Comintern’s manuals and in the curriculum of Sun Yat-sen University, which worked in Volkhonka in those years in Moscow.

New perspectives

In the organization of the October Revolution, the role of Lev Trotsky, who abroad is often compared to Mao Zedong and Ernesto Che Guevara, is great.

According to Trotsky, in order to organize an uprising, you need to form and prepare percussion units, not necessarily numerous. Mass is not enough, just a small detachment. “All the people - too much for the uprising. We need a small detachment of cold-blooded, determined fighters who have mastered revolutionary tactics ... Not a mass of workers, deserters and refugees, but a shock detachment is needed. ” It is necessary to observe tactics, act on a limited space with a small number of people, focus on the main directions. "To hit accurately and hard without making a fuss."

Revolt is not art, according to Trotsky, but a machine. To start it, we need technicians. And only engineers who understand the state’s technical-bureaucratic military machine will be able to stop it: flaws, gaps, weaknesses. It is not necessary to provoke a strike. The monstrous chaos that reigns in Petrograd is stronger than the strike. This is chaos, paralyzing the state, preventing the government from taking measures against the uprising. ” “If we cannot rely on a strike, let's rely on chaos,” he formulated the tasks. The uprising does not need favorable conditions, he summed up in the future, we need percussion military units and equipment: detachments of armed men under the command of engineers.

Trotsky did a lot on the rational organization of the seizure of power in Petrograd and the development of tactics aimed at strategic points of defense of the state. The complex of activities carried out under the leadership of Lev Davidovich is sometimes called a scientifically-prepared coup d'état.

If Lenin, following Marx, considered revolt an art, recognizing the inevitable role of improvisation, then Trotsky understood it as a science, a kind of social technology, in modern terms.

The novelty of Trotsky’s revolutionary tactics, according to Kurt Zuckert, consisted precisely in maximum rationalism. These unbiased assessments involuntarily elevate Trotsky to the level of “the genius of small deeds and tactics,” which deserves our attention.

The seizure of power is still predominantly military art, but we should not forget the possibilities and the role of socio-political technologies. The fact that the decisive role played by the decisive role in the success of the Great October Socialist Revolution was played by tactical questions, in no way diminishes the significance of this historical event. On the side of the Bolsheviks there were about 20 thousands of soldiers and sailors, but a special role belonged to the shock one thousand. She, who actually seized power, should be remembered in the 2017 year, since some politicians and public figures show complacency when assessing the number of unauthorized actions on Moscow and other streets.
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  1. EvgNik
    EvgNik 29 October 2017 06: 56 New
    18
    Isn't it time to stop it? And perceive as a historical fact? It was February, it was October. It was.
    I'm more worried about something else. All the holidays of our, Soviet time are replaced by fake, artificially created and meaningless. And in Belarus they celebrate. for which they have deep respect, and our authorities are indignant "FU".
    1. svp67
      svp67 29 October 2017 07: 05 New
      +7
      Quote: EvgNik
      All the holidays of our, Soviet time are replaced by fake, artificially created and meaningless

      How are they not much different from Soviet holidays ...
      1. EvgNik
        EvgNik 29 October 2017 07: 12 New
        15
        With all due respect to you, I’ll also say “fi”, we still celebrate, and the children know them. But the current ones do not even know what they are called. Drawn to the ass with a rope.
        1. svp67
          svp67 29 October 2017 07: 16 New
          +6
          Quote: EvgNik
          But the current ones do not even know what they are called. Drawn to the ass with a rope.

          Exactly the same “rope” as the Soviet ones. Those learned when they pass and these will learn. All the differences are that they used to bring up this from the kindergarten, but now they are only returning to this.
          1. EvgNik
            EvgNik 29 October 2017 07: 47 New
            +5
            Quote: svp67
            All the differences are that before this, even from the kindergarten, they brought up

            Do you seriously take any kind of association, or what it is called there, with oligarchs and other thieves? For me, according to Vysotsky: "A thief should be in prison."
            1. svp67
              svp67 29 October 2017 07: 55 New
              +4
              Quote: EvgNik
              Do you seriously take any kind of association, or what it is called there, with oligarchs and other thieves?

              What are you talking about? WHICH ASSOCIATION?
              1. EvgNik
                EvgNik 29 October 2017 08: 07 New
                12
                Yes, I do not remember what the holiday is called, but they are far-fetched.
                Found. National Unity Day. What a foolish name?
                http://www.uralstudent.ru/articles/ekonomika-i-vl
                ast / 2089599 /
                1. svp67
                  svp67 29 October 2017 08: 11 New
                  +8
                  Quote: EvgNik
                  Found. National Unity Day. What a foolish name?

                  Well, what is it. Why is it worse than the holiday of the "Stalinist constitution", which gave everyone "equal rights", in a country where a very large part of the population was simply deprived of passports and meaning and amazed at the rights, only because it was born "not there." .. And everyone celebrated nothing.
                  1. mat-vey
                    mat-vey 29 October 2017 08: 20 New
                    +3
                    And what passports were taken away? Or was it just as before that it wasn’t much accepted?
                    1. svp67
                      svp67 29 October 2017 08: 23 New
                      +8
                      Quote: mat-vey
                      And what passports were selected?

                      No, they were simply NOT GIVEN to the villagers. To limit the outflow of population from rural areas. You that did not know about this aspect of Soviet reality?
                      1. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 29 October 2017 08: 25 New
                        +4
                        I just knew that over several years the urban population has grown several times ....
                      2. basmach
                        basmach 29 October 2017 16: 57 New
                        +8
                        Oh dear, do not carry nonsense. In the first two five-year plans, 11 million people migrated from the village to the city. Read a little story. And they built (except for the Belomorkanal and Kolyma) civilian workers, in the vast majority of the village. They then remained to work in these factories. In addition, with an increase in labor productivity in agriculture, the need for labor resources decreases, and in industry increases (with the growth of industry itself). And keeping the people in the village, you get an excess of labor resources in the village and a shortage in the city (industry). So do not carry nonsense for liberoids.
                    2. Amurets
                      Amurets 29 October 2017 09: 19 New
                      +4
                      Quote: mat-vey
                      And what passports were taken away? Or was it just as before that it wasn’t much accepted?

                      On passportization: "Villagers were subjected to especially humiliating enslavement, since, according to the above-mentioned resolutions of the USSR Council of People's Commissars No. 57/1917 of December 27, 1932 and No. 861 of April 28, 1933, in rural areas passports were issued only at state farms and in territories declared “Regime.” The remaining villagers did not receive passports. " Details at the link http://www.oldmikk.ru/Page3_let_passport.html
                      1. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 29 October 2017 09: 45 New
                        +6
                        The Kaliningrad region, declared regime in 1933, somewhat strained me ...
                  2. EvgNik
                    EvgNik 29 October 2017 08: 24 New
                    +8
                    Quote: svp67
                    most of whose population was simply deprived of passports

                    I have a passport in my pocket now. So what? What rights do I have for my pension?
                    Nothing! Only survive. And then, provided that the main products I will grow myself!
                    1. svp67
                      svp67 29 October 2017 08: 32 New
                      +7
                      Quote: EvgNik
                      I have a passport in my pocket now. So what? What rights do I have for my pension?

                      That is, you consider your current position SOMETHING EXCLUSIVE, whereas before everything was AMAZING.
                      You are an adult and you must understand that NEVER was such that everyone would live well. And in Soviet times, it was both good and bad, just as it is now, and it’s possible, of course, to transfer your personal feelings and impressions to the whole era, but you should not speak for everyone. You can express only your personal opinion.
                      And I assure you that if Vasilyeva returns to school elements of Soviet education, then after some, not very long time, these holidays that you don’t understand now, future generations will celebrate easily and not forcibly and remember them all their lives.
                      1. EvgNik
                        EvgNik 29 October 2017 08: 47 New
                        +5
                        Quote: svp67
                        whereas before EVERYTHING WAS GREAT

                        No, and then there were problems, but they were gradually resolved. Now it is out of the question. The people on top do not give a damn. They steal and will steal. Millions and billions. Rob the country, destroy the people. He who does not see this is a blind man.
                        It’s somehow strange: we can’t be without pain,
                        Too much grief, tears.
                        Into this world of endless vale
                        Man himself and brought
                        War, money, turmoil, contention -
                        Everything fell on the neck of the people.
                        Politicians have eternal debate,
                        They do not care that others are hard.

                        What about the people? And what is the people?
                        Politics tax gives ...
                        Do we need that cesspool?
                        I don’t, but I don’t know.
                        Still.
                        Hurray patriots are now honored
                        the road is right in front of them.
                        We are with them, wretched, out of the way
                        They will not be allowed to reach the threshold.

                        Consecrated by United Russia
                        blessed by the patriarch.
                        Without tyranny, without violence
                        greedy, arrogant, narcissistic.

                        Patriotism - fill your pockets.
                        And over the hill - better, quietly.
                        If in Russia there are walls, security.
                        Isn't it better to just live with dignity?
                      2. Amurets
                        Amurets 29 October 2017 08: 49 New
                        10
                        Quote: svp67
                        NEVER there was such that everyone would live well. And in Soviet times there was both good and bad,

                        Most importantly, at that time a person retiring knew that he would live on that pension. And now: “Anatoly Vertiprakhov, a pensioner from the Olovyanninsky district of Transbaikalia, in an open letter asked Russian President Vladimir Putin“ to dig a grave for him and buy a coffin, ”Vecherka reports.

                        The man told the president that "it is impossible to live in this country."

                        Vertiprakhov noted that his pension is 8 rubles per month, while the cost of living in Transbaikalia is a little more than 516 rubles. However, this did not stop the bailiffs, they took "everything to the penny" from him, more precisely - 8 600 rubles and 8 kopecks. Next: https://news.rambler.ru/community/516/?utm_c
                        ontent = rnews & utm_medium = read_more & utm_sou
                        rce = copylink "
                        If you think this is populism, then alas, this is the rule.
                      3. The comment was deleted.
                      4. sabakina
                        sabakina 29 October 2017 10: 45 New
                        +9
                        Quote: svp67
                        And I assure you that if Vasilyeva returns to school the elements of Soviet education, then after some not very long time these holidays, which you don’t understand now, will be celebrated by future generations easily and not forcibly and will be remembered about them all their lives.

                        Sergey, here let me disagree with you. As previously celebrated on November 7, now they will not. After all, they prepared for him in advance, baked, fried, boiled ... They began to drink at the demonstration in the gateway, for a warming, and then to the table. And they sat in a big company, relatives, friends.
                    2. mat-vey
                      mat-vey 29 October 2017 08: 35 New
                      +4
                      So when the crunch of rolls in full stood with passports it was not very much the same, and even all kinds of debts for freedom hung ...
                  3. Pancir026
                    Pancir026 29 October 2017 13: 47 New
                    +5
                    Quote: svp67
                    a very large part of the population of which was simply deprived of passports, and it means and is deprived of their rights, only because they were born "not there" ...

                    Why are you using this fake? For the sake of showing your illiteracy? Thanks ...
                    Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR
                    DECREE
                    from 20 June 1923 of the year
                    ABOUT ID CERTIFICATE

                    3. Identity cards in cities and urban-type settlements are issued by the police, and in rural areas by volost executive committees at the citizen's place of residence.
                    4. An identity card is entitled to every citizen of R. S. F. S. S. R. without gender difference, with the exception of the persons referred to in Art. 5th.
                    5. Minors under 16 years of age shall be entered on the identity card of that person or on the lists of the institution on which they are dependent.
                    11. Institutions referred to in Art. 3, are required to issue an identity card to a citizen upon his application, provided that the identity of the applicant and the accuracy of the information to be entered in the certificate is confirmed by the documents submitted by the applicant.
                    12. To obtain an identity card, the applicant must submit one of the following documents:
                    1) in cities and urban-type settlements: a) birth certificate (or old metric); b) a certificate from the house of residence and c) a certificate from the place of work or service;
                    2) in rural areas: a) an act (or old metric) birth certificate or a certificate from the village council about residence.

                    Well, for fidelity-

                    On the establishment of a unified passport system for the USSR and compulsory registration of passports
                    From the decree of the CEC and SNK on December 27, 1932
                    In order to better account for the population of cities, workers' settlements and new buildings and unload these settlements from people unrelated to production and work in institutions or schools and not engaged in socially useful work (with the exception of disabled people and pensioners), as well as to clean these settlements places from hiding kulak, criminal and other antisocial elements, the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR Decides:

                    1. To establish a unified passport system for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the basis of the provision on passports.
                    2. Introduce a unified passport system with mandatory registration throughout the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics during 1933, covering primarily the population of Moscow, Leningrad, Kharkov, Kiev, Odessa, Minsk, Rostov-on-Don, Vladivostok ...
                    3. To instruct the governments of the Union republics to bring their legislation into line with this resolution and the provision on passports.
                    Chairman of the CEC of the USSR Union M. Kalinin Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR V. Molotov (Scriabin) Secretary of the CEC of the USSR A. A. Yenukidze
                    27 декабря 1932 года

                    PASSPORT REGULATIONS

                    1. All citizens of the USSR, over the age of 16, permanently residing in cities, workers' settlements, working in transport, on state farms and in new buildings, are required to have passports.

                    2. In areas where the passport system is introduced, the passport is the only document proving the identity of the owner.

                    Nevertheless, other documents and certificates that served as a residence permit are canceled as invalid.

                    The passport is required for:

                    a) upon registration of the passport holder (registration);

                    b) when applying for a job in an enterprise and institution;

                    c) at the request of the police and other administrative authorities.

                    11. Persons obliged to have passports and found themselves without passports or temporary certificates are subject to administrative fines of up to one hundred rubles.

                    Citizens who arrived from other places without a passport or temporary certificate and did not choose a passport or temporary certificate within the time period specified in the instructions are subject to a fine of up to 100 rubles and removal by order of the police.

                    12. For living without a passport or temporary certificate, as well as for violating the rules of registration, the perpetrators are subject to administrative fines of up to 100 rubles, and for repeated violation of the rules of registration are subject to criminal liability.



                    So, as we see, the obligation to obtain passports was not for all and not in all regions of the vast Motherland. But everyone had the right to get a passport, and each person who was traveling from village to city or to an urban-type settlement for permanent residence, issued a passport for himself, precisely for the sake of these tasks, this system was introduced.
                    1. mat-vey
                      mat-vey 29 October 2017 14: 05 New
                      +1
                      So in "This fake" also universal military duty, along with the regime of Kaliningrad region made its way, in 1932 ...
                      1. Pancir026
                        Pancir026 29 October 2017 14: 16 New
                        +5
                        Quote: mat-vey
                        So in This Fake

                        I am surprised at people who, in the age of the Internet, with the insistence of a worthy other application, believe in those bikes that were flooded in completely crazy heads at 90 ... Although I understand why some people stubbornly repeat these bikes ... someone "grabbed" someone successfully landed, and someone just does not give labor to his intellect, at least somehow develop.
                        There is such an author, published in the central media, and so he wrote, “The suffocating atmosphere of betrayal, spilled in the capital, stinks more and more intolerant and the split is not even between rich and poor, not between those who feast during the plague and die from it, and between those who believe that it is no longer possible to live this way and those who believe that it is possible and should continue to live this way at all costs, and the gap between these social groups is growing at an alarming rate.

                        In this atmosphere, the centenary of the Revolution is approaching. The date of great betrayal, great tragedy and great seizure of the fate of a huge people from the hands of traitors and foreign agents. The salvation of Russia from the abyss of nothingness is not a holiday for the current ruling coalition. Peskov said so - I do not understand what is there to celebrate? And it is true - under Stalin, the fate of Peskov would have been completely different. As well as the fate of all other maggots, fed on the meat of the dead and decaying USSR. Neither yachts, nor American wives and French daughters, nor foundations abroad and real estate in the same place, nor the crazy luxury of accessories, nor the sweet bourgeois being, would they have in a country that was born in the crucible of two Russian revolutions of the early twentieth century. The anniversary of these revolutions is not a holiday for them, but a nightmare. The steps of the commander. A reminder of the coming reckoning for decades of living on the corpse of the Red Empire. "
                        https://cont.ws/@alex-haldey/753685
                    2. mat-vey
                      mat-vey 29 October 2017 14: 21 New
                      +3
                      We don’t understand the psychology of helminths, they don’t understand that with the death of a carrier they die themselves ...
                    3. svp67
                      svp67 29 October 2017 17: 58 New
                      +3
                      Quote: Pancir026
                      Why are you using this fake?

                      Fake?
                      That is why in 1967, the proposal of the first deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers and the chief person responsible for agriculture, Dmitry Polyansky, was first greeted by the country's top officials.

                      “According to the current legislation,” wrote Polyansky, “the issuance of passports in our country applies only to people living in cities, district centers and urban-type settlements (aged 16 years and older). Those who live in rural areas do not have the right to receive this basic document proving the identity of a Soviet citizen.This procedure is currently not justified, especially in the territory of the Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian SSR, Moscow and Kaliningrad regions, some regions of the Kazakh SSR, Leningrad region, Krasnodar and Stavropol territories and in the border zone, passports are issued to all residents there, regardless of whether they are city dwellers or village residents.In addition, according to established practice, passports are issued to citizens living in rural areas if they work in industrial enterprises, institutions and organizations, or in transport, and also to materially responsible workers on collective and state farms. m of the Ministry of Public Order of the USSR, the number of people living in rural areas and not having a passport right reaches almost 58 million people (aged 16 and over); this amounts to 37 percent of all citizens of the USSR. The lack of passports for these citizens creates significant difficulties for them in exercising labor, family and property rights, applying for studies, receiving various types of mail, purchasing goods on credit, registration in hotels, etc. ... One of the main reasons for the inappropriateness of issuing passports citizens living in rural areas, was the desire to restrain the mechanical growth of the urban population. However, the passportization of the entire population carried out in the above-mentioned union republics and regions showed the groundlessness of the fears on this score; it did not cause an additional influx of population from the village to the city. Moreover, such an inflow can be regulated even if rural residents have passports. The current passportization procedure, which infringes on the rights of Soviet citizens living in the countryside, causes them legitimate discontent. They rightly believe that such an order means for a large part of the population unjustified discrimination that must be eliminated. "

                      “The publication of the new Regulation on the passport system in the USSR,” the MVD note to the Central Committee of the CPSU said in a note, “is also caused by the need for a different approach to solving a number of issues related to the passport system in connection with the adoption of new criminal and civil laws. In addition, in this according to the current Regulation of the passport, only residents of urban areas have it, the rural population does not have it, which creates great difficulties for the villagers (when receiving mail, purchasing goods on credit, traveling on tourist trips abroad, etc.). changes, the well-being of the rural population and the strengthening of the economic base of collective farms have prepared the conditions for issuing passports to the rural population, which will eliminate the differences in the legal status of citizens of the USSR in terms of documenting them with passports. in the thirties, outdated, their appearance and the quality is justified by the workers. "
                      Extract from Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of August 28, 1974 N 677
                      "On approval of the regulations on the passport system in the USSR" Citizens living in rural areas who have not been issued passports before are issued passports upon departure to another locality for a long period of time, and upon departure for a period of up to one and a half months, as well as in a sanatorium, rest house, for meetings, on business trips or with temporary attraction their certificates for sowing, harvesting and other work are issued by the executive committees of rural and settlement Councils of deputies of workers certificates confirming their identity and purpose of departure. The certificate form is established by the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs.
                    4. Alex1117
                      Alex1117 29 November 2017 06: 37 New
                      +1
                      But you were not alerted that along with state farms, the number of workers in which was 1-2 percent of the rural population, collective farms and individual farms, which made up 98-99% of the country's rural population, were not mentioned? My grandmother on a collective farm received a passport somewhere in 1967. And she refused a pension of 12 rubles. So, the pension for the loss of a breadwinner for a grandfather who died in the war was 19 rubles.
    2. To be or not to be
      To be or not to be 29 October 2017 08: 59 New
      0
      EvgNik Today, 06:56 AM New
      Isn't it time to stop it? "
      No time !!!
      Why ??
      Until everything is put into place.
      February and October 1917.
      The ensuing civil war.
      The arrival of Stalin and the salvation of the Russian state from the orange plague.
      The second seventeenth year in the 90s of the last century or Gorbachov’s - (Andropov’s?) Perestroika and creeping counter-revolution ..
  2. Cat
    Cat 29 October 2017 07: 07 New
    +7
    Many moments of the article were a revelation for me! Thank!
    R.s. interestingly, there is something in the literature about the fate of the “chess player” - Antonov-Ovseenko.
    1. svp67
      svp67 29 October 2017 07: 19 New
      +4
      Quote: Kotischa
      R.s. interestingly, there is something in the literature about the fate of the “chess player” - Antonov-Ovseenko.

      Yes, it’s full ... One of his “seizures” of the Winter Palace is worth what, when everything was decided “behind the scenes”, while some “masses portrayed” the assault and others defended the Palace. And so that he would talk less about it, he would be “cleaned up” during the repressions.
      1. creak
        creak 29 October 2017 13: 58 New
        +1
        Quote: svp67
        . One of his "capture" of the Winter Palace

        But what a storm of the Winter Palace there is - all this is nothing more than a myth born of supply scenes from a feature film. In fact, in Zimniy since 1915 a hospital was located for seriously wounded people - several entrances and exits were opened. And on the eve of the decisive events, two artillery batteries and Cossacks left their positions and left Zimny ​​... What was there to storm - the victims were considerable later, when the crowd bursting into the palace burst to the liquor reserves in the cellars. took the soul - I had to clean up the most stringent measures including and stop not only drunkenness but also looting.
    2. EvgNik
      EvgNik 29 October 2017 07: 49 New
      +4
      Hello, Vlad! Why haven’t you answered letters since spring? hi
      1. Cat
        Cat 29 October 2017 09: 17 New
        +4
        Eugene tried to explain everything in PM!
        I was glad to hear you !!!
        If the answer did not go let me know in the comments.
    3. mat-vey
      mat-vey 29 October 2017 08: 09 New
      +1
      And for me, "The plan of operations was thought out by the former officer of the tsarist army, Antonov-Ovseenko" - is an officer possible without an oath?
      1. Cat
        Cat 29 October 2017 09: 19 New
        +7
        But was the renunciation of the king-priest from his people, also provided for by the imperial articles?
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 29 October 2017 09: 49 New
          +1
          Well, if he refused to take the oath, then he could not become an officer in the army of the Russian Empire ...
        2. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 29 October 2017 11: 46 New
          +4
          Quote: Kotischa
          But was the renunciation of the king-priest from his people, also provided for by the imperial articles?

          And if he renounced, then what did he do to the abdication that they say about his holiness ????? And if he renounced, then like that, he quit? And if the previous films of the teacher did not pay off, then this one will probably pay off. ????? !!!!!! And the DEP advertises, and All Deputies participate in this topic, make out, discuss, browse !!!!!!
          And if we say that the Bolsheviks were killed, then the archives are still not open! And Lenin wrote about an open trial, as during the French Revolution! That's what!!!!!!
          1. Cat
            Cat 29 October 2017 14: 13 New
            +6
            Dima You are right, in the behavior of Nicholas II, I observe the analogy "a cat left kittens, let them ......... as they want"! Of course, comparing imeria with the "kittens" is a little off topic, but apart from the right to rule on the anointed of God - the god was entrusted with the duty for her subjects and otchechat. Well, what about holiness? Here, the godless Katerina, with the somin of favorites, imitates me.
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 29 October 2017 14: 26 New
              +3
              You see, what’s the matter, Vlad, I am also impressed by Catherine .... After all, her favorites were bright talented people who served Russia. Potemkin-Tauride, for example. Although it may have been easier than anyone, but they did not overshadow the service of Russia's interests for the tsarina. Not particularly interested
              1. Cat
                Cat 29 October 2017 18: 10 New
                +5
                Looking at our “Babskii Century”, Elizaveta Petrovna and Catherine II stand out especially, for all their female weaknesses, their favorites “like garbage cats” were hunchbacked for the benefit of the empire. Remember their deeds Razumovsky, Rumyantsev, Orlov, Shuvalov, Potemkin.
            2. mat-vey
              mat-vey 29 October 2017 14: 40 New
              +1
              Quote: Kotischa
              but besides the right to rule on the anointed of God - the dear lady was entrusted with the duty for her subjects and

              So he kind of about it and took an oath at the wedding to the kingdom ...
              1. Cat
                Cat 29 October 2017 18: 12 New
                +4
                Gave it! As without it. In this connection, I relate to Nicholas II as an oath-criminal who threw his fatherland into a difficult year.
              2. Seal
                Seal 29 November 2017 08: 47 New
                +1
                At the wedding to the kingdom, no “oath” was made by the future king. For it was believed that God chose him to the kingdom. Who needs the oath? To the people? Why, if he is already chosen by God? To god? Why, if God had already chosen him?
                Here is a description of the coronation celebrations. Well, where is the oath?
                When their imperial majesties appeared on the upper platform of the Red Porch, having assistants with them: the emperor — led. Prince Mikhail Alexandrovich and Vladimir Alexandrovich and the Empress Empress - led. Prince Sergei Aleksandrovich and Pavel Aleksandrovich, a loud “cheer” broke out on the cathedral site and, seized by a crowd of thousands on the Kremlin and Red Squares, rolled along both embankments of the Moscow river, occupied by people who arrived from all over Great Russia. Among these enthusiastic cliques and powerful sounds of the national anthem performed by all military bands, their majesties deigned to descend from the Red Porch, bowing to the people, and enter under the prepared canopy, the rods and arms of which were held by 32 adjutant generals.

                When, among the endless cliques, church evangelism and military music, their imperial majesties approached the southern doors of the cathedral, they deigned to climb the porch, where their majesties awaited the clergy, having at the head of the three metropolitans. His Eminence Sergius, Metropolitan of Moscow, greeted their Majesties with a speech. At the end of it, the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg brought their majesties to kiss the cross, and the Metropolitan of Kiev sprinkled their majesties St. water. Preceded by the clergy, their majesties deigned to enter the cathedral and, having performed three worship before the royal gates, applied themselves to St. icons, and then deigned to proceed to the throne prepared in the middle of the cathedral and to sit on the thrones of Tsars Mikhail Fedorovich and John III.

                <...>

                After reading the second prayer, His Imperial Majesty deigned to command to give himself the crown. On a crimson velvet pillow was held a large imperial crown, all covered with precious diamonds, shining brightly under the rays of the church lights. The Metropolitan accepted the crown and presented it to His Majesty. The sovereign emperor, standing in purple before his throne, took the crown and placed it on his head, and the metropolitan exclaimed: "In the name of the Father and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, amen! <...> Then the sovereign emperor commanded that a scepter and orb be given to himself. The Metropolitan gave his Majesty a scepter in his right hand, and to the left state with an exclamation "In the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit!" Amen <...>

                His Majesty, taking the scepter and power, sat on the throne. Soon afterwards, the emperor put these two regalia on pillows and deigned to summon the empress. Her Majesty kneeled before the august husband her knees on a raspberry-colored velvet pillow adorned with a golden braid, and the monarch, taking off his crown, touched the head of the empress and laid it upon himself again. Then a smaller crown was presented to his imperial majesty, which the emperor placed on the head of his august wife. After that, the imperial majesty of porphyry and the diamond chain of the Order of St. Apostle Andrew the First-Called were presented to him. The emperor, having accepted these regalia, entrusted it to her majesty, with the assistance of the assistants of the empress, the empress led. Prince Sergey Aleksandrovich and Pavel Aleksandrovich, as well as the state ladies who came nearer for this purpose to her majesty.

                When the Empress Empress returned to her throne, the Emperor again took the scepter and power. The protodeacon declared the full title of Emperor of the Emperor and exclaimed many years to the Emperor and Empress Empress. The singers sang three times, “Many Years,” and at the same time shots were fired from the guns (number 101) and the ringing of bells announcing that the Holy Crowning had been completed. All Kremlin squares revived, the boundless crowd, still standing in awe of silence, announced the air with enthusiastic clicks of "Hurray." Five minutes later, everything was silent again. At this time, the clergy and secular persons of both sexes, leaving their places, brought worship of His Imperial Majesty three times, and the Empress Empress and all members of the august family welcomed the Emperor, approaching his person. The first after Her Majesty brought the Empress Maria Fedorovna congratulation to the Emperor. Then congratulations were brought by the highest persons.

                At the end of the congratulations, when the bells and cannons fell silent, and all those present again took their former places, His Imperial Majesty, having risen from the throne and giving up the scepter and orb, knelt down. Metropolitan Palladium handed a book to His Majesty, and the Emperor recited a prayer on bended knee <...> The singers sang "We praise God for you" and this ended the rite of the Holy Crown.

                <...>

                On the same day there was a ceremonial royal meal in the Faceted Chamber

                As you can see, there is no oath.
              3. Seal
                Seal 29 November 2017 09: 30 New
                +1
                Quote: mat-vey
                So he kind of about it and took an oath at the wedding to the kingdom ...

                I didn’t. The detailed answer is above.
                1. mat-vey
                  mat-vey 4 December 2017 17: 17 New
                  0
                  He didn’t give, he didn’t give, he simply took upon himself the obligations - “Crowned by God, and bestowed by God, and God-adorned, Pious, Autocratic, Great Sovereign Emperor of All Russia! Take the scepter and the power, if there is a visible image of this for You from the Highest above Your Autocracy to their government and to the construction of all their well-being desired. " He arranged such "prosperity" ... and pulled away so that others would rake ...
    4. Olgovich
      Olgovich 29 October 2017 11: 00 New
      +5
      Quote: Kotischa
      .s. interestingly, there is something in the literature about the fate of the “chess player” - Antonov-Ovseenko.

      The article about him says:
      "The plan of operations was conceived by the former officer of the tsarist army, Antonov-Ovseenko

      Even to this place, she was a selection of fabrications, but here she simply became ridiculous: yes, he graduated from the cadet school in 1904, but when he was sent to the front in 1905 during the REV he deserted and fled to an illegal position. Such an “officer” hero!
      But in 1938, he nevertheless received a long-deserved bullet.

      The author would have known that the Putilovsky and Vyborg factories, etc., which allegedly carried out an “uprising” on October 25, were quietly working as usual.
      Kerensky’s events were only on paper, and the huge potential of cadet schools and ensign schools, which were just waiting for a clear organization and team, remained unclaimed. Otherwise, this revolution of deserters-deviators from the front (the main driving force of the so-called "rebellion") would not shine.
      In addition, the Bolsheviks carried out a coup under the slogan of elections to the U.S. and many knew that they would be guaranteed to lose them and fly out of power, but even then they deceived (including their voters)
      1. Alexander Greene
        Alexander Greene 29 October 2017 14: 07 New
        +6
        Quote: Olgovich
        In addition, the Bolsheviks carried out a coup under the slogan of elections to the U.S. and many knew that they would be guaranteed to lose them and fly out of power, but even then they deceived (including their voters)

        What nonsense is this? The Bolsheviks marched under the slogan "All power to the Soviets!"
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 29 October 2017 14: 51 New
          +1
          Quote: Alexander Green
          What nonsense is this? The Bolsheviks marched under the slogan "All power to the Soviets!"

          Your ignorance is simply outrageous! Hide already a textbook on the history of the USSR 4th grade.
          Read the decrees of the owls. authorities: the so-called "Sovnarkom is a TEMPORARY government-before the decision of the CSS, like his so-called decrees-before the approval of the CSS.
          One of the first decreesabout ELECTIONS in CSS!
          1. Pancir026
            Pancir026 29 October 2017 15: 09 New
            +6
            Quote: Olgovich
            One of the first decrees on ELECTIONS in the US!

            And?
            What is your CSS, which turned out to be an absolutely waste of time and a direct path to the collapse of the country?
            What do you want to show with your camouflage on the uselessness and empty talking room of the Constituent Assembly?
            To begin with, in general, the logic of things. The Constituent Assembly as soon as possible was to assemble the Provisional Government, which all the time dragged on with this matter. For seven months it prepared the Regulation on the elections to the Constituent Assembly, although, in general, taking into account the experience of elections to the State Duma of various convocations, it was possible to prepare this document in the size of fifty pages within one to two months, to hold elections in the middle of summer, and by fall, the Constituent Assembly would have completed work.

            However, the interim ministers really liked the power, and therefore they pulled with the holding of the CSS, several times calling for elections and postponing them. The upshot was that there was practically no power left in Russia, chaos was growing, failures were pursuing at the front, and the military was already thinking of dictatorship and restoring order with a “strong hand”, the first signal to which was the Kornilov rebellion, stopped not by the Provisional Government, but by agitators from the Soviets of workers deputies who entered into negotiations with the troops.
            The following should be noted: after the majority of the assembly, which consisted of right-wing Socialist-Revolutionaries and Mensheviks, refused to discuss the "Declaration of the Rights of the Working and Exploited People", the Bolshevik faction left the assembly. After some time, the faction of the Left Socialist Revolutionaries also left the meeting, stating that ““ The Constituent Assembly is by no means a reflection of the mood and will of the working masses ... We are leaving, we are leaving this Assembly ... We are going to bring our forces, our energy to the Soviet institutions, to the Central Executive Committee. ”

            As a result, less than a quarter of the elected deputies remained in the hall, which did not give the Constituent Assembly the right to make decisions on behalf of all of Russia.
            According to the logic of things, it was necessary to dissolve the meeting (which was done in the future) and conduct elections of a new composition of deputies.
            That is, there was practically no “dispersal” of the Constituent Assembly, which our liberals insist on all the time — it stopped its work and existed because of internal contradictions that prevented it from continuing to work.
            1. Hantengri
              Hantengri 29 October 2017 20: 58 New
              +2
              Quote: Pancir026
              What do you want to show with your camouflage on the uselessness and empty talking room of the Constituent Assembly?

              Well, this is Olgovich! For him Urechadilka, this is the sacred cow (the only one!), Which allows him to justify (in his head) the illegitimacy of Soviet power and sleep peacefully, hiding behind a slipper.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 30 October 2017 10: 04 New
                +1
                Quote: HanTengri
                Quote: Pancir026
                What do you want to show with your camouflage on the uselessness and empty talking room of the Constituent Assembly?

                Well, this is Olgovich! For him Urechadilka, this is the sacred cow (the only one!), Which allows him to justify (in his head) the illegitimacy of Soviet power and sleep peacefully, hiding behind a slipper.

                belay
                ALL so-called elections of the aforementioned authorities are NOT universal, unequal, secret, NOT free. "Legitimate" fool lol
                1. Hantengri
                  Hantengri 30 October 2017 21: 00 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  ALL so-called elections of the aforementioned authorities are NOT universal, unequal, secret, NOT free. "Legitimate"

                  Is everything straight? I do not argue. In the cavity between your ears wassatApparently, everything is strictly so! laughing
                  As for the “daisy" (legitimate ... not legitimate ....), I’ll tell you terrible things with special cynicism ... and you don’t like it, how to give it to drink: In the process of revolutionary mess (Do not remind who in February bred this bum?) the one who always has the “gun” is always legitimate. And who doesn’t have a “cannon”, he goes through the forest! January 5, 1918 "gun" firmly held in the hands of the Soviets. Therefore, the Right Socialist-Revolutionary Foundation graciously "made an offer that it cannot refuse" (c) (draft "Declaration of the Rights of the Working and Exploited People"). But she climbed into the foreskin ... Through which she went on foot erotic journey.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 31 October 2017 08: 54 New
                    0
                    Quote: HanTengri
                    Is everything straight? I do not argue.

                    Naturally, it’s impossible to challenge
                    Quote: HanTengri
                    You, in the cavity between the ears, apparently, everything is strictly so!

                    What's wrong with you? belay
                    Quote: HanTengri
                    January 5, 1918 "gun" firmly held in the hands of the Soviets. Therefore, the Right Socialist-Revolutionary Foundation graciously "made an offer that it cannot refuse" (c) (draft "Declaration of the Rights of the Working and Exploited People").

                    You know, the Social Revolutionaries had strong military support, but they refused it in order to avoid bloodshed.
                    Quote: HanTengri
                    But she climbed in foreskin... Through which I went on foot erotic journey.

                    You just do not know how to speak Russian?
                    The price of the coup, 15 million lives, mainly Russian. Laugh on.
                    1. Hantengri
                      Hantengri 31 October 2017 11: 28 New
                      +1
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      You know, the Social Revolutionaries had strong military support, but they refused it in order to avoid bloodshed.

                      Is this the right Social Revolutionaries ?! Which professional terrorists ?! Gave up power? To avoid bloodshed ?! What are the sweethearts! About the "powerful military support", too, the "voices" in your head told you?
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      You just do not know how to speak Russian?

                      Aka, man vashpe urus tili says emas. Didn't you notice?
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      The price of the coup d'etat is 15 million lives, mainly Russian. Laugh on.
                      About the fact that I laugh at you, back, the "voices" told?
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 31 October 2017 15: 20 New
                        0
                        Quote: HanTengri
                        Gave up power?

                        Read ONCE AGAIN, since it did not reach.
                        Quote: HanTengri
                        Aka, man vashpe urus tili says emas. Didn't you notice?

                        I noticed that you do not know how.
                        Quote: HanTengri
                        About the fact that I laugh at you, back, the "voices" told?

                        You told: Quote:
                        Hantengri
                        foreskin .. erotic journey

                        Fi .....
            2. Olgovich
              Olgovich 30 October 2017 09: 56 New
              +1
              Quote: Pancir026
              What is your CSS, which turned out to be an absolutely waste of time and a direct path to the collapse of the country?
              What do you want to show with your camouflage on the uselessness and empty talking room of the Constituent Assembly?

              Why your empty grades? request
              Quote: Pancir026
              As a result, less than a quarter of the elected deputies remained in the hall, which did not give the Constituent Assembly the right to make decisions on behalf of all of Russia.

              Poor Ulyanov didn’t get such a "lethal" argument lol
              Quote: Pancir026
              That is, there was practically no “dispersal” of the Constituent Assembly, about which our liberals insist all the time, - it stopped its work and the existence, due to internal contradictions, which prevented him from continuing to work.

              Your ignorance is amazing! Read the Decree of the so-called wtsiki on dissolution of the CSS
          2. Alexander Greene
            Alexander Greene 29 October 2017 17: 44 New
            +6
            Quote: Olgovich
            Your ignorance is simply outrageous! Hide already a textbook on the history of the USSR 4th grade.

            Dear, I taught history not only from textbooks, I have both grandfathers are participants in the revolution. And they remembered well: under what slogans did the Bolsheviks go.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 30 October 2017 09: 49 New
              0
              Quote: Alexander Green
              Dear, I taught history not only from textbooks, I have both grandfathers are participants in the revolution. And they remembered well: under what slogans did the Bolsheviks go.

              how old are you? belay
            2. FenrirXnumx
              FenrirXnumx 30 October 2017 15: 14 New
              +1
              Quote: Alexander Green
              I have both grandfathers are participants in the revolution

              They hopefully answered for this year in 37th? Or do they keep the whole answer in the other world?
              1. Alexander Greene
                Alexander Greene 30 October 2017 17: 11 New
                0
                Quote: Fenrir48
                They hopefully answered for this year in 37th? Or do they keep the whole answer in the other world?

                For what? They fought honestly, honestly built socialism, they did not hold stone in the bosom of the Soviet regime, one died in 1957 at the age of 77, the other in 1969 at the age of 90.
                1. FenrirXnumx
                  FenrirXnumx 30 October 2017 21: 56 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Alexander Green
                  For what?

                  Yes, a lot for that - for breaking the oath to the King or the Provisional Government. After all, they swore to one of them. For the overthrow of legitimate authority.
                  For indulgence and complicity in the massacres and atrocities committed by the Bolsheviks. For the starving Volga region, for the famine of the late 20s and early XNUMXs.
                  For crimes of the 30s - read the letters of Sholokhov to Stalin.
                  For the incitement of World War II, the attack on Finland, the occupation of the Baltic states. Etc. etc. There is nowhere to be stigmatized.
                  Quote: Alexander Green
                  honestly built socialism

                  Well, of course - they honestly drove into the grave a million after a million ordinary Russian peasants, priests, blew up churches, destroyed cultural heritage sites, sold their national treasures abroad to help the Belam Kuns and Klaram Zetkins, etc. etc.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 29 October 2017 08: 02 New
    11
    A little bit about the other ... Ah, the Bolsheviks, overthrew and trampled democracy plunged the country into civil war, destroyed the country .. Well, here are some facts, Finland. March 2, 1917 - termination of the Personal Union with the Principality of Finland. In July 1917, the restoration of Finland's independence was announced. The final recognition of the fact that Finland came out in November 1917, Ukraine. March 4, 1917 - the formation of the Ukrainian Central Rada, July 2, 1917 The Provisional Government recognizes the right of Ukraine to self-determination. Belarus. July 1917, the Central Council was formed in Belarus and the Declaration of Autonomy was issued. Baltic States. February 1917, the Baltic states are completely occupied by German troops. On the territory of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia government bodies are formed. Bashkiria (Ufa province). July 1917, the All-Bashkir Kurultai creates the Bashkir government, which is charged with formalizing the autonomy of the region. Crimea. On March 25, 1917, the All-Crimean Muslim Congress was convened in Simferopol, in which 1500 representatives of the Crimean population took part. The Provisional Crimean-Muslim Executive Committee was elected at the congress, which was recognized by the Provisional Government as the only plenipotentiary and legal administrative body representing all Crimean Tatars. Tatarstan (Kazan province). The 1st All-Russian Muslim Congress in early May 1917 in Moscow adopted a resolution on territorial autonomy and federal structure. Kuban and the North Caucasus. May 1917 Creation of territorial self-government bodies within the framework of autonomy. Siberia. The conference in Tomsk (August 2–9), 1917, adopted a resolution “On the Autonomous Structure of Siberia” within the framework of a federation with self-determination of regions and nationalities. On October 8, 1917, the First Siberian government was created, headed by Potanin, and declared autonomy. From September 21 to September 28, 1917, at the initiative of the Ukrainian Central Rada, the Congress of the Peoples of Russia was held in Kiev, represented mainly by separatist movements. At the congress, questions of future forms of dividing the territory of Russia were discussed. The Civil War and the collapse of the country were knocking at the door ..
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 29 October 2017 08: 18 New
      +4
      And then the Bolsheviks gathered all this in a heap, but the country collapsed - some sort of cognitive dissonance ....
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 29 October 2017 11: 35 New
        +4
        Quote: mat-vey
        And then the Bolsheviks gathered all this in a heap, but the country collapsed - some sort of cognitive dissonance ....

        Eeeeeee, my friend ...... What are you talking about? About 90s ?????? So it was no longer the Bolsheviks. The party has already been renamed, as there was an article here about the 1952 congress, now the tendency has already become visible !!!!!! Oh, Joseph Vissarionovich would have lived longer !!!!!!
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 29 October 2017 11: 41 New
          +2
          What are you talking about? I didn’t have an answer to your answer ... just in case -
          parusnik Today, 08:02
          A little bit about the other ... Ah, the Bolsheviks, overthrew and trampled democracy plunged the country into civil war, destroyed the country .. Well, here are some facts, Finland. March 2, 1917 - termination of the Personal Union with the Principality of Finland. In July 1917, the restoration of Finland's independence was announced. The final recognition of the fact that Finland came out in November 1917, Ukraine. March 4, 1917 - the formation of the Ukrainian Central Rada, July 2, 1917 The Provisional Government recognizes the right of Ukraine to self-determination. Belarus. July 1917, the Central Council was formed in Belarus and the Declaration of Autonomy was issued. Baltic States. February 1917, the Baltic states are completely occupied by German troops. On the territory of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia government bodies are formed. Bashkiria (Ufa province). July 1917, the All-Bashkir Kurultai creates the Bashkir government, which is charged with formalizing the autonomy of the region. Crimea. On March 25, 1917, the All-Crimean Muslim Congress was convened in Simferopol, in which 1500 representatives of the Crimean population took part. The Provisional Crimean-Muslim Executive Committee was elected at the congress, which was recognized by the Provisional Government as the only plenipotentiary and legal administrative body representing all Crimean Tatars. Tatarstan (Kazan province). The 1st All-Russian Muslim Congress in early May 1917 in Moscow adopted a resolution on territorial autonomy and federal structure. Kuban and the North Caucasus. May 1917 Creation of territorial self-government bodies within the framework of autonomy. Siberia. The conference in Tomsk (August 2–9), 1917, adopted a resolution “On the Autonomous Structure of Siberia” within the framework of a federation with self-determination of regions and nationalities. On October 8, 1917, the First Siberian government was created, headed by Potanin, and declared autonomy. From September 21 to September 28, 1917, at the initiative of the Ukrainian Central Rada, the Congress of the Peoples of Russia was held in Kiev, represented mainly by separatist movements. At the congress, questions of future forms of dividing the territory of Russia were discussed. The Civil War and the collapse of the country were knocking at the door ..
          - mat-vey 2 Today, 08:18 ↑
          And then the Bolsheviks gathered all this in a heap, but the country collapsed - some sort of cognitive dissonance ....
          and if so? Where is the 90s here?
    2. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 29 October 2017 08: 31 New
      +9
      If it weren’t for the Great October Socialist Revolution, then everything enumerated by Aleksey-Parusnik would have remained so !!!!! And at the moment nothing would have happened !!!!! No options. FORMER Soviet republics ---- in what form now? And then ----- everything would quickly collapse !!!!!!!
    3. avt
      avt 29 October 2017 09: 01 New
      +9
      Quote: parusnik
      ..Ah, the Bolsheviks, overthrew and trampled democracy

      Well, now there aren’t enough bakers with a howl about the ACCELERATION of the Constituent Assembly! From which the Bolsheviks and their allies, the SRs, just got up and left, leaving it without a quorum bully But recalling this is not comme il faut, mountain-a-azdo is more pleasant to talk about a sailor who, with one cry of fatigue, put to flight the remaining deputies in the minority. bully
      Quote: svp67
      And so that he would talk less about it, he would be “cleaned up” during the repressions.

      You please carry nonsense. One Antonov-Ovseenko was completely cleaned up as Trotsky’s creature, and it’s really dangerous in the light of his patron’s statement
      “The whole nation is too much to rebel. We need a small detachment of cold-blooded, determined fighters who have mastered revolutionary tactics ... What is needed is not a mass of workers, deserters and refugees, but an attack detachment. ” It is necessary to observe tactics, act on a limited space by a small number of people, and focus on the main areas. "Strike accurately and hard, without making a fuss."
      Can you tell me what position Antonov-Ovseenko held in Gishpaniya? General ,, Orlov "managed to escape with the cashier to the USA, but he was not lucky - they brought him to the USSR. Stalin cleaned up all who he considered, and in most of the defendants, as dangerous supporters of Trotsky. His practically blood enemy. Well, when, in his opinion , left Lyovushka in a vacuum, an opportunity was created and the ice ax entered the brain.
      1. Rastas
        Rastas 29 October 2017 21: 12 New
        +2
        The problem is not in the constituent assembly. If you look at its composition, then the majority of them were Socialist Revolutionaries, Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, and there were very few liberals and monarchists. That is, the path of Russia was still in socialism. Gentlemen, neo-monarchists simply use the extra reason to kick the Bolsheviks, although they themselves hate the CSS. Now, if the monarchists had dispersed it, then it would be legal and correct. By the way, Kolchak subsequently shot several members of the Constitutional Court, but there is no moaning from the bakers on this fact.
      2. A.V.S.
        A.V.S. 30 October 2017 11: 31 New
        0
        Quote: avt
        mountain-a-azdo it is more pleasant to talk about a sailor who, with one cry of fatigue, put to flight the remaining deputies in the minority.

        Why just one cry? You think badly about the Communists, one shout was not enough:
        testimony of the worker of the Obukhov plant D.N. Bogdanov on the dispersal by the Bolsheviks of a demonstration in defense of the Constituent Assembly:
        As a participant in the procession as early as January 9, 1905, I must state the fact that I didn’t see such cruel reprisals there, what our “comrades” did, who dare to even call themselves such, and in conclusion I must say that after that execution and the savagery that the Red Guards and sailors did with our comrades, and even more so after they started to tear up banners and break poles and then burn at the stake, I could not understand what country I was in: either in a socialist country, or in the country of savages, who are able to do everything that the Nikolaev satraps could not do, now Lenin fellows did it. Leninists killed about 100 people and wounded another 200
        1. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene 30 October 2017 19: 03 New
          0
          Quote: A.W.S.
          all the more so after they started tearing up banners and breaking poles, and then burning at the stake, he could not understand what country I was in: either in a socialist country or in a country of savages who could do everything that they could not do Nikolaev satraps, now made by Lenin’s fellows. Leninists killed about 100 people and wounded another 200


          It is not clear where this fake was coming from, is it really possible to believe that the Red Guards took, broke and then burned the red banners with which the demonstrators went in defense of the constituent assembly. And I no longer believe that in January 1917 someone could call the country a socialist one.

          The demonstration in support of the Constituent Assembly was far from peaceful, the Social Revolutionaries were preparing an uprising, their "peaceful" demonstration was to be accompanied by armored cars and soldiers. But the armored cars could not be obtained, and the Socialist-Revolutionary Military Committee at the last moment canceled the armed uprising, but many demonstrators still came armed.
          As a result, armed clashes began during the demonstration. between groups of demonstrators and patrols in extremely tense situations. Weapons up to grenades were seized from the arrested. That is, the weapon was ready for use.
          This is also confirmed by the simultaneous events in Moscow, where the shootings lasted all day and the building of the Dorogomilovsky District Council was blown up. The chief of staff of the Red Guard of the Dorogomilovsky district P. G. Tyapkin, the chief of the arsenal of the district Red Guards, the Red Guards A. I. Vantorin, I. S. Egorov and others were killed. 30 people in all.
          In total, during the dispersal of the anti-government demonstration, 21 people were killed. For the armed suppression of a demonstration of 40 thousand, the number of victims is not proportionally small. After all, fairy tales were even told about machine-gun fire.
          Read about it at http://wiki.istmat.info/
          1. A.V.S.
            A.V.S. 30 October 2017 19: 16 New
            0
            Quote: Alexander Green
            In total, during the crackdown on the anti-government demonstration, 21 people were killed

            That is, the Bolsheviks still had to shoot at people who did not understand well that they did not need the Constituent Assembly.
            1. Alexander Greene
              Alexander Greene 30 October 2017 23: 01 New
              0
              Quote: A.W.S.
              That is, the Bolsheviks still had to shoot at people who did not understand well that they did not need the Constituent Assembly.

              There is no respected one, there was no mention of the people at all, it was all the speculations of the anti-Soviet, armed demonstrators began to shoot, so the Red Guards fired on militants and provocateurs, as indicated by the victims among the Bolsheviks and their supporters.
  4. midshipman
    midshipman 29 October 2017 10: 10 New
    +5
    Dear Sergey, I’m sorry that you introduced Bronstein as Mao Zedong. This was the envoy of the Jewish American community to Russia. The goal is to destroy our country. I think so and it is necessary for the people to bring the truth. In my family there was an active revolutionary I.A. Yagunov (Member of the Central Balt, Deputy Dybenko). This is a relative of my wife. He commanded a detachment of sailors who arrived on the Aurora from Kronstadt for fighting in the city. This arm was awarded to him by the inscribed Pistol under Soviet rule. I.A. Jagunov threw him into the Gulf of Finland when he returned to Kronstadt. That was in the early 20s. This was told to him by his wife Anfisa Nikolaevna. Yagunov and his wife were arrested in 1937 as an enemy of the people, shot. My wife left the camps in 1954, lived in Leningrad. I met her in 1964, when I met my wife. I think it is necessary to write about broshtein as about a protege of Americans and no more. I have the honor.
    1. avt
      avt 29 October 2017 16: 02 New
      +5
      Quote: midshipman
      Arriving on the Aurora from Kronstadt for fighting in the city.

      Actually, Aurora was in St. Petersburg for repairs and the crew did not arrive from any Kronstadt.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 30 October 2017 13: 59 New
      0
      "It was the envoy of the Jewish American community to Russia.
      The goal is to destroy our country "////

      Destroying the country means technically preparing the October Revolution, creating
      Red Army and defeat whites in the Civil War? What I successfully completed
      Bronstein-Trotsky.
      I do not think that these are tricks of the Jewish American community ... recourse
  5. mavrus
    mavrus 29 October 2017 11: 25 New
    0
    Quote: svp67
    Quote: mat-vey
    And what passports were selected?

    No, they were simply NOT GIVEN to the villagers. To limit the outflow of population from rural areas. You that did not know about this aspect of Soviet reality?
  6. captain
    captain 29 October 2017 11: 50 New
    +3
    A very bitter lesson for our country. In Ukraine, this happened again and it turned out. I am afraid that our leadership has not made conclusions. Judging by the actions of Navalny.
    1. Pancir026
      Pancir026 29 October 2017 15: 13 New
      +6
      Quote: captain
      Judging by the actions of Navalny.

      You act strictly according to the patterns of the same .. that at 17, all kinds of liberals, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Cadets and others, that at 90, all the same, pretended to be liberals and democrats. So why are you now blaming your own for being regular just trying to bring down the country? You believed them in 90, and now what, enlightenment comes?
      What is the difference between Yeltsin and K, from Navalny and K.? Yes, nothing.
      Only in the first case, you sing praises to this drunkard, and in the second, curse him as an heir, why would you have such a split?
  7. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 29 October 2017 13: 32 New
    +2
    The author decided to praise Trotsky at the very end of the article, knowing that
    to the end in the era of the Internet no one reads the article: headline
    and a dozen first lines ...
    Subtle welcome! laughing
  8. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 29 October 2017 17: 46 New
    +2
    The uprising is not a riot, but a full-fledged operation.
  9. M0xHaTka
    M0xHaTka 30 October 2017 08: 36 New
    0
    In the beginning, I wanted to express myself in the spirit of “like Napoleon could shoot a crowd of cannons”, especially since Kerensky prepared for this. But then he got to Trotsky’s drg and realized everything.
    Indeed, not a revolution in the minds, but sabotage and a coup on the ground.
  10. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 30 October 2017 22: 56 New
    0
    Quote: Fenrir48
    Yes, many for what -

    Well, you wrote a lot of stupid things, you, apparently, know the Soviet past only by jokes.
    1. FenrirXnumx
      FenrirXnumx 31 October 2017 09: 57 New
      +2
      Quote: Alexander Green
      Well, you wrote a lot of stupid things, you, apparently, know the Soviet past only by jokes

      According to the stories of father, mother, uncles who lived in the village, were on the collective farm and were born in the 20s, 30s. They collected grass and bark to survive. They didn’t have passports, they worked for workdays.

      That's all your grandfathers will answer for. Because you have to answer for everything. Including - for the introduction of abortion, the destruction of the Russian intelligentsia, the planting on the neck of the Russian people Kaganovich with Dzhugashvily.

      It is clear that in your opinion all my sources are lying and they are completely anti-advisers, and truth is exclusively the privilege of your relatives - Christ sellers.
      1. Alexander Greene
        Alexander Greene 31 October 2017 22: 49 New
        +1
        Quote: Fenrir48
        It is clear that in your opinion all my sources are lying and they are completely anti-advisers, and truth is exclusively the privilege of your relatives - Christ sellers.

        All that you wrote above only confirms once again that you really learned history from jokes.
        1. FenrirXnumx
          FenrirXnumx 1 November 2017 09: 07 New
          +1
          The fact that Russia lost about 10 million people as a result of the famine of the 20s and 30s is a joke?
          The fact that Russia, led by the "wise" Bolsheviks, lost 27 million as a result of the Second World War - a joke?
          Is the loss of tens of millions of babies as a result of abortions introduced by the Bolsheviks a joke?
          1. Alexander Greene
            Alexander Greene 1 November 2017 22: 56 New
            +2
            Quote: Fenrir48
            The fact that Russia lost about 10 million people as a result of the famine of the 20s and 30s is a joke?

            Firstly, no one considered these 10 million, these are estimated figures exaggerated at least 2 times, and secondly, for some reason, you are making claims to the Soviet government, and not to the white army, which went through battles along the Volga region, plus drought, and in the thirties, I must also say thanks to the enemies of the collective farm system, who campaigned for the peasants to slaughter cattle, so as not to turn them over to the collective farm, plus drought. But the fact that the Soviet government did everything to reduce losses from hunger you do not consider a fact.
            Quote: Fenrir48
            The fact that Russia, led by the "wise" Bolsheviks, lost 27 million as a result of the Second World War - a joke?

            Interestingly, if you were to lead the USSR in the Second World War, then we would not lose 27 million? You look at how powerful the military machine of all Europe fell upon us, and the country had to pay dearly in order to defend its independence, but it seems to you that you had to give up in a week and then you would "drink Bavarian beer" today - the dream of all anti-advisers.
            Quote: Fenrir48
            Loss of tens of millions of babies as a result introduced Bolshevik abortion - a joke?

            And this is really a joke. What does your "meanentered Bolshevik abortion? Did they force all women to have abortions by force? Do not tell readers. Yes, in 1920 it allowed abortion, because the country had a difficult economic situation, poor material support for the population, and women had abortions clandestinely with midwives, as a result, many of them died.
            And thanks to the resolution of abortions, according to official figures, the mortality rate of women from abortions decreased from 4% to 0,28%.

            In 1936, for a number of reasons, abortion was banned. In 1955, when the general level of culture and living standards increased, the situation in the healthcare system improved, widespread production of contraceptives was established - the ban on abortion was again lifted. Which is basically correct, because a woman must decide for herself whether to have children or not.
            1. FenrirXnumx
              FenrirXnumx 2 November 2017 12: 30 New
              +1
              Quote: Alexander Green
              Firstly, no one considered these 10 million, these are estimated data exaggerated at least 2 times,

              Well, since no one thought, why exaggerated - maybe they are understated three times.
              Here is the owl. The authorities estimated the number of victims at 5 million only in the Volga region. If you add millions more to the hunger of the 30s, then you have already lied. Well, this is another time - do not get used to it.
              And the reality is this - victims in the region of 10 million, and most likely more.
              for some reason you are making claims to the Soviet government, and not to the white army, which went through battles along the Volga

              But did the white army commit an armed rebellion and overthrow the legitimate government? Or maybe the white army brutally slammed the Anointed of God with the children?
              So why should I blame her when the whites defended only law and order?
              Can Minin and Pozharsky still be blamed?
              Interestingly, if you were to lead the USSR in the Second World War, then we would not lose 27 million?

              I would not lead, because I am not a manager or commander. The country and the army should be led by specialists, not seminarians and children of shoemakers.
              Can you still suggest someone do the operation? So I'm not a surgeon. But the Bolsheviks imagined themselves both surgeons and generals.
              Hence the whole trouble.
              Quote: Alexander Green
              What does your "Bolshevik-introduced abortion" mean? Did they force all women to have abortions by force?

              It means that the Bolsheviks corrupted society and made an abortion (essentially murder) a meaningless procedure. Canceled moral principles and norms, which we now disentangle.
              There is no need to force them there - say that this is normal, allow and everyone will run. Allowing tomorrow to rob stores - will be the same.
              Which is basically correct, because a woman must decide for herself whether to have children or not.

              These women and the whole society will be responsible for the killings. And already answers, as you can see in reality.
              Although you certainly see only what you want.
              1. Alexander Greene
                Alexander Greene 2 November 2017 21: 56 New
                0
                Quote: Fenrir48
                the Bolsheviks corrupted society and made abortion (essentially murder) a meaningless procedure. Canceled moral principles and norms, which we now disentangle.

                Quote: Fenrir48
                These women and the whole society will be responsible for the killings. And already answers, as you can see in reality

                Here you are clamoring, but for some reason only to the Power of the Soviets, but the bourgeois authorities in all countries really destroy morality, the media, for example, have completely lost shame, and you don’t send any kind of car to them.
      2. badens1111
        badens1111 1 November 2017 23: 17 New
        +1
        Quote: Fenrir48
        According to the stories of father, mother, uncles who lived in the village, were on the collective farm and were born in the 20s, 30s. They collected grass and bark to survive. They didn’t have passports, they worked for workdays.

        Mdya .. difficult childhood .. cast-iron nipple, aluminum cap, wooden toys ..
        I don’t get tired of driving the chernukha? How they got the record in the 90s, it’s already lisping it all, squeaks and squeaks, but no, all the same myths about the grandmother, the grandfather and the roots with the quinoa. The “memory” of the passports is especially impressive, now Myths sticky, although now, to check whether it is true or not, there are no problems. https: //aloban75.livejournal.com/1479596.html
  11. EvilLion
    EvilLion 25 February 2018 14: 14 New
    0
    What the hell? In solving specific problems, equal Bolsheviks still need to search in the 20 century.